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TRANSACTIONS 

OF THB 

HERTFORDSHIRE NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY. 

VOL. VIII. 



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TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



HERTFORDSHIRE 

NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY 

AND j 

F I ]E^ L-I> OX IJ B . 

/ 

/ 

/ 

EDITED BY JOmf EOPKINSOK, F.L.S., F.G,S. 



VOLUME YIII. 

NOTEMBKE, 1893, TO OcTOBER, 1895. 



LONDON: 

GURNET & JACKSON, Successors to VAN VOORST. PATERNOSTER ROW. 

HERTFORD: STEPHEN AUSTIN AND SONS. 

1896. 



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. A 



P' 



HERTFORD : 

PRINTED BY STKPHBN AUSTIN AND SONS. 




IM2 ; 



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CONTENTS. 



PAOB 

1. The Bronze Age. By Sm Jomr Evans, K.C.B., D.C.L., 

LL.D., Sc.D., Trea8.K.S., Y.P.S.A., etc. (Plates 
I-IIL) 1 

2. The Lower Micro-organisms and their Relation to Every- 

day Life. By D. Hakvet Attfield, M.A., M.B., CM., 
D.P.H 13 

3. The Natural History of the Salmon. By George Roopeb, 

F.Z.S 17 

4. The Wasp Infestation of 1893. By A. E. Gibbs, F.L.8., 

F.E.S 22 

6. Report on Phenological Phenomena observed in Hertford- 
shire during the year 1893. By Edwakd Mawlbt, 
F.R.Met.Soc., F.R.H.SI 27 

6. Report on the Rainfall in Hertfordshire in the year 1893. 

By John Hopkinson, F.L.S., F.G.8., F.R.Met.Soc. . . 33 

7. Climatological Observations taken in Hertfordshire in the 

year 1893. By John Hopkinson ..45 

8. Notes on Birds observed in Hertfordshire during the year. , 

1893. By Henry Lewis 49 

9. Meteorological Observations taken at The Grange, St. 

Albans, during the year 1893. By John Hopkinson, 
F.L.8., F.G.8., F.R.Met.Soc 67 

10. Further Notes on the Mycetozoa, with a List of Species 

from Herts, Beds, and Bucks. By Jakes Saunders. 
(Plates lY and V.) 65 

11. Notes on Lepidoptera observed in Hertfordshire during 

the year 1893. By A. E. Gibbs, F.L.S., F.E.S. , . 74 

12. Anniversary Address — A Wonderful Animal. By the 

President, Arthur Stradung, M.R.C.S., F.Z.S. . . 85 

13. The Relative Advantages of Hard and Soft Water, with 

Special Reference to the Supply of Watford. By 
John Hopkinson, F.L.S., F.G.8., F.R.Met.Soc. . . 101 

14. On the Advantages of a Supply of Soft Water for the 

Town of Watford. By Arthur King, M.B., CM., 
D.P.H 116 



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Tl CONTENTS. 

PAGB 

15. Climatological Observations taken in Hertfordsliire in the 

year 1894. By John Hopkinson, F.L.S., F.G.S., 
r.K.Met.Soc 125 

16. The Blastopore of the Frog's Egg in Relation to the 

Hypoblast. By J. B. Russell, B.Sc. (Plate YIII.) . . 129 

17. Report on the Rainfall in Hertfordshire in the year 1894. 

By John Hopkinson, F.L.S., F.G.S., F.R.Met.Soc. . . 131 

18. The Floods of November, 1894, in Hertfordshire. By 

John Hopkinson 141 

19. Notes on Birds observed in Hertfordshire during the year 

1894. By Henkt Lewis 147 

20. Notes on Birds frequenting the Neighbourhood of Herons- 

gate, Herts. By A. Smnsbubt VEHEr, M.B.O.U. . . 155 

21. Meteorological Observations taken at The Grange, St. 

Albans, during the year 1894. By John Hopkinson, 
F.L S., F.G.S., F.R.Met.Soc 161 

22. Anniversary Address — The Stone Age in Hertfordshire. 

By Sm John Evans, K.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., Sc.D., 
Treas.R.S., Y.P.S.A., etc. (Plates IX-XIV.) . . . . 169 

23. Notes on Lepidoptera observed in Hertfordshire during 

the year 1894. By A. E. Gibbs, F.L.S., F.E.S. . . 188 

24. Report on Phenological Phenomena observed in Hertford- 

shire during the year 1894. By Edwabd Miwley, 
Pres.R.Met.Soc., F.R.H.8 193 

25. The Gale of the 24th of March, 1895, in Hertfordshire. 

By John Hopkinson, F.L.S., F.G.S., F.R.Met.Soc. . . 199 

26. Miscellaneous Notes and Observations. — Entomology; 

Meteorology. By Daniel Hill ; William Lucas ; and 

John Hopkinson . . . . * , . . . . 203 

Index, etc • 205 

Peoceedings, November, 1893, to October, 1895, pp. ix-l;txii. 
(Plates VI, VII, XV, and XVI.) 

[To be inserted, in binding, before the Transactions.] 



ERRATA. 

Page 39, Table FV, col. 6 (Colne), last line but one, fw 24*60 read 24-57; 

last line, for — 4*37 read — 4-40 : col. 7 (Ouse), last line, for 

— 2-38 read —3-53. 
,, 61, line 1,/or Oct. read Nov. 
„ 137, Table IV, col. 7 (Ouse), last line, for +162 read +0*4 ; col. 8 

(Thames), last line but one,/w' 2228 read 2828. 



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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



PLATES 

To fact p. 

I. Ancient Bronze Implements 1 

!!• n » » •• 6 

III. „ ,, M 12 

IV. Mycetozoa 65 

Y. Plasmodium of Badhamia utrtcularis 68 

VI. Fig. 1. — Water End House, near Wheathampstead. 

Fig. 2. — The Moat, near Wheathampstead . . xxvi 
VII. Fig. 1.-— The Wymondley Chestnut. Fig. 2.— 

Euined Arch, Wymondley Priory xxxvi 

VIII. Development of the Frog^s Egg 129 

IX. Ancient Stone Implements 169 

X. M ,, M • . • 171 

XI. Hertfordshire Stone Implements. Frontispiece, or 175 

XII. „ „ „ 178 

XIII. „ „ „ 182 

XIV. „ „ „ 184 

XV. Fig. 1. — Tomh of Lady Anne Grimston at Tewin. 

Fig. 2.— The River Gade at Water End . . . . Ixiv 
XVI. Fig. 1.— West Front of Dunstable Priory Church. 

Fig. 2.— Part of West Front of Dunstable Church Ixx 

Plates VI, VII, XV, and XVI are from photographs by the Editor. 



OTHER ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Fig. 1 . Artificial cone of flint 172 

2. Flint core with flakes replaced upon it . . , . 173 

3. Hammer found in Redmore Fen, Cambs ,, ,, 174 

4. Stone adze or hoe, Welbury, Offley 175 

6. Flint-flake, ground at edges, Charlton, Yorkshire 176 

6. Flint- flake, near Hitchin 177 

7. Bracer, Evantown, Ross-shire 179 

Section through Tottemhoe Knoll and Kensworth 

Hill, near Dunstable Izviii 



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Dates of publication of the several parts contained in this volume : 



Parti. 


Pages 1-32 ..:.. 





MM. 





October, 1894. 


„ 2. 


„ 33-64 ..„ 


..... 


w... 


..... 


November, 1894 


„ 3. 


„ 66-88 ..... 


«... 





...« 


February, 1896. 


„ *. 


,, ix-xl 


M... 


~... 


M.M 


May, 1896. 


,, 6. 


„ 89-128 





..... 


..... 


November, 1895 


„ 6. 


„ 129-168 _ 





..... 


..... 


December, 1895 


n 7. 


„ 169-204 ...„ 


...m 


..... 


..... 


February, 1896. 


„ 8. 


,, xli-lxxii 


..... 


«... 


..... 


October, 1896. 


„ 9. 


„ i-viii, and 206-212 


MM. 


..... 


November, 1896. 



Dates of completion of previous volumes : 

Transactions op the Wattokd Natural Histort Societt. 

Vol. I. (pp. Ixiv and 248) «.- ...- ..... August, 1878. 
„ II. (pp. Ix and 260) «-. ««. ..... June, 1880. 



Transactions op thb Hertpordshirb Natural History Society. 

I. (pp. Ixviii and 272) ..... ..... ^ May, 1882. 

II. (pp. liviii and 286) May, 1884. 

III. ^p. Ixxii and 274) ^ March, 1886. 

IV. (pp. lii and 224) _. ^ ..... June, 1888. 

V. (pp. xlviii and 224) «... May, 1890. 

VI. (pp. Ixi and 204) _ July, 1K92. 

VII. (pp. lii and 244) «. ^.. April, 1894. 



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PROCEEDINGS 



HERTFORDSHIRE NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY. 



Oeddtaey MEETnro, 14th Notembeb, 1893, at Watford. 

iLRTHVE Stradlino, Esq., M.R.C.S., F.Z.S., President, in the 
Chair. 

Mr. Harold Kent, Mr. W. H. Norris, Mr. John L. Pank, Mr. 
F. W. Keeder, and Miss Swindon were elected Members of the 
Society. 

Mr. John "William Duvall, The Grange, Ware; Miss Lake, 
Wellfords, Bricket Road, St. Albans; and Dr. W. Duncan Scott, 
M.A. (Oxon.), Glendearg, Watford, were proposed for membership. 

The following lecture was delivered : — 

•* The Bronze Age." By Sir John Evans, K.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., 
ScD., Treas. U.S., V.P.S.A., etc. {'JVansactions, Yol. YIII, p. 1.) 

The President referred to the recent discovery of pre-historic 
human skulls which had been trephined, and he enquired whether 
they belonged to the Bronze Age, and if so, whether the trephining 
had been done with any small bronze implement known to Sir John. 

Dr. Brett enquired whether the word "brass" in the Bible 
would not be more correctly translated "bronze," as he had heard 
stated at the recent meeting of the British Association. 

Sir John Evans replied that he thought the trephined skulls 
referred to by the President belonged, as a rule, to the close of the 
Stone Age, and that the orifices in the skulls were probably made 
by neat flint implements. The system of taking out portions of 
the skull to relieve the inconvenience of headache was still 
practised in Dalmatia, and with considerable effect. With regard 
to Dr. Brett's question, as brass was a mixture of copper and 
zinc, and zinc was a metal known only at a comparatively late 
period, the word translated "brass" in the Bible ought certainly 
to have been translated " bronze." 

Bronze implements and diagrams were exhibited by Sir John 
Evans in illustration of the lecture. 



VOL. Tin. — PART IV. 



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X PB0CEEDIKG9, 

OiiDiNAKT Meeting, 16th Notbmbee, 1893, at St. Albans. 

Arthuk Stradlino, Esq., M.E.C S., F.Z.S., President, in the 
Chair. 

Dr. Dudley Buxton, Bushey Cottage, Bushey Heath, was 
proposed for membership of the Society. 

The following lecture was delivered: — 

"Aquatic Mammals." By the President. 

Having first drawn attention to the distinction between 
amphibious and aquatic mammals, the President pointed out that 
the latter might be divided into three great groups — (1) the seals 
and their allies, true Camivora, (2) the Cetaceans, and (3) the 
Sirenians. That the seals are immeasurably the youngest of the 
three groups was, he said, proved by their structure. The sea-lion 
or sea-bear, which furnishes the seal-skin fur, was more easily 
trained than any other animal except the elephant. Its brain was 
large and complex, and it possessed a high degree of intelligence, 
having even been taught to count to a certain extent. The walrus 
came between the sea-lion and the true seal, standing, however, 
much nearer the former than the latter. Differing widely from 
these aquatic Camivora were the Cetacea, in which group are 
included such animals as the rorqual, sperm-whale, grampus, 
porpoise, and dolphin, the more interesting points of the structure 
and habits of each of which were successively passed in review. 
The whale, he said, was probably the largest animal in existence, 
having been estimated to weigh 200 tons, which is equal to an 
army of about 3,000 men. The Atlantic right- whale or Greenland 
whaJe yielded the whalebone of commerce, which was such a 
valuable product, being worth about £3,000 per ton, or about 
a third of its weight in silver. Having described some of the 
curious uses to which whalebone is put, and referred to the toothed 
whales, the President finally passed on to the consideration of the 
third group of aquatic mammals, the Sirenia, in which are the 
estuanne or fiuviatile dugongs and manatees. 



Oedinart Meeting, 19th December, 1893, at Watford. 

Arthur Stradling, Esq., M.E.C.S., F.Z.S., President, in the 
Chair. 

Dr. Dudley Buxton, Mr. J. W. Duvall, Miss Lake, and Dr. 
"W. Duncan Scott, M.A., were elected Members of the Society. 

Mr. J. Goodwin^ Langley Park House, Watford; Mr. Thomas 
Hope, St. Konan's, Watford ; Mr. Clement Janes, Hunter's Farm, 
Leavesden, Watford ; Mr. Picton Jones, Conishead, Watford ; Mrs. 
Osborne, Widcombe Lodge, Watford; Dr. H. Ashton Rudyard, 
St. Alban's Koad, Watford ; Mr. Rupert W. Sedgwick, 44 High 
Street, Watford; Mr. Thomas Turner, Onkleigh, Watford; and 
the Rev. Arthur Wilson, M.A , Leavesden Vicarage, Watford, were 
proposed for membership. 



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8ES8I0N 1893-94. xi 

The following lecture was delivered : — 

"Woodland Wanderers, or the Mycetozoa." By James Saunders. 

An extempore lecture, the substance of which, with additions, was 
afterwards embodied in ** Further Notes on the Mycetozoa, with 
a List of Species from Herts, Beds, and Bucks." (Transactums, 
Vol. VIII, p. 65.) 

The lecture was illustrated by photographic slides representing 
most of the Mycetozoa alluded to, shown by the oxy-hydrogen 
lantern lent and manipulated by Mr. H. C. Wardale; and a slide 
with living and moving Plasmodium of a Badhamia, 



OttDiNAKr Meetino, 23bd Jajojaey, 1894, at Watfokd. 

Abthub Stradliwo, Esq., M.E.C.S., F.Z.S., President, in the 
Chair. 

Mr. J. Goodwin, Mr. Thomas Hope, Mr. Clement Janes, Mr. 
Picton Jones, Mrs. Osborne, Dr. H. A. Rudyard, Mr. Rupert W. 
Sedgwick, Mr. Thomas Turner, and the Rev. Arthur Wilson, M.A., 
were elected Members of the Society. 

Dr. Adams Clarke, Bushey, Watford; Mr. Arthur Dudgeon, 
Northbank, Watfoid; Mr. E. G. Oddie, Oxford Lodge. Watford; 
Mr. S. H. Spencer, jun., 45, Gladstone Road, Watford ; and Mr. 
W. H. Williams, Alexandra Road, Watford, were proposed for 
membership. 

The following lecture was delivered : — 

"The Lower Micro-organisms and their Relation to E very-day 
Life." By D. Harvey Attfield, M.A., M.B., CM., D.P.H. 
(Cantab.). {Transactions, Vol. VIII, p. 13.) 

A discussion ensued in which the President, Dr. Brett, and 
Dr. Morison took part. 

The lecture was illustrated by means of the oxy-hydrogen lantern, 
and by living micro-organisms shown under the microscope. 



Special Meetino, 23rd jANUARr, 1894. 
(At Watfokd.) 

Aethur Stradling, Esq., M.R.C.S., F.Z.S., President, in the 
Chair. 

This meeting was convened for the purpose of considering and 
passing certain alterations of the Rules proposed by the Council. 
Mr. Hopkinson stated that the principal alterations would have 
the effect of extending considerably the objects of the Society, and 
of admitting another class of members, to be called ** corresponding 
members." He then read the Rules with the revisions proposed, 
explaining the alterations, which were put to the meeting seriatim 
and carried. 



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XU PROCEEDINGS, 

The revised Rules are as follows : — 

I. The Society shall be called the Hertfordshirb Natubal Histoby 
Society and Field Club; its Headquarters shall be at Watford; and its 
obiect shall be the investigation of the Meteorolof^, Geology, Botany, Zoology, 
Ethnology, Pre-Norman Arehffiology, and Topography of the County of Hertford, 
the publication of the results of such investigation, and the dissemination amongst 
its Members of information on Physics and Biology. 

II. The Society shall consist of Ordinary, Honorary, and Corresponding 
Members^ including Ladies ; the number of Ordinary Members being unlimited, 
the number of Honorary Members being limited to twenty, and the number 
of Corresponding Members to ten. 

III. The Management of the Society shall be vested in a Council, consisting 
of a President, four Vice-Presidents, a Treasurer, two Honorary Secretaries, 
a Librarian, a Curator, and twelve other Members, to be elected annually, 
by ballot, at the Anniversary Meeting. The President shall not hold office for 
a longer term than two years, and in each year the senior Vice-President and 
the three senior Ordinary Members of the Council shall not be eligible for 
re-election; but the Council shall have power to fill up, from these or other 
Members of the Society, any vacancy which may occur during the year. 

IV. The Anniversary Meetings of the Society shall be held at Watford 
in February; and Ordinary Meetings for the delivery of lectures, the reading 
of papers, and discussions; Bye Meetings for microscopical study or other 
purposes; and Field Meetings, shall be held at such times and places aa the 
Council may direct. 

V. Minutes shall be kept of the Ordinary and Anniversary Meetings of the 
Society, and of the Meetings of the Council, and the Minutes of each meeting 
shall be read as the first business of the next ensuing meeting of the same kind. 
At the Council Meetings, to be held at Watford only, four Members shall form 
a quorum. 

VI. All Members shall have the privilege of attending the Anniversary, 
Ordinary, Bye, and Field Meetings of the Society, and (unless otherwise 
determined by the Council) of intr^ucing two Visitors at such meetings, and 
shall be entitled to receive a copy of all the ordinary publications issued by the 
Society during their membership, and to the use of the Library in accoroance 
with tne library regulations. 

VII. Every Candidate for admission as an Ordinary Member shall be 
proposed by two or more Members, who shall sign a certificate in recommenda- 
tion of such candidate, one of the nroposers from personal knowledge. The 
certificate shall be read from the Chair at the Ordinary Meeting following 
its receipt by either of the Secretaries, and the candidate shall be balloted 
for at the next Ordinary Meeting at Watford, one black ball in six excluding. 

VIII. The Annual Subscription for Ordinary Members shall be Ten Shillings, 
payable immediately after their election, and afterwards becoming due in advance 
on the 1st of January in each year ; but Members elected in the last two months 
in any year shall be exempt from the pa3rment of subscription for that year. No 
Member shall be entitled to any of the privileges of the Society whose subscription 
is twelve months in arrear; and any Member whose subscription is two years 
in arrear may be excluded from the Society by the Council. 

IX. Any Ordinary Member may compound for his or her Annual Subscrip- 
tions by a payment of Five Pounds. 

X. All Ordinary Members shall pay an Entrance Fee of Ten Shillings, in 
addition to their first year's subscription or life composition, before they are 
entitled to any of the privileges of membership ; and the election of any Member 
shall be deemed void whose Entrance Fee is not paid before a second year's 
subscription becomes due. 

XI. The Honorary Members shall be ladies or gentlemen of eminence in 
Natural Science, or who shall have done some special service to the Society, 
and whose usual place of residence is not in the County of Hertford. 



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SESSION 1893-94. xiii 

XII. The Corresponding Members shall be ladies or gentlemen whose 
association with the Society is considered by the Council to be desirable, and 
whose nsnal place of residence is not in the County of Hertford. 

XIII. Honorary and Corresponding Members shall be elected only at the 
Anniversary Meetings by the Members upun the recommendation of the Council, 
not more than two Honorary Members and one Corresponding Member to be 
elected in any one year. 

XIV. Members wishing to resi^ at the termination of any year are required 
to inform one of the Secretaries, in writing, of their intention to do so, on or 
before the 31st of December in that year. 

XV. The Accounts of the Society shall be made up to the Slst of December 
in each year, and audited by two Auditors appointed at the first ensuing Ordinary 
Meeting ; and the Balance Sheet, together with a Report on the general progress 
of the Society during the preceding year, shall be suomitted to the Amuyersary 
Meeting in February. 

XVI. All the funded and other property of the Society shall be rested 
in three or more Trustees, who shall be Life Members of the Society, 
appointed by the Council. 

XVII. The Society shall discourage the practice of removing rare plants 
from the localities of which they are characteristic, and of exterminating rare 
birds, fish, and other animals, and shall use its influence with landowners and 
others for the protection of the characteristic birds of Hertfordshire ; the rarer 
botanical specimens collected at the Field Meetings shall be chiefly such as can 
be gatherea without disturbing the roots of the plants ; and notes on the habits 
of birds shall be recorded instead of collecting specimens, either of the birds 
or of their eggs. 

XVIII. The Council may authorize the Society or any of its Members 
to undertake the investigation of any subject of a scientinc nature relating 
to Hertfordshire, and the results of such investigation may be published by 
the Society. 

XIX. No Rule shall be altered except by a majority of votes of the Members 
present at a Special Meeting at Watford called for that purpose. The Council 
may at any time, and shall upon a requisition signed by not lees than twelve 
Members, convene a Special Meeting ; and a printed notice stating the purpose 
for which the meeting is convened shall be sent to each Member not less than 
seven days before such meeting, at which no business shall be considered except 
that for which it was convened. 

XX. A copy of these Rules shall be sent by one of the Secretaries to each 
Member upon election to membership of the Society. 



Obdinaet Meeting, 13th Pebbuaby, 1894, at Watfobd. 

Abthub Stbadling, Esq., M.E.C S., F.Z.S., Presidont, in the 
Chair. 

Dr. Adams Clarke, Mr. Ai'thur Dudgeon, Mr. E. G. Oddie, 
Mr. 8. H. Spencer, jun., and Mr. W. H. Williams were elected 
Members of the Society. 

Mr. F. C. Mahon, Wolfville, Watford, was proposed for 
membership. 

The following lecture was delivered : — 

"Crystals and Precious Stones." By G. Herbert Wailes, 
Assoc. M.Inst. C.E. 

Mr. Wailes commenced his lecture with a historical account of 
the uses to which crystals and precious stones have been put from 
the earliest times, referring especially to the magical and occult 



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XIV PEOCEEDIXGS, 

properties with which they were supposed to he endowed, and to 
their use in connection with nearly all religious heliefs. He then 
passed on to the consideration of their physical properties, stating 
that crystals are the natural forms which many substances take 
when passing from a liquid to a solid state ; that gems are trans- 
parent crystals whose hardness equals or exceeds that of quartz ; 
and that precious stones are substaiices remarkable for their beauty 
and rarity, such as turquoise, lapis-lazuli, opal, onyx, pearl, and 
coral. The diamond, as the most lustrous, the hardest, and the 
purest of all gems, received a large amount of attention. 

After treating of the chemical composition, the crystalline form, 
and the characteristic properties and appearance of all the better- 
known, and some of the little-known precious stones, Mr. "Wailes 
devoted the concluding portion of his lecture to the folklore of 
gems, giving a large amount of information on the superstitions 
which have been connected with them in almost all times and all 
countries. 

Specimens, models, and diagrams were exhibited in illustration 
of the lecture. 

Mr. T. J. Broad and Mr. G. H. "Wailes were elected auditors 
of the accounts for 1893. 



Anniveesary Meeting, 27th Februaet, 1894. 
(At Watfobd.) 

Abthtte Stradung, Esq., M.R.C.S., P.Z.S., President, in the 
Chair. 

The Report of the Council for 1893, and the Treasurer's Account 
of Income and Expenditure, were read and adopted. 

Mr. James Saunders, 49 Rothesay Road, Luton, was elected a 
Corresponding Member of the Society. 

The President delivered an Address on " A Wonderful Animal." 
{Transactions, Yol. YIII, p. 85.) 

The following gentlemen were duly elected as the OflBicers and 
Council for the ensuing year : — 

President.— ArthMv Stradling, M.R.C.S., F.Z.S. 

Vice-Fresidents.—^TofessoT John Attfield, M.A., Ph D., E.R.S., 
F.C.S., F.I.C. ; Sir John Evans, K.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., Sc.D., 
Treas.R.S., V.P.S.A., &c. ; Upfield Green, F.G.S. : John Morison, 
M.D., F.G.S. 

Treasurer, — John Weall. 

honorary Secretaries, — John Hopkinson, F.L.S., F.G.S., F.R.M.S., 
F.R.Met.Soc. ; F. M. Campbell, F.L.S., F.Z.S., F.R.M.S., F.E.S. 

Librarian. — W. R. Carter, B.A. 

Curator.—A, E. Gibbs, F.L.S., F.E.S. 

Other Members,— Arthur P. Blathwayt ; Alfred T. Brett, M.D. ; 
R. B. Croft, R.N". ; Augustus Hawks ; Daniel Hill ; Henry Lewis ; 
William Ransom, F.S.A., F.L.S. ; T. Vaughan Roberts; George 
Rooper, F.Z.S. ; Stephen Salter; F. W. Silvester; Henry Warner. 



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SESSION 1893-94. xv 

The thanks of the Society were accorded to the Bight Hon. the 
Earl of Clarendon, Mr. John Hopkinson, Mr. "William Ransom, and 
Br. C. E. Shelly, retiring from the office of Vice-President ; to Dr. 
John Morison, retiring from the office of Honorary Secretaiy ; and 
to Mr. A. M. Brown, Mr. J. Thomhill, the Bev. E. T. Yaughan, 
and Mr. Percy Jenner "Weir, retiring from the Council. 



Bepoet of the Coukcil foe the Yeae 1893. 

The Council has much pleasure in reporting that the Society 
continues to maintain a vigorous and prosperous condition. The 
number of meetings held during the year has been up to the 
average, they have been well attended, and great interest has been 
taken in the papers which have been read. 

During the year twenty-four ordinary members have been 
elected, and one honorary member; twenty-six members have 
resigned; and the Council regrets to have to record the loss of one 
member by death — Mr. B. Bussell Carew, F.C.S., one of the 
original members of the Society. 

The number of members at the end of the years 1892 and 1893 
was as follows : — 

1892. 1893. 

Honorary Members 19 20 

life Members 61 61 

Annual Subscribers 192 189 

262 260 

The following papers or lectures have been read or delivered 
at Watford during the year : — 

Jan. 17, Man and Ape; by Artbur Stradling, M.R.C.S., F.Z.S. 

Feb. 21, Anniversary Address — Cbarles Darwin ; by tbe President, John 

Hopkinson, F.L.S., F.G.S., F.R.M.S., F.E.Met.Soc. 
March 21, CHmatological Observations taken in Hertfordshire in the year 

1891 ; by John Hopkinson. 

Notes on Birds observed in Hertfordshire during the year 1892 ; 

by Henry Lewis. 

Notes on some Hertfordshire Mammalia ; by T. V. Roberts. 

April 18, Report on the Rainfall in Hertfordshire in 1892; by John 

Hopkinson, F.L.S., F.G.S., F.R.Met.Soc. 

Climatological Observations taken in Hertfordshire in the year 

1892 ; by John Hopkinson. 

Meteorological Observations taken at The Grange, St. Albans, 

during the year 1892 ; by John Hopkinson. 

Observations of Temperature and Rainfall taken at Throcking 

Rectory, Buntingford, 1880-89; by the Rev. C. W. 
Harvey, M.A. 

The Climate of Watford, deduced from Meteorological Obser- 

vations taken during the ten years 1877-86; by John 
Hopkinson, F.L.S., F.G.S., F.R.Met.Soc. 

Report on Phenological Phenomena observed in Hertfordshire 

during the year 1892 ; by Edward Mawley, F.R.Met.Soc. 

A Preliminary Introduction to the Investiji^ation of Microscopic 

Leaf-Fungi; by John Hopkinson, F.L.S., F.G.S., F.R.M.S. 

A List of Hertfordshire Hepatica; ; by A. E. Gibbs, F.L.S. 

Notes on Lepidoptera observed in Hertfordshire ; by A. E. Gibbs, 



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XVI PROCEEDrNGS, 

Nov. 14, The Bronze Age ; by Sir John Evans, K.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., 

Sc.D., Treas.R.S., V.P.S.A., etc. 
Dec. 19, Woodland Wanderers, or the Mycetozoa ; by James Saunders. 

The following lecture was delivered at St. Albans : — 

KoT. 16, Aquatic Mammals; by the President, Arthur Stradling, M.B.C.S., 
F.Z.S. 

The following Field Meetings were held during the year : — 

April 29. — ^Bickmansworth. June 22. — Colney Heath and Titten- 
May 13. — Brocket Park, Welwyn. hanger, St. Albans. 

27. — Knebworth. Oct. 7.— Digswell Park and Sherrards 

June 17.— Zouches Farm, Dunstable. Wood, Welwyn. 

A visit was also made to the British Museum (Natural History) 
on the 15th of April, when the President, Mr. StradHng, gave 
a demonstration on ** Wingless Birds and their Eggs." 

Five parts of the seventh volume of the present series of the 
Society's * Transactions,' containing 168 pages and three plates, 
have been published during the year, and the volume mil be 
completed in two more parts, one (already printed) containing the 
proceedings of the last two sessions, and the other the title page, 
contents, index, etc., to the volume. The previous biennial volume 
was completed in July, 1892, but your Editor hopes to complete 
this one by April, or three months earlier in the year. While 
viewing with satisfaction this more expeditious publication of the 
•Transactions,' the Council desires to point out that it entails 
an increased expenditure for the time, which can only be met 
by an increase in the number of members, or by more punctual 
payment of their subscriptions, by which there would be the 
additional advantage of the work of your Treasurer being con- 
siderably lightened. 

Owing to the Society's recent removal to the Endowed Schools, 
the library is at present in a somewhat disordered condition, but 
the work of arranging the volumes and preparing for the binder the 
Transactions of Societies received in exchange, and the serial 
publications purchased, is progressing, and it is hoped will shortly 
be completed. The catalogue of the library, revised to July, 1885, 
and the supplementary catalogue, to December, 1889, are out of 
print. As soon as possible a new catalogue or a list of the books 
will be prepared. 

In order to meet the convenience of members it has been thought 
desirable that the library should be open for reference or the 
exchange of books on the first Tuesday of every month from 7 
to 8 p.m. as well as after the Society's evening meetings. 

The following publications are forwarded to members who 
desire it, on payment of the postage : — * Meteorological Magazine,' 

* Natural Science,' 'Nature Notes,' *Grevillea,' * Journal of Botany,' 

* Koyal Natural History,' * Entomologist,' * Entomologist's Record,' 
'Journal of Conchology,* * Zoologist,' and * Hertfordshire Illustrated 
Magazine.' 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



SESSION 1893-94. 



xvu 



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proceedings, 

Additions to the Librabt in 1893. 
Presented. 



TiTLB. 

Baxendbll, J. Borough of Soathport. Meteorological 

Department. Report and Results of Observations for 

the year 1892. 4to. Southport, 1893. 
BucHAN, A. Handy Book of Meteorology. 8yo. London, 

1868. 
Evans, Sir John. Anniversary Address [to the] Society 

of Chemical Industry, 12th July, 1893. 8vo. [London, 

1893.1 
HuxxBY, Prof. T. H. Six Lectures to "Working Men on 

our knowledge of the Causes and Phenomena of 

Organic Nature. 8vo. London, 1863. 
KmBY, Rev. W., and W. Spencb. Introduction to 

Entomology. 4 vols. 8vo. London, 1816. 
Linn BAN Socibty. Journal. Botany. Vols, xxiii and 

xriv. Zoology. Vol. xxii, Nos. 138 and 139. Vol. 

xiiv. No. 153. 8vo. London, 1889-92. 
Natural Scibncb. Vol. i, Nos. 1, 4-7, 9, and 10. 8vo. 

London, 1892. Vols, ii and iii. Ih. 1893. 

. Vol. i, Nos. 1-4. 8vo. London, 1892. 

Obmbrod, Eleanor A. Report on Observations of Inj urious 

Insects and Common Farm Pests during the year 

1892. 8vo. London, 1893. 
PowBLL, Rev. Baden. The Order of Nature. 8vo. 

London, 1859. 
Sctbnce Gossip. Nos. 337-344. 8vo. London, 1893. 
Symons, J. G. (Ed.). Monthly Meteorological Magazine. 

Vol. xviii. 8vo. London, 1893. 
Wallace, A. R. Darwinism. 2nd Ed. 8vo. London, 

1889. 
Watbk Supply op London. Newspaper Cuttings, 1893. 



BoNoa. 



The Author, 

Mr, J. Jlopkiruan, 

The Author, 

Mr. J. HophiMOH. 

Mr, R. B. Croft, 

Mr. A. E. Gibhs, 
Mr. J, Hopkinson. 

The Authored, 

Mr. J. Hopkinson. 
Mr. A. E. Gibbs, 

The Editor. 

Mr. J. Hopkineon. 



Received in Exchange, 

American Monthly Microscopical Journal. Vol. xiii. 8vo. Washington, 

1892. 
American Museum of Natural History. Bulletin. Vol. iv. Svo. New 

York, 1892. 

. Report for the year 1892. 73.1893. 

Bath Natural BListory and Antiquarian Field Club. Proceedings. 

Vol. vii. No. 4. 8vo. Bath, 1893. 
Belfast Naturalists' Field Club. Annual Report and Proceedings. 

Series 2, Vol. iii, part 6. 8vo. Belfast, 1893. 
Birmingham Philosophical Society. Proceedings. Vol. viii, part 1. 8vo. 

Birmingham [ 1 893] . 
Brighton and Sussex Natural History Society. Ahstracts of Papers 

and Report , . . 14th June, 1893. 8vo. Brighton, 1893. 
Bristol Naturalists' Society. Proceedings. New Series. Vol. vii, part 2. 

8vo. Bristol, 1893. 
CoNCHOLOGY, JOURNAL OF. Vol. vii, Nos. 6-8. 8vo. Leeds, 1893. 
Ealing Microscopical and Natural History Society. Report and 

Proceedings for 1892. 8vo. Ealing [1893;|. 
Edinburgh, Botanical Society of. Transactions and Proceedings. Vol. lix, 

part 2. 8vo. Edinburgh, 1893. 
. Geological Society. Transactions. Vol. vi, part 6. 8vo. 

Edinburgh, 1893. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



SESSION 1893-94. xix 

EDiNBirROH. BoTAL PHYSICAL SociBTT. Proceedings. Session 1891-92. 8vo. 

Edinburgh, lb93. 
Essex Field Club. Essex Naturalist. Vol. ri, Nos. 11 and 12, and Index. 

Vol. vii, Nos. 1-9. 8to. Chelmsford, 1893. 
Glaboow, Geological Society of. Transactions. Vol. ix, part 2. 8?o. 

Glasgow, 1893. 
Natural History Society. Proceedings. New Series, vol. iii, 

port 3. 8vo. Glasgow, 1892. 
, Philosophical Society of. Index to the Proceedings, voU. i-xx. 

1841-90. 8to. Glasgow, 1893. 

-. Proceedings. Vols, xxiii and xxiv. 8vo. Glasgow, 



1892-93. 
Liverpool Geological Society. Proceedings. Vol. vii, part 1. 8vo. 

Liverpool, 1893. 
London, Geological Society of. Abstracts of the Proceedings. Session 

1892-93. 8vo. London, 1893. 
. Geologists' Association. Proceedings. Vol. xiii, parts 1-6. 

8vo. London, 1893. Index to vol. xii. lb. 

Qubkett Microscopical Club. Journal. Series 2, vol. v. 



Nos. 82 and 33. 8vo. London, 1893. 

. Royal Meteorological Society. Quarterly Journal. Vol. xix. 

8vo. London, 1893. 

The Meteorological Becord. Vol. xii, Nos. 47, 48. 



VoL xiii. No. 49. 8vo. London [1893]. 

Royal Microscopical Society. Journal. New Series. [Vol. v.] 



8vo. London, 1893. 
Manchester Field-Naturalists' and Archjrologists' Society. Report 

and Proceedings for the Year 1892. 8vo. [Manchester] 1893. 
. Geographical Society. Journal. Vols, viii and ix, Nos. 1-6. 

8vo. Manchester, 1892-93. 

Geological Society. Transactions. Vol. xxii, parts 3-13. 8vo. 



Manchester, 1893. 

Literary and Philosophical Society. Memoirs and Proceedings. 



Series 4, vol. vii, Nos. 2, 3. 8vo. Manchester, 1893. 
Microscopy and Natural Science, Journal of. Series 3, vol. iii, parts 

17-20. 8vo. Bath, 1893. 
Midland Naturalist. Vol. xvi. 8vo. Birmingham, 1893. 
New York State Library. 73rd and 74th Annual Reports. 8vo. Albany, 

1891-92. 

. Bulletin. 8vo. New York, 1893. 

State Museum. 4dth Annual Report, for the year 1891. 8vo. 



Albany, 1892. 46th Annual Report, for the year 1892. /*. 1893. 
Northamptonshire Natural History Society and Field Club. Journal. 

Vol. vii, Nos. 49-52. 8vo. Northampton, 1893. Index to vol. vi. lb. 
Rugby School Natural History Society. Report for the year 1892. 

8vo. Rugby, 1893. 
Smithsonian Institution. Annual Report of the Board of Regents ... to 

July, 1891. 8vo. Washinffton, 1893. 
. Report of the United States National Museum ... for the year 

ending June 30, 1891. lb. 1892. 
Somersetshire Arch^bological and Natural History Society. Pro- 
ceedings for 1892. New Series. Vol. xviii. 8vo. Taunton, 1893. 
United States Department of Agriculture. North American Fauna. 

8vo. Washington, 1893. 

. Bulletin, No. 3. The Hawks and Owls of the United 

States in their Relation to Agriculture. By A. K. Fisher. lb. 1893. 

Commission of Fish and Fisheries. Part xvi. Report for 

1888. 8vo. Washington, 1892. Part xvii. Report for 1889-91. lb. 
1893 

Bulletin. Vol. x, for 1890. 4to. Washington, 1892. 



Vol. xi, for 1891. lb. 1893. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



XX PROCEEDINGS, 

Unitbd States Gbolooical Survet. lOth Annnal Report, for 1888-89. By 
J. W. Powell. Part 1, Geology. Part 2, Irrigation. 4to. Washington, 
1890. 

. lltii Annual Report, for 1889-90. By J. W. Powell. 

Part 1, Geology. Part 2, Irrigation. lb. 1891. 

Monograpl^. Vol. xviL The Flora of the Dakota 



Group. By Leo Lesquereux. lb. 1891. 

Vol. xviii. Gasteropoda and Cep 



of the Raritan Clays and Greensand Marls of New Jersey. By R. P. 
Whitfield. /*. 1892. 

Vol. XX. Geology of the Eureka District, 



Nevada. By Arnold Hague. /J. 1892. 

. Atlas to accompany the Monograph on the Geology of 

the Eureka District, Nevada. Foho. Jb. 1893. 

Mineral Resources of the United States for 1889 and 



1890. 8vo. Washington, 1892. For 1891. lb. 1893. 
Wiltshire Arch£OLooical and Natural History Society. Magazine. 

Vol. xxvii. No. 79. 8vo. Devizes, 1893. 
. Catalogue of the Collection of Wiltshire Trade Tokens in the 

Museum. lb. 
Yorkshire Naturausts* Union. Naturalist. New Series. Vol. xviii. 8vo. 

Leeds, 1893. 

PUECHASED. 

Botany, Journal op. Vol. xxxi. 8vo. London, 1893. 

Buckler, W. Larvae of the British Butterflies and Moths. Vol. v. (Ray 

Society.) 8vo. London, 1893. 
Cameron, P. Monograph of the British Phytophagous Hymenoptera. Vol. iv. 

(Ray Society.) 8vo. London, 1893. 
Entomologist. Vol. xxvi. 8vo. London, 1893. 
Entomologists' Record. Vol. iv. 8vo. London, 1893. 
Field Club. Vol. iv. 8vo. London, 1893. 
Grsvillea. Vol. xxi, Nos. 97-100. Vol. xxii, Nos. 101, 102. 8vo. London, 

1892-93. 
Hertfordshire Illustrated Magazine. Vol. i. 8vo. St. Alhans, 1893. 
Nature Notes. Vol iv. (Sclbome Society.) 8vo. London, 1893. 
Year Book of the Scientific and Learned Societies of Great Britain and 

Ireland. Tenth Annual Issue. 8vo. London, 1893. 
Zoologist. 3rd Series. Vol. xvii. 8vo. London, 1893. 



Obdinabt Meeting, 20th Mabch, 1894, at Watpobd. 

Aethue Steadling, Esq., M.R.C.S., F.Z.S., President, in the 
Chair. 

Mr. F. C. Mahon was elected a Member of the Society. 

Mr. Alfred E. Cox, 78 Queen's Road, Watford; Mr. C. A. Curry, 
"Woodoaks, Rickmansworth ; Mr. Daniel A. Wehrscbmidt, Cleve- 
land, Bushey, Watford; and Mr. T. P. Grosart Wells, L.R.C.P. 
(Edin.), St. Peter's Street, St. Albans, were proposed for member- 
ship. 

A letter was read from Mr. James Saunders, of Luton, thanking 
the Society for his election as a corresponding Member. 

The following paper was read : — 

"The Natural History of the Salmon." By George Rooper, 
r.Z.S. (.TraMoctioM, Vol. VIII, p. 17.) 



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SESSION 1893-94. xxi 

A discussion ensued in which the President, Professor Attfield, 
Dr. Brett, Mr. Hopkinson, and Mr. Vaughan Roberts took part. 



ORDDTAKr Meetinq, 17th April, 1894, at Watpord. 

Abthub Sthadling, Esq., M.R.C.S., F.Z.S., President, in the 
Chair. 

Mr. Alfred E. Cox, Mr. C. A. Curry, Mr. Daniel A. Wehrschmidt. 
and Mr. T. P. Grosart Wells, L.R.C P. (Edin.), were elected Members 
of the Society. 

Miss Adams, St. Peter's House, St. Albans, and Mr. Noel Heaton, 
Sans Souci, Watford, were proposed for membership. 

The following papers were read : — 

1. "The Wasp Infestation of 1893." By A. E. Gibbs, F.L.S., 
F.E.S. {IVamactions, Yol. VIII, p. 22.) 

2. "Report on Phenological Phenomena observed in Hertford- 
shire during the year 1893." By Edward Mawloy, F.R.Met.Soc, 
F.R.H.S. (Transactions, Vol. VIII, p. 27.) 

3. " Notes on Birds observed in Hertfordshire during the year 
1893." By Henry Lewis. {Transactions, Vol. VIII, p. 49.) 

4. ** Notes on Lepidoptera observed in Hertfordshire during the 
year 1893." By A. E. Gibbs, F.L.S., F.E.S. {Transactions, 
Vol. VIII, p. 74.) 

The following papers were taken as read : — 

1. "Report on the Rainfall in Hertfordshire in the year 1893." 
By John Hopkinson, F.L.S., F.G.8., F.R.Met.Soc. {Transactions, 
Vol. VIII, p. 33 ) 

2. " Climatological Observations taken in Hertfordshire in the 
year 1893." By John Hopkinson. {Transactions, Vol. VIII, 
p. 45.) 

3. "Meteorological Observations taken at the Grange, St. Albans, 
during the year 1893." By John Hopkinson. {Transactions, Vol. 
VIII, p. 57.) 



Bye Meeting, 218t April, 1894. 
NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM, SOUTH KENSINGTON. 

This meeting was under the conductorship of the President, 
Mr. Arthur Stradling, and was well attended, a party of about 
fifty assembling in the Great Hall of the Museum. 

The members were received by Sir William Flower, Director 
of the Museum and an honorary member of the Society, who 
invited special attention to a new collection of representative birds' 
eggs, and to some extraordinary insects just brought over from 
Madagascar, and exhibited on the actual slips of moss covered bark 
on which they were caught. These creatures are supposed to 
illustrate better than anything else in the animal world the 



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XXll PROCEEDINGS, 

protection from observation afforded by mimicry of their sur- 
roundings, for, although each was nearly as large as a florin, 
it was almost impossible to detect them for some time under the 
closest scrutiny, and not a few of the visitors seem to have come 
away without detecting them at all. 

After a glance at the Index Collections, which he declared 
to be the salient feature of the Museum and a whole education 
in themselves, the President led the way to the room devoted 
to the stuffed specimens of reptiles such as exist at the present 
day. The peculiarities which distinguish the crocodile, alligator, 
and gavial were first pointed out, particular attention being drawn 
to the fact that these beasts are enabled, owing to the position 
of their eyes, ears, and nostrils, to lie with the entire bulk of their 
huge bodies submerged, and yet to breathe, listen for signs of 
danger, and watch for their prey. The manner in which the 
nasal passages tunnel the whole length of the enormous upper 
jaw is also of great advantage to them, allowing them to hold 
down and drown an animal too powerful to be otherwise disposed 
of, while breathing without embarrassment themselves, and to 
remain in that attitude if necessary until the flesh of large prey 
should become softened. Only the bigger forms of lizards and 
serpents are suitable for display in the dry state, but the cellars 
of the Museum contain many thousands preserved in spirit for 
purposes of scientific study. Fantastic species, such as the frilled 
and spiny iguanas, are well represented in the room, as well as the 
monitors, greatest of all the lizard tribe, reaching a length of seven 
or eight feet, and feeding not only on the eggs of the crocodiles 
but on the newly-hatched young ones. The President spoke in 
terms of strong disapproval of the collection of snakes as being 
wrongly named in many instances, erroneously described on the 
labels, and badly set up ; but explained that most of them were 
survivals of the old Bloomsbury days of the Museum, and that 
to replace them with better specimens (as will certainly be done 
eventually) must be the work of time. 

Having inspected the most striking and gigantic fossil reptiles 
in the gallery allotted to those now extinct, the party proceeded 
upstairs to the great collection of the stuffed mammals, where Mr. 
Stradling restricted his remarks for the most part to such as are 
becoming rare and may be considered on the verge of extermination. 
Some of the creatures commented upon had been actual pets or im- 
portations of his own when alive, and had been contributed, when 
dead, by him to the Department, either directly or through the 
Zoological Society. The scarce red wolf of Paraguay (stolen from 
him and sold to provide funds for a wedding tour) was amongst 
these. 

After a demonstration lasting about two hours, the proceedings 
terminated with a vote of thanks to the President. 



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SESSION 1893-94. xxiii 

Field Meeting, 28Tfl Apeil, 1894. 
AYOT ST. PETER AND AYOT ST. LAWRENCE. 

Although Ayot Station has frequently been the trysting-placo 
for a field meeting of the Society, this is the first time that the 
walk has been in the direction of Ayot St. Lawrence, past the 
churches — the new and the old — of Ayot St. Peter. At each of 
the Ayots there is a portion of an old church standing at some 
distance from the one now used, but while at Ayot St. Peter an 
elegant building has replaced an ugly one, at Ayot St. Lawrence 
a beautiful Norman church has been discarded in favour of a 
hideous Grecian temple. 

Ayot St. Peter is also known as Little Ayot; it contains 1097 
acres; while Ayot St. Lawrence, or Great Ayot, contains only 
737 £ujres, and its population, like its acreage, is two-thirds that of 
its ** Little" neighbour. Salmon says that in Domesday Book the 
name was written Eia; Chauncy says Eye. Salmon derives the 
name from '* Ayest, or Desert, a wild, uncultivated place"; Chauncy 
from Eye or ** Ea, which," he says, ** signifies a watry place." 

The members were met at the station by the Rev. H. Jephson, 
Rector of Ayot St. Peter, who first conducted them through the 
picturesque grounds of The Fryth, the residence of Mr. C. W. 
Wilshere, where the Alpine rock-garden attracted much attention, 
many rare and beautiful Alpine plants being in bloom. The new 
church of Ayot St. Peter, which owes its existence mainly to 
Mr. Jephson's exertions, and the schoolrooms, were then visited, 
and amongst other interesting objects the register, dating from the 
year 1686, was examined, wherein was seen an account of the 
great flood of *' 1795. Feb^. Sunday y« 8^1^." This account is 
transcribed by Cussans in his * History of Hertfordshire ' (Broad- 
water Hundred, p. 250). 

A visit was then paid to the Rectory, where, quite unexpectedly, 
the members were invited to partake of tea and other refreshments. 

The portion of the old church still standing, now used as a 
mortuary chapel, was next examined. This is at least the third 
church built upon the same spot, half a mile from the new church. 
Ayot St. Peter was a Rectory as early as the twelfth century, but 
no record exists of the builtliug of the first church. Chauncy, in 
1700 (*Hist. Antiq. Herts,' p. 321), speaks of the church as 
*' situated on a dry hill, not far from the River Lea and the 
Mimeram"; and Clutterbuck, in 1821 ('Hist. Herts,' vol. ii, 
p. 265), says that this old church was rebuilt, with the rectory- 
house, ** by Ralph Freeman, who was instituted to the rectory 
in the year 1732." This church, when Clutterbuck wrote, was 
"a small octagonal building of brick," with a belfry, separate 
therefrom, " also of brick, forming an entrance into the church- 
yard on the south." Cussans ('Hist. Herts,' Broadwater, p. 245^ 
speaks of this building as having the aspect of a •* lock-up," and 
says that in 1862 it ** gave place to another which even surpassed 
it in some of its objectionable features." On the 10th of July, 



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XXIV 



PROCEEDINGS, 



1874, the new church was struck by lightning, and, the woodwork 
taking fire, the greater part of it was destroyed. The present 
church was then built, half a mile nearer the village. Mr. 
Jephson pointed out the still-existing evidences of the fire and 
showed the former extent of the church ; and in taking leave the 
thanks of the party were accorded to him for his courteous attention 
and hospitality. 

A field-path was then taken to Ayot St. Lawrence to see its 
ruined church, the most picturesque in Hertfordshire. The tower 
is nearly perfect, but the rest of the church is in utter ruin, 
through its demolition rather than falling to decay, for it was 
unroofed and partly pulled down. The church was built by one 
Eadhere, to whom the manor was granted by Henry the First. 
**He built the Church with Stone," says Chauncy, "and then 
began the Hospital near it, which Church was founded . • . 1123, 
23 H. I." In the year 1778 Sir Lionel Lyde built in his own 
park a new church on the plan of a heathen temple, and commenced 
to pull down the old one, but the Bishop interfered, and he had to 
desist, leaving the walls roofless and the tower only intact. 

After viewing the old ruins and visiting " the abomination," as 
Cussans remarks, "which is now dignified by the name of the 
parish church," tea was partaken of at the village inn, and then 
the walk was continued through Lamer Park to Wheathampstead 
Station. 

In the course of the walk the following plants were observed 
in flower, and recorded by Mr. Hopkinson, the director of the 
meeting : — 

XJlex europaeos, L. 
Sarotbamnus vulgaris, Wimm, 
Medicago lupulina, L, 
TrifoUum pratense, Z. 

„ repens, L, 
Vicia sepium, L. 

sativa, X. 



Anemone nemorosa, X. 
Myosnrus minimus, Z. 
Ficaria vema, Hudi, 
Ranunculus acris, L. 

„ auricomiis, L, 

,, bulbosus, L. 
Caltba palustris, X. 
Fumaria officinalis, L. 
Gardamine pratensis, X. 

,, hirsuta, X. 
Alliaria officinalis, Andrz. 
Sisymbrium officinale. Scop. 

,f tballianum, J, Gay, 
Sinapis arvensis, X. 
Erophila vulgaris, DC. 
Capsella bursa -pastoris, Moench 
Beseda lutea, X. 
Viola Riviniana, Reichb, 

,, canina, X. 
Poly^a vulgaris, X. 
Melandrium silvestre, Roehl. 
Cerastium arvense, X. 
Stellaria bolostea, X. 
Moebringia trinervia, Clairv. 
Acer pseudo-platanus, X. 
Geranium Rooertianum, X. 
Oxalis acetosella, X. 
Ilex aquifolium, X. 



Ervum hirsutum, X. 
Prunus cerasus, X. 

,, spinosa, X. 
Fragaria vesca, X. 
Potentilla fragariastrum, X. 
Poterium sangnisorba, X. 

,, muricatum, Spach, 
Pyrus mains, X. 

,, „ var. acerba. 

,, ,, var. mitis. 
Cratsegus oxyacantba, X. 
Cbseropbyllum temulum, X. 
Antbriscus silvestris, Hoffm. 
Scandix pecten- veneris, X. 
Sanicula europeea, X. 
Galium cruciata. Scop. 
Asperula odorata, X. 
Senecio vulgaris, X. 
Leucanthemum vulgare. Lam, 
Bellis perennis, X. 
Taraxacum officinale, Weber, 



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SESSION 1893-94. xxv 

Hieracium pilosella, X. Primula ynlgaris, HwU. 
Fraxinus excelsior* L. ,, officinalis, J acq. 

Lithospennum arrense, X. Plantago lanceolata, X. 

Myosotis ^ustris, Kelh. Rumex acetosa, X. 

y, intennedia. Link. Mercurialis perennis, X. 

Veronica officinalis, X. Euphorbia amygdaloidea, X. 

,, chamsBdrys, X. Quercus pedunculata, ^ArA. 

,, serpyllilolia, X. Betula yerrucosa, Ehrh. 

,, agrcstis, X. Orchis mono, X. 

,, hedencfolia, X. Scilla nutans, Sm. 

Aju^ reptans, X. Luzula campestns, DC. 

Lamium album, X. Carex ripana, Curt, 
Galeobdolon luteum, Huda. „ acutifomus, Ehrh. 

Glechoma hederacia, X. „ paniculata, X. 

The most interestiiig plant in the list is the mousetail, Mf/osurut 
minimus, which was found hy Mr. A. E. Gibbs in a field between 
The Fryth and Ayot St. Peter's Church. It is recorded in Pryor^s 
* Flora of Hertfordshire * as a " Weed in the garden of The Fryth, 
near Welwyn." Crepis iaraxacifoUa was observed by Mr. James 
Saunders in hud near Wheathampstead, a new locality for it. 



Field Meeting, 19th Mat, 1894. 
BROCKET PARK AND WHEATHAMPSTEAD. 

Starting again from Ayot Station, a party of about forty, 
including members from St. Albans, Watford, Hitchin, Hertford, 
and other places, under the direction of Mr. Hopkinson, walked 
through Brocket Park, taking a private path amidst hawthorns 
in full blossom and through a wood towards the flint bridge, 
by permission of Lord Mount Stephen, and at his request not 
wandering into the wood so as to disturb the game. In the park 
are some fine old trees, and on one hillside an immense quantity 
of wild hyacinths was seen, giving for an extent of several acres 
a beautiful rich blue tint. 

A field-road was then followed by the side of the River Lea 
as far as Water End House, over which the members w(^ro shown 
by Lord Cowper's tenant, Mr. James Colo. Some interesting 
incidents relating to the history of the house, and of the Manor 
of Sandridge, in which it is situated, were given by Mr. Upton 
Robins and the director, the connection with it of the beautiful 
and accomplished Sarah Jennings, Duchess of Marlborough, an 
ancestor of the present Earl Spencer, Lord of the Manor of 
Sandridge, being especially dwelt upon, and Mr. Cole showed the 
room in which it is believed that she was bom on the 6th of June, 
1660. She was baptized in St. Alban's Abbey. The house was 
built about the year 1610 by Sir John Jennings, and is a fine 
example of the architecture of the period. 

Crossing the river here by the foot-bridge, the road leading 
to Coleman Green was taken as far as the turning to Lower Beech 
Hyde Farm, an ascent nearly all the way. A little beyond the 
farm-buildings the field- road crosses the Moat, a trench in which 



VOL. Vin. — PART IV. 



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XXTl PBOCEEDIKGS, 

there is always water, and it was found that, notwithstanding the 
recent dry weather, the ground here was moist, even the road 
being slightly muddy, showing that water is retained in the moat, 
"which is locally known as "The Slud," owing to the retentive 
nature of the clayey subsoU. The moat is nearly haK-a-mile in 
length, and curves round, but not so that the two ends nearly 
approach each other, and there is no indication that it ever 
enclosed any defensive earthwork or buildings. 

Nearly a quarter of a mile beyond the moat there is a deep and 
dry trench called **the Devil's Dyke," about half a mile in length. 
The earth has been thrown up on either side, and the roadway 
through it, which was traversed, leads almost straight dowTi the 
hill to Marford. This dyke seems to be very similar to Beech 
Bottom and the dyke at Maynes, near St. Albans, and, like these 
earthworks, is generally believed to be of early British origin, but 
no satisfactory explanation as to its purpose, nor that of the moat 
near it, has been offered. It is probably either a portion of an 
ancient British tribal boundary or of an old fosseway, perhaps once 
continuous with Beech Bottom. 

At Marford foot-bridge the Lea was again crossed, and the 
meadow by its side (now cruelly fenced off with barbed wire) was 
traversed as far as WTieathampstead. Taking the road to the north 
for a short distance, and then a path across the fields on the left, 
Delaport was reached at six o'clock, and the members and their 
friends were most hospitably entertained at tea by Mr. and Mrs. 
Upton Eobins. The walk had been at least five miles in length, 
the air was keen if not positively cold, and the natural result was 
a healthy appetite, so that ample justice was done to the repast. 
At its conclusion a vote of thanks was accorded to the host and 
hostess for their kindness, on the proposition of Mr. William 
Ransom, seconded by Mr. Hopkinson. 

Most of the members then returned to their respective destinations 
by train from Wheathampstead Station, some drove or rode home, 
and several accompanied the director on foot to St. Albans, by way 
of No Man's Land Common, Hill End, and Sandridgebury. 

The following ornithological notes are contributed by Mr. Henry 
Lewis : — 

The song-thrush, nightingale, chiffchaff, blue tit, jay, and cuckoo 
were heard. The robin, whitethroat, willow- wren, swallow, green- 
finch, yellow-hammer, and skylark were both heard and seen. The 
starling was seen, and a broken starling's egg was found on the ground. 
Nests were seen of the blackcap, chaffinch, and yellow-hammer, 
containing eggs ; of the reed-bunting, containing young birds ; and 
of the blackbird and wren, without either eggs or young birds. 
** Wren's nests," Mr. Lewis adds, "which are often found of 
imperfect construction, and containing no eggs, are called in the 
country * cock's nests.' They are supposed to be built by the male 
bird for his own accommodation at night." 



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Trans. Herts Nat. Hist. iS/r., Vol. VII J ^ Plate VI, 



The Moat, neab Whbathampstead. 

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SESSION 1893-94. ' xxvii 



Field Meeting, 26th Mat, 1894. 
LUTON, CADDINGTON, AND DUNSTABLE. 

This meeting was held in conjunction with the Geologists' 
Association of London, and was under the direction of Mr. 
Worthington G. Smith, F.L.S., of Dunstable. The chief object 
was to enable Mr. Smith to show to the members of the two 
societies the beds at Caddington from which he has obtained 
a large number of Palseolithic flint implements, described in his 
book, * Man, the Primeval Savage.' 

Arriving at Luton at a few minutes to eleven, the party first 
inspected the parish church of St. Mary and noticed particularly 
the use of local materials in its construction, the tower being built 
of Tottemhoe Stone and flints from the Upper Chalk in alternate 
cubes. In the interior, the Wenlock chapel, the ancient font with 
its ornate canopy, and the fine oak carvings, attracted attention. 
The quaint inscriptions on some of the tombs were also noticed. 

Soon after leaving Luton on the way to Caddington a storm 
came on, and the party sheltered for some time in a bam. The 
walk being continued by Farley Green to Woodside, some brick- 
fields between that hamlet and Slip End were visited. The pits 
are in re-laid Tertiary clay about 50 feet thick and 400 feet above 
sea-level, and, in the whitish beds above this clay, abraded 
Palseolithic flint implements have been found. 

Bedfordshire having been left for Hertfordshire, the county 
boundary running through Caddington, the brick - fields near 
Caddington were visited, and Mr. Worthington Smith stated 
that he had come to the conclusion from long and careful 
investigation that they were on the site of an ancient lake, on 
the shores of which huts were built in which dwelt the 
primitive inhabitants who have left many relics attesting their 
occupation of the site. Here they made their implements, and 
left the fiint tools they made them with and the flakes they 
chipped off in making them. Many of those which Mr. Smith 
has found he has pieced together, building up with them the 
flints in their original form, thus showing that the fragments 
were struck off on the spot. Many of the flint flakes, of which 
some hundreds have been found, have edges nearly as keen as 
those of knives. 

The men who built these huts and made these implements were 
already, as Mr. Smith says in his book, skilful workmen, and they 
were therefore not nearly the most ancient of the human race, for 
** man must have existed thousands of years as a being incapable 
of designing and making stone weapons and tools of geometrically- 
correct form." They probably migrated from warmer climes, 
and, travelling over Europe in a north-westerly direction, reached 
Britain (which then formed, with Ireland, pait of the European 
continent) as glaciers were here for the last time retreating north- 
wards. 



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XXVlll PROCEEDINGS, 

There is evidence near Caddington of the great northern ice- 
sheet with glaciers at its southern margin, in beds of boulder-clay, 
the clay itself being the ground-up surface-material of the district 
where it is now found, and often having much chalk in it, also 
of local derivation, whence it is called the ** chalky boulder-clay.** 
The stones or boulders which it contains, mostly water- worn and 
frequently ice-scratched, have been brought down by glaciers from 
higher land in the north, west, and east, often from great distances. 
In this boulder-clay no relics of man are found, though human 
relics occur immediately above it ; but bones of the great hairy 
elephant or mammoth, of the reindeer, and of other animals con- 
temporaneous with man, occur in a stratum of sand, gravel, and 
clay intercalated in it. After its deposition the land probably sank 
beneath the surface of the icy sea, and was then re-elevated to a 
greater height than it now stands. The rivers then were broad 
and ran at great heights, as is known ** by the deposits of river- 
gravel, sand, brick- earth, and fresh- water shells which occur in 
terraces on the hill-sides bordering the Thames Valley. In these 
deposits of gravel, sand, and brick-earth, relics of the primeval 
human savage first appear. In some positions these relics are 
comparatively abundant, not on the surface, but imbedded amongst 
the constituent stones of the gravel and sand, or fixed in the brick- 
eeirth a hundred or more feet above the present river- level.** 
(*Man, the Primeval Savage,* p. 7.) 

Caddington is on the Chalk capped with re-distributed Tertiary 
beds, brick-earth, and gravel. The brick-yards near the village 
are from 550 to 600 feet above sea-level, and the water-level .in 
the Chalk — ^the level of permanent saturation — varies from about 
110 to 160 feet beneath the surface of the ground. This probably 
represents the extent of the depression in the water-level since Man 
first took up his residence on the shores of the ancient lake or 
swamp whose bed has been traced by Mr. Smith in pits on both 
the Hertfordshire and the Bedfordshire side of Caddington. Every 
important find, however, has been made in pits in our own county, 
and it was these which were now visited. 

The pits are in Drift (brick-earth, etc.) and Tertiary remanii 
beds, and are worked for gravel as well as for clay and sand for 
brick-making. After examining the section in one of the pits, 
Mr. Cameron stated that the Tertiary beds, upon which lies the 
Palaeolithic floor with its artificially-rtdsed heaps of flints, were 
Reading sands and clays probably estuarine in origin, and that the 
bed immediately above was brick-earth. The section wtis very 
obscure, the sides of the pit having fallen in, but Mr. Smith stated 
that above the brick-earth he had found contorted beds of clay 
and gravel with Palaeolithic implements and flakes, then r&manie 
boulder-clay with sub- angular gravel above, again with Paloeolithic 
implements and flakes, the whole being capped by reddish-brown, 
tenacious drift clay, and surface- soil with Neolithic implements of 
black lustrous flint, etc. 

There are thus three distinct layers in which Palaeolithic flint 



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SESSION 1893-94. xxix 

implements occur, the lowest being the Palaeolithic floor or old 
land-surface, with flint tools varying in colour "from whitish-grey 
to dark grey, grey iadigo, or mdigo-blackish," nearly all being 
lustrons; the middle layer having porcellanous, white, or whitish 
implements, flakes, and cores, identical in age with the implements 
found on the true ** floor"; and the upper layer having generally 
ochreous implements — yellow, brownish, speckled, creamy, or 
ochreous-whitish — and all slightly abraded. The tools in this 
layer differ in their nature from those below, and Mr. Smith 
believes that they are of different age, showing a second occupation 
of the spot by primeval man ; while the presence of Neolithic tools 
in the surface-soil shows a third and much more recent occupancy, 
for there must have been a considerable interval of time between 
the period when man made implements by merely chipping off 
flakes of flint and that when he rounded and polished stones of 
various kinds. 

This neighbourhood was again inhabited in Eoman and in Saxon 
times, for in one of the Caddington pits numerous fragments of 
Boman pottery have been found; in other places near have been 
discovered cinerary urns, stones used, when heated, for pot-boilers, 
and numerous other relics attesting the early occupation of the 
country ; and by the side of the road from Caddington to Zouches 
Farm was seen a large Saxon tumulus not marked on the Ordnance 
map. Close to Zouches Farm was also seen an old pasture believed 
to have been a place for making bricks or tiles in Mediseval or 
perhaps Roman times. It was pointed out that in the construction 
of the farm-house, notably in the chimney, Boman tiles were used, 
which it was thought might have been obtained from excavations 
on the site, or more probably from an older building which the 
present house has replaced. 

Zouches Farm is on the Dunstable Downs, and a little farther 
on, overlooking Dunstable, but still in Hertfordshire, some hollows 
in the hill- side were pointed out by Mr. Smith, who stated that 
they were the remains of early British hut-foundations, of which, 
till lately, there were twenty-four, but eight of the best had been 
destroyed. In one of them he had found the greater part of a 
human skeleton. Deep excavations were, he explained, made by 
these primitive inhabitants, and were roofed in with skins, etc., 
these hollows forming more effectual shelter than tents erected 
on the natural surface of the ground. 

From this point, some 600 feet above sea-level, and about 
the horizon of the Chalk Bock, is an extensive view to the north 
and west, embracing Dunstable, Meiiden Bower (an early British 
camp), the Five Knolls (ancient tumuli), and Kens worth Hill 
(800 feet), on the Middle Chalk ; Tottcmhoe, with its beacon-hill 
and evidences of early British and Boman occupation, on the Lower 
Chalk ; and beyond, a Gault plain bounded by distant hills of 
Lower Green sand. 

The steep hill was descended in a heavy shower, from which 
a hedge -bank on the boundary between Herts and Beds afforded a 



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XXX PROCEEDINGS, 

scanty shelter. At Dunstable a substantial repast was partaken 
of near the crossing-point of the two Koman road-ways, Watling 
Street and Icknield Way, after which a vote of thanks was 
accorded to Mr. Worthington Smith, on the proposition of the 
President of the Geologists' Association, Lieut.-General C. A. 
McMahon. 

The residence of Mr. Smith was then visited, and his extensive 
geological and archaeological collection was examined with much 
interest ; and on the way to the Great Northern Station a brief 
inspection was made of Dunstable Priory Church, with its beautiful 
west front of Tottemhoe Stone and fine Norman arch. 



Bye Meeting, 16th June, 1894. 
ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS, REGENT'S PARK. 

On this occasion there was the largest gathering of the Society 
which has ever taken place, more than 140 members and their 
friends presenting themselves for admission at the turnstiles of the 
Zoological Gardens. The meeting was favoured with almost perfect 
weather, and the ornamental lawns and flower-beds of the Gardens 
were at their best. Actual members of the Society were admitted 
free on signing their names at the gate, whUe tickets were provided 
for all whose names did not appear on the list by the President, 
Mr. Arthur Stradling, by whom the party was conducted. 

The pelican's enclosure was first visited, and attention was 
drawn to the fact that nowhere else in London can white birds be 
seen so little sullied by the sooty atmosphere as these, a state of 
purity maintained by the well-filled ponds with which they are 
provided. These birds, with the seals, sea-lions, and otters, sub- 
sisting as they do entirely on fish, are the most expensive creatures 
in the menagerie to feed — far more so than the lions and tigers, 
which are among the least costly. The Zoological Society pays 
nearly £600 a year for fish, including about £2 a week for live fish 
for the diving-birds. The great open-air cage for the waders was 
spoken of as probably the finest tenement for any captive animals 
in the world ; enjoying abundant opportunities for even lofty flight 
within its spacious area, the birds are seen in a condition which 
approximates to freedom, and nest and breed there as they do in no 
other zoological establishment. 

The series of cages on the opposite side is tenanted for the most 
part by representatives of the great and worldwide group of the 
GtdHnaceous birds, those akin to our common domestic fowls, 
the " curassows" or mountain turkeys being especially in evidence 
just now in the Society's collection. Like so many animals which 
make their home in the Now World, these are arboreal in habit. 
In this part of the grounds, too, are shown specimens of the 
interesting Weka-rail of New Zealand, a creature rapidly on the 
road to extinction, in spite of recent efforts to effect its preser- 
vation, its extermination being due, like that of the apteryx, to 



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SESSION 1893-94. zxxi 

the ill-advised introduction of the mongoose as an experimental 
antidote to the rahbit-plague. These beautiful and defenceless 
birds, nesting on the ground, fall an easy prey to the marauding 
carnivore, wfich also devours their eggs. The hombills with their 
phenomenal beaks and helmets, and two fine examples of the 
Brazilian screamer, a bird in which the ** air-sacs " extending from 
the lungs are so developed that it can absolutely inflate its naked 
legs when enraged, were noticed in passing. 

The animals in these Gardens are arranged in groups according 
to their systematic relationship, so far as is consistent with the 
well-being of each individual, not thrown together haphazard or 
simply with regard to picturesque effect in the way that obtains 
in many Continental menageries. Thus, the Perissodactyla, or 
"odd-toed" ungulates, are presented in a continuous chain of 
houses in the shape of the sole survivors of a once enormous race 
— the rhinoceros, elephant, tapir, and horse (zebras and wild asses). 

Having given a short demonstration on the camels and their 
allies, the llamas and alpacas, showing how the formation of the 
feet which distinguishes them from aU other animals proves their 
relationship, though they inhabit opposite comers of the earth 
and each is specialized for its mode of life, the President led the 
way to the north side of the grounds, where "Jenny," a young 
chimpanzee, successor to the lamented and famous "Sally," and 
a large gibbon, were taken out of their cages while their respective 
likenesses and points of distinction with regard to humanity were 
described. As both these anthropoid apes were very tame and 
trustworthy, and submitted with the utmost docility to the exami- 
nation as well as the caresses of the visitors, the lecture would 
have been prolonged at this point had it not been for the great 
heat and inconveniently-overcrowded state of the small house. 
Both specimens illustrated admirably the various instances of 
comparison and contrast, such as the entire absence of hair on the 
terminal joint of the fingers and toes, even when viewed through 
a strong magnifying glass, a peculiarity which we alone of all 
animals share with them. 

The curious structure of the feather-like fur of the ant-eater, 
each hair of which is nearly square in section, and its huge 
development of tongue, next attracted attention; and in the 
adjoining marsupial house another instance of that singular 
mimicry, real or apparent, which so many of the pouched animals 
offer in respect of higher groups, was shown by certain little 
beasts newly arrived from Australia, almost exactly simulating 
rabbits in their outward aspect. 

The specially-constructed dens which were inhabited for so many 
years by the giraffes, of which a large number were bred in the 
establishment, are stiU retained in their original form, although 
it is sadly improbable that any other example of this beautiful 
ungulate will ever reach our shores alive — indeed, a skin and 
skeleton for the National Museum is now a desideratum; the 
relentless war which is waged against them in their native haunts 



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XXXU PBOCEEDINGS, 

for the sake of their hides (worth abont £4 apiece for the making 
of colonial cattle-whips) must unfailingly result in their tot^ 
extermination before long, although that enlightened chief, Khama, 
is doing his best to prevent their slaughter within his territory. 
Their place is now occupied by a pair of Zebu oxen and the large 
African ostrich presented by the Queen, both of which served as 
types of their respective sections for the purpose of demonstration, 
the former furnishing a text for a short lecture on horns, antlers, 
and similar structures, while the latter was utilized as subject- 
matter for some remarks upon that modification of the hand and 
arm which constitutes a wing, an evolution which these archaic 
birds evince even more obviously than those endowed with the 
faculty of flight. The ostrich in question is very gentle, and 
offered no resistance to being posed in its capacity of an object- 
lesson in the hands of its keeper. 

Most of the houses and groups were visited in turn, Mr. 
Stradling lightening the more scientific part of his discourse with 
personal anecdotes of the history or peculiarities of disposition 
of the specimens under observation. The sea-lions and diving- 
birds were fed and put through their various performances specially 
for the benefit of the Society, and in the lion and reptile houses 
the members were admitted ** behind the scenes," and shown the 
arrangement of the dens, sundry baby specimens, and other details 
not revealed to the general pubHc. 

A very young and playful leopard, and a cheetah, just arrived 
and not yet unpacked, were the centre of attraction at the rear 
of the lion-house, where the ingenious apparatus by means of 
which the great cats are transferred from their sleeping compart- 
ments to the open-air and other cages was exhibited in its working. 
The alligators and egg-eating lizards in the reptile-house were 
indulged with an extra meal, for the benefit of the visitors no 
less than their own; and some of the serpents were taken from 
their dens in order that the points of interest attaching to them 
might be more advantageously indicated. 

At half -past five an adjournment was made to the large saloon 
of the restaurant, where Mrs. Stradling entertained the party 
at tea, while the strains of the band of the 1st Dragoon Guards 
contributed pleasingly to the harmony of the occasion. At the 
conclusion of the meal. Archdeacon Lawrance proposed a hearty 
vote of thanks to Mr. and Mrs. Stradling, and alluded to the 
fact that the Hertfordshire Natural History Society had scarcely 
ever been more prosperous or had a greater increase in its roll of 
members than at the present time, under the reign of the President 
who had brought them there that afternoon. 

The President responded briefly, saying that he hoped the visit 
to the Zoo would become an affair of annual recurrence in their 
summer fixtures. 



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SESSION 1893-94. xxxiii 

Field MEEmfo, 23rd June, 1894. 
THING. 

The chief ohject of this meeting was to visit the Zoological 
Museum established by the Hon. Walter L. Rothschild, F.Z.S., 
at Tring. Mr. Rothschild's pennission having been obtained, the 
arrangements were made by Mr. A. Macdoncdd Brown, of Beech 
Grove, Tring, who acted as director. 

The members, numbering about forty, assembled at Tring Station 
at half-past one, and drove to the Museum, where they were 
received by Mr. Rothschild's principal Curator, Mr. E. Hartert. 
Only a few of the more interesting objects of the collection which 
were pointed out by Mr. Hartert can here be mentioned. 

The first case which attracted special attention was one of extinct 
and nearly extinct birds, such as the Moa {Dinomis) of New 
Zealand — probably the biggest bird that ever lived, and which, in 
former days, was hunted by the Maoris. The same case contains 
some enormous bones of the ..^yomtSy a gigantic bird of nearly 
equal size from Madagascar, of which no entire skeleton has been 
obtained; and also specimens of the Kiwi {Apteryx) of New 
Zealand, which is not yet quite extinct but will probably soon 
become so, falling a prey to rats, cats, and other animals introduced 
there by man. These are wingless birds. The Labrador duck 
{Camptolamus labradorieus), seen in another case, is also nearly 
extinct. 

In another case a hybrid between the lion (Felis Uo) and the 
tiger {F, tigris), bom in Austria, attracted attention from the 
strangeness of such ferocious animals of distinct species breeding 
togetiier. 

There are a few fossils, introduced to elucidate the afl^ties of 
the living forms. Amongst them one of the most conspicuous is 
the giant ground-sloth {Megatherium americanum) of the Argentine 
Republic, in juxtaposition with a stuffed skin and skeleton of the 
recent two-toed sloth (Choloepua didactylm) from the same region, 
to illustrate the various differences. 

The fishes are stuffed here by a new process. Amongst them 
are already most of the British species, including an enormous 
sun-fish, and many foreign rarities, specially noticeable being 
some species with beaks like those of parrots. 
. Besides the large collections which are open to the public on 
four days of the week, there are private collections, which, from 
the standpoint of the zoologist, are still more valuable. They are 
for the scientific researches of Mr. Rothschild as well as of his 
curators and other competent persons, and are not generally 
accessible to visitors. These collections consist only of Lepidoptera, 
Coleoptera, and the skins and eggs of birds, and they are being 
arranged, studied, and added to continually. The results derived 
from these studies are given in an illustrated magazine {*Novttatss 
Zooloffiea ') edited and published at the Museum, and to which the 
Society subscribes. The butterflies and beetles, which are under 



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XX XIV PK0CEEDIW08, 

the special care of the second curator, Dr. K, Jordan, are especially 
numerous, and amongst the latter a box attracted much attention 
in which Mr. Rothschild, for his own study, had arranged a 
number of beetles in a graduated series, each beetle differing but 
very slightly from its neighbour, while half-a-dozen specimens at 
least might be picked out which, but for the connecting links, 
would unhesitatingly be referred to different species. 

In the library, an indispensable adjunct to all well-appointed 
museums, there is a very fine collection of zoological and other 
natural-history works. 

In an enclosure outside the Museum were seen some living 
examples of the sacred cattle of India, mostly bred here, and also 
a large collection of living birds. 

Tring Park, adjoining — the seat of Lord Rothschild — was next 
visited, and in it were seen emus (wingless birds) and kangaroos. 

The party, accompanied by Mr. Hartert, then drove to "Dundale," 
a pretty dell excavated in the Middle Chalk by a stream issuing 
from a spring which is one of the feeders of the Thame. Several 
birds are breeding here, including the Rhea, an American winged 
bird allied to the ostrich. A few clutches of eggs, which are 
occasionally added to, were seen. The male bird only sits upon, 
them. 

The following account of the Dundale spring, and of other springs 
in the neighbourhood, is contributed by Mr. A. M. Brown : — 

"The spring at Dundale is one of the four sources, in the 
Lower and Middle Chalk of Tring, of, originally, as many small 
streams, which, soon imiting north-westward from the escarpment, 
once flowed out of our county to the valley of the Thame. The 
water-bearing beds producing them are the Tottemhoe Stone, 
the Rag-bed of the Lower Chalk, some 40 feet higher, and the 
Melboum Rock, forming the base of the Middle Chalk, about 
80 feet above the Tottemhoe Stone. 

"The Melboum Rock, with its underlying marly bands, is 
probably responsible for * Dundale' and the springs at ^Frogmore' 
in the town of Tring, and the Rag-bed for those at Miswell and 
Bulboume Head, the latter sending two streams in opposite 
directions, one running south-east through Berkhamsted, the other 
north-west by Gubblecote or Bubblecote, forming there the boundary 
between Herts and Bucks. 

"By the constmction of the Grand Junction Canal and its 
reservoirs at the end of the last century, and the erection of the 
Tring Silk Mill in 1824, all these streams were diverted, and a 
considerable length of those issuing from Bulboume Head absorbed. 
The other three were conducted to the Silk Mill and thence by 
an embanked * feeder ' to the Reservoirs, whence a corresponding 
flow has to be delivered to the ancient channels beyond. 

"In 1889 Dundale was converted by Lord Rothschild into its 
present picturesque state by raising the level and increasing the 
extent of the water, planting numerous trees, and building the 
pretty lodge and summer-room near the Icknield Way." 



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SESSION 1893-04. XXXV 

The meeting was very pleasantly brought to a close by a visit 
to Beech Grove, the residence of Mr. Brown, where tea and other 
refreshments were provided, collections of fossils and of dried plants 
were examined, and a photograph of the party was taken by Mr. 
Downer of "Watford. Yotes of tiianks were accorded to Mr. Brown, 
to the Hon. Walter Rothschild, and to Mr. Hartert ; and Tring 
Station was reached at about six o'clock. 



Field Meetiko, 30th Juke, 1894. 
STEVENAGE, THE WTMONDLEYS, AND HITCHIN. 

The members assembled at noon at Stevenage Station, where 
they were met by a few members of the Hitchin Natural History 
Club, and by Mr. "William Ransom, P.S.A., who had made all the 
arrangements for the meeting, providing carriages for the ladies, 
and also acted as director. 

After passing through Fisher's Green the first object of interest 
inspected was the famous old Spanish chestnut tree at "Wymondley 
Bury, near the church of Little "Wymondley. This tree is now 
fifteen yards in circumference at four feet from the ground, the 
trunk is hollow and riven quite to the ground in several places, but 
the foliage is still luxuriant. Some enormous branches which have 
fallen off have taken root and sent up saplings which grow around 
the parent stem. The age of the tree is unknown. It is not 
mentioned in Domesday Book, but it was probably standing at 
the time of the Norman Conquest. Canon Gee, in his paper on 
"Famous Trees in Hertfordshire" in the Society's Transactions 
(* Trans. Watford Nat. Hist. Soc.,' Vol. II, p. 8) says that this is 
the largest tree that he knows, and seemingly the oldest, in 
Hertfordshire. **It is now," he adds, "the wreck of a wreck. 
There is not half of its circumference standing, though a print at 
High Elms, of the year 1790, shows the tree as much more nearly 
perfect." The following description of the tree which Mr. Ransom 
read from Gilpin's * Forest Scenery,' a work which was written at 
about this time, would however well apply to it now : — 

" After mentioning a chestnut in the garden at Tortworth, in Glouce9ter[8hire], 
which has been celebrated so much, I cannot forbear mentioning another, which 
is equally remarkable for not having been celebrated at all, though it is one of 
the largest trees that perhaps ever existed in England. If it had ever been 
noticed merely for its bulk, I should have passed it over among other eigantic 

Eilants that had nothing else to boast; out as no historian or antiquarian 
antiquary], so far as I have heard, hath taken the least notice of it, I thought 
it right, from this very circumstance, to make up the omission, by giving it at 
least what little credit these papers could give. This chestnut tree grows at 
a place called Wimley, near Hitchin Priory in Ilertfordshire. In the year 1789, 
at five feet from the ground its girth was somewhat more than fourteen yards. 
Its trunk was hollow, and in part open, but its vegetation is still vigorous. On 
one side its vast arms, shooting up in various forms, some upright and others 
oblique, were decayed and peeled at the extremities, but issued from luxuriant 
foliage at their insertion in the trunk. On the other side the foliage was still 
fuU and hid all decay." 



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XXXVl PBOCEEDiyOS, 

Mr. Bansom then compared this Spanish chestnut with the 
"Grizzly Giant" of California, a Sequoia gigantea^ which he 
measured when in the Mammoth Grove at Calaveras in 1887, and 
found to he thirty-one yards in circumference near the ground, 
only a little more than double that of the " Wymondley Giant." 
He also lamented that means were not taken to protect this 
venerable tree from injury. Many less noteworthy trees are 
carefully fenced round and preserved as national monuments, as 
this ought to be. 

Little Wymondley Church was then visited. It is at least the 
third church which has been erected on the same site. Cussans 
(*Hist. Herts,' Broadwater, p. 61) says that "the Vicarage, from 
the time of its ordination by the Bishop of Lincoln, in 1209, until 
the Dissolution of Religious Houses by Henry VIII, belonged to 
the Prior and Convent of Wymondley. It then, by grant of the 
King, became a donative in the gift of the owner of the Priory." 

The old Priory is no longer in existence, but on its site is 
a comparatively modem house to which the same name has 
appropriately been given. It is occupied by Mr. Charles 
Sworder, and by his peimission it wais now visited, the village 
of Little Wymondley, to the north-east of which it stands, having 
been passed through. In the old box-trees enclosure, a square 
space enclosed by box-trees, lunch was partaken of, Mrs. Sworder 
kindly providing refreshing beverages, especially acceptable just 
in the hottest part of a very hot day. While still in the shade 
of the box-trees, Mr. Hansom gave a brief history of the Priory. 
It was founded, he sedd, in the reign of Henry the Third to the 
honour of St. Lawrence, by Richard de Argentein, for canons 
of the order of St. Augustine, and according to Chauncy (*Hist. 
Antiq. Herts,' p. 361) it was " a fair old Building with Cloysters ; 
there was a Chappel in it consecrated since the Dissolution, [it was] 
almost surrounded with a Mote, scituated upon the Side of a small 
Hill, incompassed with near 400 Acres of rich meadow, pasture, 
and arrablc Land inclosed to it, with a very fair Orchard and 
Garden, yielding the best Sort of Fruit. The House is supply'd 
from a Conduit, with sufficient Water to turn the Spit in the 
Kitchen upon all Occasions." Mr. Sworder added that his father 
could remember the time when the spit wais thus worked, but this 
contrivance has been done away with for many years, and there 
is not now a sufficient flow of water to turn the spit upon any 
occasion. 

At the head of the conduit, two fields* lengths from the house, 
is a ruined arch, apparently of Early Norman architecture. As 
this appears to be almost the only existing remnant of any building 
connected with the old Priory, and is likely soon to be demolished, 
a photograph was taken of it, and is here reproduced. 

After viewing the moat, the remains of an old wall, and the old 
tithe-bam, built entirely of oak, and one of the largest bams in 
England, the house was entered, and Mr. Sworder pointed out the 
arches in the cellar, an old arch at the entrance to one of the 



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Tninx. Herts Nat. nisi. S(>c.. Vol. VIII, Plate VII. 



The Wymondley Chestnut. 



Ruined Arch, Wymondley Priory. 

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SESSION 1893-94. xxxvii 

bedrooms, the old oak panelling, and the enonnous stack of chimneys 
with the passage which he had had cut through the middle of it a 
few years ago. 

On leaving the Priory a vote of thanks was accorded to Mr. and 
Mrs. Sworder for their kind attention. 

Mr. Ransom then led the way to the site of the Eoman buildings 
and cemetery adjoining Great Wymondley Church, and gave some 
particulars of an old enclosure of about twenty acres which once 
existed here. It was to be traced, he said, by a bank which 
encircles it, and it was probably given to a distinguished Roman 
soldier on which to retire. Some years ago he excavated at one 
comer of the estate, and found ample evidence of a Roman settle- 
ment. Amongst other things he discovered the cemetery and the 
rubbish-heap, from the former of which he obtained about forty 
urns, and from the latter from twenty to thirty Roman coins and a 
variety of culinary and other articles. 

Great Wymondley Church was then entered ; it now presents 
but few features of mterest, except the rood stairs. 

A walk of nearly two miles brought the party to the clay pits 
near Hitchin Hill, where Mr. William Hill, F.G.8., gave an 
account of his researches, which led him to the conclusion that 
a large lake once existed at this spot. Overlying the Chalk, he 
said, were beds of stony clay, sand, and gravel, deposited during 
the Glacial period ; the gravel was evidently deposited by water 
running with considerable velocity, and on the top of it was 
a fresh-water deposit laid down under very still water, and he 
concluded that it was the bed of a lake. Its extent to the west 
was probably a quarter of a mile, to the north and east its limit 
was defined by a boss of chalk distant a third of a mile, and it 
probably extended a greater distance to the south-west, though 
there was no evidence of its continuation in that direction. He 
had found a great number of shells in this lake-bed, all being 
fresh-water forms and of species stUl living in lakes and ponds. 
An examination of the sandy loam under the microscope had 
disclosed the presence of the seeds or spores of a fresh- water plant 

iChara), and of the minute valves of four species of water-flea 
Dapknta). One species was thought to have been extinct, but it 
had been discovered by Dr. Brady living in lochs in the north of 
Scotland. This deposit passes down into a black calcareous loam, 
again with shells, and with teeth of the elephant, which must have 
been fairly abundant, bones and teeth of the bear, bones of the 
rhinoceros, and antlers of a large stag, these relics being now in 
the possession of Mr. W. Ransom. Evidence that pre-historic man 
must have considered Hitchin to be a very eligible position for 
a residence existed in the number of worked flints which are found 
in the clay. The implements — rudely-shaped axes, knives, and 
scrapers — belong to the Palaeolithic or Old Stone Age, and form the 
earliest record of the existence of man upon the earth. 

The meeting was very pleasantly brought to a conclusion with 
a visit to Pairfield, Hitchin, the residence of Mr. Ransom, who 



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XXXVm PROCEEDUTGS, 

provided tea for the party, which, by the accession of members of 
the Hitchin Natural History Club, had more than doubled its 
numbers. Here Mr. T. B. Blow and Mr. Henry Groves showed 
some rare plants which they had just gathered in the neighbour- 
hood, including Trifolium ochroleucon, Huds. ; CEnanthe Lachenaliiy 
Gmel. ; Bulhocastanum Zinnaiy Schur. ; Orohanche majors L. 
(parasitical on Cmtauria scabiosa) ; Samolus Valerandiy L. ; Carex 
iepidocarpa, Tausch. ; and Phleum phalaroides, Koel. The (Enanthe, 
SamoltM, and Phleum are the rarest of these. The localities in 
which liey grow in the neighbourhood of Hitchin will be found 
in Pryor*s * Flora of Hertfordshire.' 

Mr. . Ransom has a fine collection of antiquities, which were 
examined with much interest, especially a case of Phoenician glass 
at least 2,500 years old; Roman pottery and coins found in the 
neighbourhood ; and a large collection of implements of the Palajo- 
lithic. Neolithic, and Bronze Ages. 

Before the party separated a vote of thanks was accorded to 
Mr. Ransom for his hospitality and the trouble he had taken 
to make the meeting a complete success. 



Field MEEnNO, 13th Octobek, 1894. 
ALDBUEY AND ASHRIDGE PARK. 

The members, who numbered more than at any previous fungus 
foray of the Society, assembled at Tring Station at half -past ten, 
and walked through the village of Aldbury and up the slopes 
of Moneybury Hill to the Bridgewater Monument, commencing the 
collection of fungi in the village, on an old tree near the pond, and 
being busily at work all the way. Some then walked to Little 
Gaddesden for lunch ; others who had brought it with them partook 
of it by the Monument ; and while the most enthusiastic fungologists 
prosecuted their investigations in the immediate neighbourhood, 
others went farther afield, walking through the Avenue, about two 
miles in length, to Ashridge House, and returning by a more 
circuitous route through the Park and over the Common, searching 
for fungi all the way. With the exception of one member, who 
had to leave by an earlier train than the rest, for Luton by way of 
Leighton, all had tea together at the "Greyhound" in Aldbury, 
and then walked to Tring Station for the 4.61 train for Watford, 
St. Albans, and other places. 

The meeting was under the direction of Mr. Hopkinson, and the 
fungi which were collected were determined by Mr. George Massee, 
of Kew ; Mr. James Saunders, of Luton, recoiding the Mycetozoa. 

The following is a list of the fungi recorded by Mr. Massee. It 
comprises 185 species, of which 65 are for the first time recorded 
for Hertfordshire. To these an asterisk (*) is afiixed. The rare 
species, 4 in number, are indicated by an obelisk (f), and the edible 
species by a double dagger (J). 



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SESSION 1893-94. 



XX XIX 



Htmsnomtcetes. 
AgaiicQS (Amanita) phalloides, Ft, 

„ „ mappa, Batsch, 

y, ,f muscarius, L. 

,, f, pantherinus, DC. 

„ ,, rubesceus, Pert.X 

,, ,, spissQg, Fr. 

,, ,, vaginatns, Bull.X 
„ (Lepiota) procerus, Scop.X 

„ ,, rachodes, Vitt.X 

,, „ graeilentus, Kromb* 

„ „ Badhami, 3.#^r.*J 

,, ,, hispidus, Zasch.* 

,, ,, clypeolariua, Bull, 

,, „ cnstatuB, Fr. 

„ „ carcharius, Fers, 

yy ,y granulosus, Baisch. 
y, (ArmillariiiB) melleus, Vahl.X 

,, „ ramentaceuB, Bull, 

,, „ mucidus, Fr J 
,, (Tricholoma) equestris, X. 

„ „ portentosus, Fr. 

y, ,y flaTo-bnuineus, Fr. 

,, „ albo-bnmneus, Fr. 

„ ,, rutilans, Schaf. 

,, „ imbricatus, Fr. 

,, „ yaccinuB, iV».* 

,, ,, terrens, Sehaff. 

,y „ aaponaceus, Fr. 

,y yy sulpbureus, Bull. 

,, ,, bufonius, Fers, 

„ „ albus, Sehaff. 

„ „ personatus, Fr. { 

yy „ nudus, Bull.X 

yy ,, grammopodius,^M//.* 

„ „ melaleucuB, Fers.X 

„ ,, sordidus, Fr.* 
y y (Clitocybe) nebularis, Batsoh . X 

,, „ ciavipes, Fr. 

„ „ odorus, Fr.X 

,y „ phyllophilus, Fr. 

,y ,y pitnyophilus, Fr. 

y, „ canmcans, Fr. 

y, „ dealbatns, Sow, 

,, „ gallinaceuB, Scop, 

„ „ lumosuB, Fera.* 

„ y, infundibuliformis, 

Sehaff. 

„ „ ^vufl, Fera* 

,, „ inversus, Scop.* 

„ „ ericetorum. Bull.* 

„ „ cyathiformis, Fr. 

„ ,, ditopus, Fr. 

„ ,, fragrans, ^otr.^ 

,, „ laccatus, Scop. 

„ „ Sadleri, Berk.* t 
„ (Collybia) radicatus, Behl, 

„ „ platyphyllus, Fr.* 

ty „ maculatus, A. ^ S. 

,, „ butryaceus, Bull. 

„ ,, hariolorum, Bull.* 



Agaricus (Collybia) confluens, Fers. 
,, cirrhatus, Schum.* 
„ tuberoaus, Bull, 
,, nitellinus, Fr.» 
,, succineus, Sehaff* 
,, esculentus, Jacq.* X 
yy dryophilus, Bull, 
„ rancidus, Fr. 
,, ozes, fr.*t 

(Mycena) pelianthinus, Fr. 
„ efegans, Fen.* 
,, purus, P<pf». 
„ pseudo-puruB, Cke.* 
,y lineatus. Bull, 
y, luteo -albus, Bolt. 
,, flavo-albus, Fr. 
,, ruffosus, Fr, 
„ galericulatus, Scop. 
,, polygrammus, ^u//. 
,, alcalinus, Fr. 
„ tenuis, Bolt, 
„ stanneus, J'V.* 
„ filopes, Bull. 
,, beematopus, iVj«. 
„ sanguinoleutus, 

A. and S. 
„ galopus, Fr, 
,, epipterygius, Scop. 
„ discopus, i^J.* 
,, corticoK Schum. 

(Ompbalia) {)yxidatus, Bull. 
,, rusticus, Fers. 
,, muralis, Sow.* 
,, umbelliferus, X. 

(Pleurotus) lignatilis, Fers. 
,, ostreatus, /<w?^. 
,, limpidus, Fr.* 
,, applicatus, Baisch.* 
,, cmoneus, P(pr».* 

rVolvaria) medius, Fr.* 

(Pluteus) cervinus, Scop, 
,, nanus, Fers. 

(Entoloma) sinuatus, Fr, 
,, sericellus, Fr. 
„ sericeus, Bull. 
,, nidorosus, Pr. 

(Clitopilus) prunulus, Scop.X 
,, undatus, Fr.* 

(Leptonia) lampropus, Fr. 
„ euchrous, Fers,* t 
„ cbloropolius, Fr.* 

(Nolanea) pascuus, Pw*. 

(Eccilia) atropunctus, Fers. 

(Claudopus) depluenSj^a^ArA.* 
,, variabilis, Fers.* 

(Pholiota) erebius, Fr,* 
„ togularis, Bull.* 
„ radicosus, Bull, 
„ squarrosus, Jft<//. 
,, spectabilis, Fr. 

(Inocybe) cincinnatus, Fr.* 



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xl 



PROCEEDINGS, 



Agaricus (Inocybe) pyriodorus, Pert, 
,, „ lacerus, JPr.* 

„ ,, fastipiatus, Schaff.* 

„ „ Clarkii, ^. ^ JJr.* 

,, ,, geophyllus, Sow. 

„ (Hebeloma) fastibilis, Fr. 
,, ,, nudipes, Fr. 

,, (Flammula) lentus, Pera. 
,, ,, spumosus, Fr.^ 

,, ,, scambus, />.♦ 

,, (Naucoria) cerodes, Fr.^ 
,, (Galera) tener, Sehoiff, 
,, ,, hypnonim, Balseh. 

,, (Psalliota) augustus, Fr*X 
,, ,, arvensis, Schceff.*X 

,, ,, pratenflis. Hchaff^X 

,, (Stropharia) roniginosiis, C(ur^ 
,, ,, squamosus Fr. 

,, (Hypholoma) pvrotrichus, 

Hohnsk.* 
„ „ velutiniw, Per a. 

,, (Panffiolus) retirugis, Batsch.* 
„ (Psathyrella) pronus, Fr.* 

Coprinus atramentarius, Fr, { 
,, comatus, i^r. J 

CortioaritiB balteatus. Fr* 
„ largus, Fr. 
,, ocliroleucus, Schasff. 
„ lepidopus, Cke.* 
,, paleaceus, Fr. 

Paxillus involutus, Batach. 

Hygropborus aromaticus. Berk,* 
,, pratensis, Pera.X 
,, niveus, Scop.X 
,, nitratus, Pa-a.* 



Lactarius ntilis, Weinm.* X 

„ blennius, Fr. 

„ deliciosus, X.* J 

,, belms, Fr.* 

,, Tolemus, ^-.^ J 
Russula nigricans, Fr. 

„ rubra, />•. 

,, vesca, Fr.X 

„ barl®, Quelet.*f 
Cantharellus cibarios, Fr.X 
Marasmius peronatus, BoUon. 

„ oreades, Fr.X 
Boletus scaber. Fr.X 

,, laricinus. Berk. 
Polyporus velutinus, Fr.* 

„ versicolor, Fr. 

,f sanguinolentus, A. ^ S.^ 

,, vaporarius, Fr. 
Corticium comedens, Fr. 
Stereura hirsutum, Fr. 
Clavaria fra^filis, Eolmak.X 

„ fusiformis. Sow.* J 

„ grisea. Per a. 

Gastromtcbtbs. 
Pballus impudicus, Grer.* 
Lycoperdon saccatum, Vahl. 

,, excipuliforme. Scop.* 

DiSCOMYCETBS. 

Rbytisma maximum, Fr.* 

Phacidium coronatura, Fr.* 

Peziza granulata, Bull. 

„ luteo-nitens, B. ^ Br.* 
„ bemispherica, Wigg.* 

Helotium sruginosum, Fr. 



"In looking over the above list,'* Mr. Massee remarks, "three 
points appear to be very pronounced: (1) the large number of 
species collected; (2) the very large proportion of species with 
white spores; (3) the large number of perfectly safe, edible 
species — 31 — each having its own peculiar flavour and aroma." 

A very rare and beautiful species — Agaricus {Leptonia) euchrous, 
Pers. — ^was found by Miss Daisy "Weall. It has only once before 
been detected in Britain. 

Mr. James Saunders records the finding of the following 
species : — Comatricha ptdchella^ Bab. ; Trichia contorta, Ditm., 
var. incompteua ; and Arcyria incamata, Pers. 

The weather was fine, the country beautiful, and the foray the 
most successful one the Society has held. 

Mr. Massee desires to point out that, however numerous the 
species collected in the autumn may be, no fairly complete list 
of the fungi of the county can be made unless those which are 
to be met with throughout the year are recorded. 



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SEssioir 1894-95. xli 

Obdixaet Meeting, 27th N'ovembee, 1894, at Watford. 

Arthur Stradling, Esq., M.R.C.S., F.Z.S., President, in the 
Chair. 

Miss Adams, St. Peter's House, St. Alhans, and Mr. Xoel 
Heaton, Sans Souci, AVatford, were elected Members of the 
Society. 

Mr. Cecil Braithwayt, Overbury, Watford; Mr. W. J. Hardy, 
F.S.A., Milton Cottage, St. Albans; Mr. William HoUoway, 
Amcot, Watford ; Mr. Edmund L. Johnson, Heathdene, Watford ; 
Dr. Arthur King, Belmont, Watford; Mr. W. Eonald Mackay, 
Shirley House, Watford; Mr. W. Metcalfe, Woodford Koad, 
Watford; Mr. Edwin Spurr, Femlea, Westland Eoad, Watford; 
and Mrs. Wood, Woodside, Leavesden, Watford, were proposed for 
membership. 

The following lecture was delivered : — 

** Herbert Spencer : a Sketch of his Life and Work." By 
William R. Hughes, F.L.S., of Birmingham. 

The lecture was illustrated by a large number of photographs 
shown by means of the oxy-hydrogen lantern. 



Ordinary Meeting, 28th December, 1894, at Watford. 

Arthur Stradling, Esq., M.R.C.S., F.Z.S., President, in the 
Chair. 

Mr. Cecil Braithwayt, Mr. W. J. Hardy, F.S.A., Mr. William 
HoUoway, Mr. Edmund L. Johnson, Dr. Arthur King, Mr. Bonald 
Mackay, Mr. William Metcalfe, Mr. Edwin Spurr, and Mrs. Wood, 
were elected Members of the Society. 

Mr. Alan Fairfax Crossman, St. Cuthbert's, Berkhamsted, was 
proposed for membership. 

The following papers were read : — 

1. ** Report on the Conferences of Delegates to the British 
Association at Oxford in 1894." By John Hopkinson, F.L.S., 
F.G.S., F.E.Met.Soc. 

Having acted as your delegate to the Oxford meeting of the 
British Association, it is my duty to bring before the Society the 
various subjects which were discussed at the Conferences of 
Delegates of the Corresponding Societies. The Conferences were 
held on the 9th and 14th of August, the first Conference being 
devoted to the subject of Local Museums, and the second to the 
consideration of the work of the sectional Committees of the 
Association, or Committees of Eesearch. 

Professor B. Meldola, F.R.S., presided at each Conference. All 
the members of our Society who are on the Corresponding Societies 
Committee were present at the first Conference. They are Sir 
John Evans. Mr. G. J. Symons, Mr. W. Topley, Mr. W. Whitaker, 
and myself. At the second were present Mr. Symons, Mr. 
Whitaker, and myself. 

VOL. VIII. — part vin. D 



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Xlii PEOCEEDINGS, 

FiEST Conference. 
Local Museums. — The discussion on Local Museums, to which 
the first Conference was devoted, was opened by Mr. Cuthbert 
Peek, who dealt with the subject under the following headings : — 

1 . Methods of registration and cataloguing. 

2. The protection of specimens from injury and dust. 

3. The circulation of specimens and type-collections for 

educational purposes. 

4. Central referees for nomenclature and classification. 

5. The most satisfactory methods of making museums attractive. 

6. Museum lectures and demonstrations. 

7. The relations between museums and County Councils. 

1. Methods of Registration and Cataloguing. — ^Having examined 
several systems before arranging a small general museum of his 
own, Mr. Peek came to the conclusion that for small museums the 
card catalogue was the most convenient, on account of the esise 
with which changes and additions could be made. Sectional letters 
distinguished the various classes of objects. Each specimen when 
received had a number allotted to it under the letter assigned to 
the section. In order that the number might remain attached 
to the specimen, he painted the letter and number on the specimen 
with red or white paint, and gave them when dry a coat of oil 
varnish. When practicable it was a good thing to paste a photo- 
graph showing the locality at which the object was found at the 
back of the card. Labels were often displaced by the careless 
cleaner, but if the exact dimensions of a specimen, with a rough 
outline of it, were entered on the back of the card, identification 
would always be possible. 

2. The Protection of Specimens from Injury and Bust.— On this 
subject it was necessary to remind the delegates that every closed 
case was practically acted upon by changes in the pressure of 
the atmosphere (in the same way as the cistern of a mercurial 
barometer), and that it drew in or gave out air and dust with 
every change of pressure. Professor Miall, at the Yorkshire 
College, had a rectangular hole cut in the top of each case and 
this was covered with damiette. This filters the air passing in. 
He (Mr. Peek) felt inclined to use a tube filled with cotton- wool 
for this purpose. It must be remembered that enough air should 
be admitted at the authorized entrance to prevent supplies from 
being sucked in through the inevitable joints and cracks elsewhere. 

3. The Circulation of Specimens and Type- Collections for Educational 
Purposes. — The importance of educating the eye was now generally 
recognized, and the London scientific societies are more and more 
introducing the optical lantern at their evening meetings. The 
advantage of the circulation of loan collections illustrating the 
subjects taught in elementary schools was therefore obvious. At 
Liverpool a system had been elaborated by which loan collections 
were prepared and circulated among a large number of schools. 
Experience had shown that the collections should be arranged ia 



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SESSION 1894-95. xliii 

cabinets, each containing some special class of objects, such as 
food-products, woods, etc. Those wishing to organize a plan for 
circulations of this kind should consult a paper by Mr. J. Chard 
in the Report of the Museums Association for 1 890. 

The educational advantages of a museum were much increased 
by a liberal use of pictorial illustrations placed as near as possible 
to the objects illustrated. In the case oi minute objects drawings 
on a larger scale were of the highest value, while models and casts 
were often of the utmost service. Labels should be clear, and 
should indicate the most important points in plain language. When 
specimens could be replaced without difficulty, a certain amount 
of handling might be permitted. It was most desirable that over- 
crowding should be avoided, and that the utmost care should be 
taken in the selection of type-specimens. Much economy of space 
would result from the adoption of an American invention which 
he would briefly describe. The side of the cabinet, instead of 
having one slide for each drawer, has a series of slides, one inch 
apart, all the way up the side, the bottom of each drawer having 
a tongue to fit into one of these slides. It was clear from this that 
the drawers might be made in multiples of an inch and arranged 
in any order desired. 

4. Central Refirees for Nomenclature and Classification, — One of 
the greatest difficulties which the average curator of a small 
museum had to deal with was the nomenclature of the various 
specimens under his charge. An organization of specialists who 
would for a small fee allow specimens to be forwarded to them 
for identification would bo of the greatest possible value. Certain 
abstruse questions might not even then be easy to answer ; but if 
nine-tenths of our museum specimens could be accurately catalogued 
a great step in the right direction would be taken. 

5. The most satisfactory Method of making Museums attractive. — 
To those who know the museums at South Kensington, or some 
of the equally well-arranged local museums, this heading might 
seem unnecessary. But many present might be able to call to 
mind some collection in a country town containing many most 
valuable local specimens, the very existence of which was unknown 
to the majority of the inhabitants. This state of things was yearly 
becoming rarer ; but many persons could point out some museum 
almost as much fossilized as the fossils it contained, with labels 
either illegible from age or invisible from displacement. Those 
who casually entered such museums seldom revisited them. It 
was most desirable that the English as well as the Latin name 
of a specimen should be given. Much might be done to allow of 
comparisons between creatures of different families or genera. 
Thus, at the Natural History Museum, South Kensington, the 
skeletons of a man and of a horse in the attitude of running had 
recently been placed the one in front of the other, so that the 
relations of the two, bone for bone, could be distinctly seen. The 
surgical, ordinary, and veterinary names of the bones were added 
throughout. 



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Xliv PE0CEEDING8, 

6. Mmeum Lectures and Demonstrations, — While the great value 
of case-to-case explanations was invariably admitted, the difficulty 
attending any attempt to make a museum demonstration useful to 
any large number of persons was equally obvious. One most 
experienced demonstrator had stated that the largest number of 
persons who can receive real benefit from a case-to-case demon- 
stration is about a dozen, and had recommended that the lecture, 
illustrated by specimens and lantern-slides, should be given in 
an ordinary lecture-room, and a demonstration afterwards in the 
museum to the smaller number seeking further information. In 
any case it was most desirable that the demonstrator should be 
placed on a temporary stand, so that he might see and be seen 
by his audience. 

7. The Relations between Museums and County Councils. — It 
having always appeared to him that demonstrations in museums 
should take a very prominent part in technical education, especially 
in rural districts, he had been surprised that so little assistance 
had been given in aid of local collections by County Councils. In 
order to ascertain what had been done in that direction he had 
sent out a circular to County Council technical education committees, 
and found that local museums and free libraries had been assisted 
only in nine cases. The County Council of Cumberland had been 
the most liberal, having made a grant of £600 per annum during 
the last three years for the purpose of aiding the Corporation of 
Carlisle to erect a museum, free library, and art school. A grant 
had also been made to a free library at Whitehaven for the purchase 
of text-books for the use of students at technical instruction classes, 
and a grant of £200 per annum had been given to the Local Board 
of Millom in aid of the free library and technical school at that 
town. In Westmoreland a grant of £100 had been made to 
the Kendal Free Library, and a similar sum had been given for 
the purchase of books on scientific subjects at other centres in the 
county. In Northumberland 50 per cent, of the cost of technical 
books for village and other libraries had (under certain conditions) 
been defrayed. At Leeds grants had been made to the Free Public 
Library Committee of the Corporation for the purchase of pictures 
and books. In Hertfordshire money had been given to free 
libraries for the purchase of technical books, and in Montgomery 
grants had been made in two cases. In Surrey no aid had been 
given to free libraries, but it was proposed to found a museum in 
connection with buildings for technical education, and a reference 
library. The London County Council had a proposal to aid a 
certain museum under consideration; and in Dorsetshire the 
museums at Poole, Dorchester, and Sherborne had all received aid. 
From some counties no information had yet been received, but 
enough had been stated to show that there was no insuperable 
obstiK^le to the application of money intended for technical 
education to the development of museums. A leading object 
with the Government was the development of local activity, 
and he felt convinced that any grants made to local museums 



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SESSION 1894-95. xlv 

and free libraries would tend more than anything else to further 
that object. 

A considerable amount of discussion followed, the principal question 
considered being the legality of grants being made to museums 
by County Councils. It was elicited that, although in some cases 
aid had thus been directly given, it was only strictly legal to 
make grants in aid of lectures and demonstrations in museums, 
or for the purchase of technical books, apparatus for lectures, and 
specimens required to increase the efficiency of the lectures. It 
will thus be seen how advisable it is in establishing a provincial 
museum to provide a lecture-room and arrange for lectures to be 
given. Sir John Evans doubted whether grants to museums would 
be permitted to pass by the Government auditors, though a grant 
of technical books might be allowed, and he said that inquiries 
should be made to the Science and Art Depaitment at JSouth 
Kensington as to the legality of any proposed grant for the 
purchase of specimens to illustrate lectures. Mr. H. Coates stated 
that a large addition was being built to the Perth Museum, and 
a grant had been obtained from the County Council on condition 
that specimens suitable for agricultural teaching should be provided. 
These specimens would be used for lectures and demonstrations. 
Otherwise, they had been advised they could not obtain the grant. 

Some useful hints on the management, etc., of museums were 
also given in the course of the discussion. Sir John Evans recom- 
mended the American system of card- catalogue, a perforated card 
through which a wire passed, so that the cards could not be 
disturbed. He spoke of the difficulty of keeping dust out of 
cabinets, for they exhale air whilst the day is warm, and inhale 
it, with dust, in the cooler evening. As regards referees for 
nomenclature and classification, he said that any curator might 
consult the keepers of the various departments of the British 
Museum at South Kensington or at Bloomsbury, with a certainty 
of receiving prompt and valuable assistance. Eeferring to the 
obliteration of labels, the Rev. 0. P. Cambridge and Dr. Garson 
recommended for preparations in spirit that labels should be 
written in pencil on good paper and be placed inside the glass jars. 

The only other question which arose was as to the difficulty 
of deciding upon what specimens were worthless and should be 
got rid of, and Sir John Evans thought that the opinion of the 
secretary or curator of a museum ought to be deemed sufficient. 

The following resolution was proposed by Sir Douglas Galton, 
seconded by Dr. Brett, and carried : — 

"That in the opinion of this Conference it is desirable that 
local natural history societies, and those in charge of local museums, 
should place themselves in communication with the Technical 
Instruction Committee of the county or borough in which they 
are placed, with the view of obtaining pecuniary grants towards 
extending technical knowledge by means of lectures or by demon- 
strations in museums." 



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Xlri PEOCEEDHTGS, 

Second Conterenck. 

The principal subjects brought before the second conference 
were as follows : — Meteorological Photography, Earth-Tremors, 
the Pollution of Air in Towns, the Erosion of the Sea Coast, 
Underground Waters, Erratic Blocks, Geological Photographs, 
the Teaching of Geography in Schools, and the Ethnographical 
Survey of Great Britain. 

Meteorological FJwtography . — The work of this Committee has 
already been brought before our Society by its Secretary, Mr. A. W. 
Clay den, in a lecture delivered at St. Albans in 1891, to the 
report of which in our * Transactions ' (Vol. VI, p. 162) reference 
should be made. At this Conference Mr. Clayden stated that 
a sufficient number of photographs of clouds had now been received, 
but he would be grateful for photographs of lightning showing 
anything abnormal ; and also for photographs showing the results 
of whirlwinds or other exceptional occurrences. 

Earth- Tremor 8. — We are scarcely likely to assist this Committee, 
the investigation of earth-tremors requiring an instrument costing 
at least £60. That best suited for the purpose, and adopted by 
this Committee, is the bifilar pendulum invented by Mr. Horace 
Darwin, who exhibited one to the Conference and explained its 
construction and use. It is not affected by certain rapid, com- 
plicated movements which take place during an earthquake, or 
by the slight tremors caused by passing carts or trains. The 
movements which it will measure are such as would make a factory 
chimney or a vertical post fixed in the ground lean over on one 
side. Extremely small movements of this kind can be measured 
by it and recorded on photographically-prepared paper. An account 
of the instrument was given in * Nature' of 12th July, 1894, and 
also in the * Report of the British Association* for 1893, p. 291. 

Mr. G. J. Symons, Chairman of the Committee, stated that 
pulsations recorded by one of these instruments in a coal-mine at 
Newcastle- on-Tyne had been traced to the gradual settlement of 
the ground in consequence of the removal of the coal, and to the 
beating of the sea- waves on the coast. On one occasion the pulsations 
shown were found to have been produced by an earthquake in 
Greece. The Committee wished to have several of these instru- 
ments established in different parts of the British Isles, in order to 
make sure that not merely local phenomena were being recorded, but 
the great general phenomena of the earth's crust, such as changes 
going on in connection with faults in geological strata, and records 
of the alterations in the earth's crust caused by tidal waves. 

Pollution of Air in Towns, — ^For the last three or four years 
Dr. G. H. Bailey has been examining the air of towns in order 
to ascertain the extent of its pollution, and he gave an account 
of his investigations in Manchester. It was a question, he said, 
of much practical importance, for it heid been found that the 
death-rate was highest when the air was most polluted. The 
amount of sulphur-compounds present in the air was a measure 
of the extent of its pollution. The amount of sunlight in towns 



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SESSION 1894-95. xlvii 

•was also being investigated, and it had been found that about 
50 per cent, of the sunlight was cut off by the smoke of a town, 
the diminution of light in the centre of a large town amounting 
to about 75 per cent., and in the suburbs to about 25 per cent., 
as compared with the amount of light in the open country. The 
co-operation of members of the Corresponding Societies in more 
rural districts would be sought when the methods of investigation 
were more perfect. Prof. Meldola remarked upon the value of 
lichens as indicating the purity of the air. Thciy were disappearing 
from the tree-trunks in Epping Forest, it being too near London 
for them to flourish. 

Coast JErosioHy which was next dealt with, is not a subject 
within the province of our Society. 

Underground Waters. — The question of the circulation of water 
in the Chalk of Hertfordshire has frequently been brought before 
our Society, and the nature of the information required by the 
Underground Waters Committee will be found in our * Trans- 
actions,' in my paper on '* Water and Water-supply" (Vol. VI, 
p. 136). At this Conference Mr. Whitaker stattid that it was 
intended to give the substance of the eighteen annual reports of 
the Committee in a single volume, for which he hoped the Corre- 
sponding Societies would subscribe. The cost of the book would 
not exceed 10«. 

Erratic Blocks. — For information on the work of the Erratic 
Blocks Committee reference should be made to a paper by 
Mr. H. George Fordham in our * Transactions ' (Vol. I, p. 163). 
The work of the Committee is now drawing to a close, but 
there is still plenty of scope for observers in our county. The 
work required to be done is to record the position, height above 
the sea, lithological character, size, and origin of our erratic 
blocks or boulders, to report other matters of interest connected 
with them, and to take measures for their preservation. 

Geological Photographs. — The work of the Geological Photo- 
graphs Committee has also been brought before our Society, in 
a paper by me which is published in our * Transactions ' (Vol. VI, 
p. 49). I regret that out of 1055 photographs which the Secretary 
of the Committee has received, there are only a few from our 
county, all of which have been taken by myself. The collection 
of photographs will be deposited in the Museum of Practical 
Geology, Jermyn Street, London, where it will be accessible 
for inspection. I have duplicates for the Society of the photo- 
graphs which I have contributed to this collection, and should 
be glad to receive photographs from others, in duplicate, one 
copy for this collection and one for our Society. 

The teaching of Geography in Schools is not exactly a subject 
to engage the attention of provincial societies, but it is one in 
which some members of such societies may help by their influence. 
Mr. Sowerbutts said that it was disgraceful that geography was 
so badly taught, or sometimes utterly neglected, in the schools of 
a coimtry which had territory in every part of the world. He 



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Xlviii PEOCEEDINGS, 

also advocated the institution of School MttseumSy and stated 
that much progress had been made in some of the primary schools 
by the institution of museums. A beginning has been made at 
the headquarters of our Society, the Watford Endowed Schools, 
and at the St. Albans Grammar School. There are also museums 
in some other schools in our county, as at Haileybury College. 

Mhnographical Survey. — The Chairman of the Committee 
appointed to organize an Ethnographical Survey of the United 
Kingdom, Mr. E. W. Brabrook, remarked that the Corresponding 
Societies had, through their delegates, shown much interest in 
this question, and that many had given assistance. During the 
past year the list of villages at which ethnographical observations 
might suitably be made had been considerably increased; there 
were now 367, a much larger number than they had expected 
would be suggested. He then gave an account of how their work 
was progressing in England, "Wales, Scotland, Ireland, and the 
Isle of Man. He had been told that the instructions with regard 
to photographing were too minute; but these instructions had 
been drawn up by Mr. Francis Gal ton with reference to his system 
of composite photographs, and any departure from them would 
make the application of that system comparatively difficult. At 
the same time they did not wish to lose any photographs which 
might be useful, even if, in their case, the instructions had not 
been followed. 

With this subject the work of the Conference was brought to 
a close, and the Chairman expressed the hope that the delegates 
would bring its proceedings under the notice of their respective 
Societies. The custom of the Essex Field Club was to ask their 
delegate to send in a report of what had been done, and to publish 
it as soon as possible in the * Essex Naturalist,' and he hoped that 
other Societies would act in a similar manner. 

2. Note on a Tree- Wasp's Nest at Herga, Watford, By Daniel 
Hill. {Transactions, Vol. VIII, p. 203.) 

Mr. Hill exhibited the nest, which he has had mounted in a case. 

The President exhibited and described a series of photographs 
showing the feeding of a young Boa constrictor (the first ever 
taken) ; also a photograph of a large reticulated python at the 
Zoological Gsirdens. 



Okdiwary Meeting, 29th Jaktjakt, 1895, at Watford. 

Professor John Attfield, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S., etc., Vice- 
President, in the Chair. 

Mr. Alan Fairfax Grossman was elected a Member of the 
Society. 

The following papers were read : — 

1. '* The Advantages of a Supply of Soft Water for the Town 
of Watford." By Arthur King, M.B., CM., D.P.H. (Transactions, 
Vol. VIII, p. 116.) 



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SESSION 1894-95. xlix 

2. "The Relative Advantages of Hard and Soft Water, with 
Special Reference to the Supply of Watford." By John Hopkinson, 
P.L.8., F.G.8., F.R.Met.Soc. {Transact ions, Vol. VUI, p. 101.) 
A discussion ensued, of which the following is an abstract : — 
The Chairman (Professor Attfield) said that he need scarcely 
remind the members of the Society that our country was often 
called Albion because of the whiteness of its cliffs, which served 
to draw their attention to the facts that limestone, either chalk, 
or the harder varieties of limestone, constitutes the greater part 
of our island, and that falling rain, always dissolving a certain 
amount of chalk, they got hard water; hence that every town 
on chalk or limestone was immensely interested in the possible 
artificial softening of its water. Watford, being directly on 
the Chalk, was not the least interested. Its water had a very 
considerable degree of hardness, and therefore Watford could well 
discuss the question as to whether its natural supply of hard 
water should be softened or not. To begin with, they must 
go to experts to know something about the softening of the 
water, and to know something about the cause of the hardness. 
Secondly, they must know whether the hardness could be 
reduced. Thirdly, how? And fourthly, at what cost? Dr. 
King and Mr. Hopkinson had given what in his humble opinion 
was a very good risumi of all these data, and for their carefulness 
and the time they had occupied in doing that, and the judgment 
they had evinced in the doing of it, he thought, and ho was sure 
they all would think, that they deserved their thanks. As to 
the questions which the inhabitants of Watford would look 
to scientific men to give them information upon, in order that 
they might discuss them from their economical and financial point 
of view, the first had been answered. It was possible for the 
water to be softened, and the chemistry of the matter generally 
was not a question for discussion at that meeting ; it had all been 
settled long ago, and was now being practically carried out in 
such towns as Canterbury and Southampton, and in some seven 
or eight other prominent towns, to say nothing of the work which 
was done in the Colne Valley Waterworks close by. A question 
which had been put to him within the last three or four days was, 
** What do we all mean by hard and soft water?" That had 
been partly answered that night as to the cause of the hardness 
and softness. Professor Attfield then alluded to the difference 
felt between hard and soft water in washing the hands, and said 
that another question which had been put to him as a chemist 
for the hundredth time was a question relating to the difference 
between lime and chalk. He was afraid that unless the inquirers 
had the rudiments of chemistry within them nothing would 
make the thing perfectly clear. Having explained the mingling 
together of carbonic acid and lime in the formation of chalk, he 
pointed out that there was only one practical way of softening 
the water, as had been shown by the authors of the papers. He 
supposed the town would look to its engineer to explain whether 



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1 PEOCEEDINGS, 

it would be better to get out the deposit by mere subsidence or by 
means of filters. Different methods were adopted in different 
towns, and he thought the question was one of local conditions, 
local circumstances, and rate of wages. With regfird to disad- 
vantages in the softening of water, he would only remark that 
in softening water they were getting within measurable distance 
of a water that would dissolve lead, and might possibly, though 
not prohably, be jumping out of the frying-pan into the fire, 
or, to coin a more appropriate figure, might tumble from a cliff of 
chalk into a hot cauldron of lead. He then spoke of the effect 
of soft and hard water on tea, giving his opinion in favour of soft 
water so far as economics were concerned; and so far as boilers 
were concerned, and for cooking no doubt the advantages were 
greatly in favour of soft water over hard water. Then, with 
regard to the question of health. Dr. King had told them that 
doctors disagreed. Speaking of the formation of bone and sinew. 
Professor Attfield said that he did not think such a question need 
be taken into consideration with reference to this matter, because 
it was not lime, the partner of chalk, but it was phosphate of 
lime, that had to do with the formation of bone. And modem 
discoveries had shown that the substance in vegetables which 
enabled us to build up bone was not by any means always 
phosphate of lime, but what was well known to medical men, 
phosphate of potash, which was the substance they would find 
in vegetable juices. He then pointed out that the question was 
primarily a chemical one, and secondly a medical one, and it 
remained for that meeting to discuss the question from a common- 
sense point of view founded on science. He hoped that the 
townsmen of Watford would think, with the Natural History 
Society, that this was a scientific matter, that the Society repre- 
sented science in Watford, and that the Society had done its 
duty in bringing before the town at least some of the scientific 
advantages and disadvantages attached to the softening of the 
water. 

Mr. Blathwatt said that he would hail with pleasure any scheme 
which might be brought forward for softening the water. He had 
been resident in Watford for lOJ years, and during that period had 
had his hot-water pipes and apparatus renewed three times, which 
had increased his water-rate at least 100 per cent, per annum. 

Mr. Blackburn said he thought that what they had heard that 
night should satisfy them that it would be policy to soften the 
water in Watford. 

Mr. Atbes differed from what Mr. Blathwayt had said. He had 
lived in his house 14 years, and his pipes at the present moment 
were as clear as when they were put up. He was sure that the 
Urban Council would give the matter their careful consideration, 
but there were many questions which would have to be considered 
before the water could bo softened, and one very important one 
was the waste of water. At least one-half or three-fourths of the 
water now pumped was wasted. 



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SESSION 1894-95. li 

Mr. Hill said that he had now resided in his house nearly 
1 Oi years, and he had the same boiler and the same pipes which 
had been put in at first by Mr. Ay res. He thought the Watford 
water was most pleastmt to drink. Soft water, to his mind, was 
flat ; there was no life in it. 

Mr. VERmi, being asked for his opinion as to the cost of softening 
the water, said that he had read Dr. King's figures in the 
* Watford Observer,' and he thought that they were accurate. 

Dr. King replied, sajring that he thought the matter simply 
resolved itself into pounds, shillings, and pence. If it wore cheaper 
to soften the water, let them do it. Leaving out the medical 
question, or the question of inconvenience, let them consider the 
money question, and he believed if they went into the subject 
thoroughly they would find that it might put a little on the rates, 
but it would save their pockets in other ways. It would certainly 
save them a considerable amount in soap, and if they as private 
individuals did not use so much as washerwomen, he thought they 
ought to consider the washerwomen as well as themselves, and it 
would be a considerable saving to them. Another point that he 
mentioned in his paper was very important, and that was that they 
could not wash clothes clsan in hard water. He differed from 
Mr. Hill as to the taste of the water, preferring soft water. 

Mr. HoPKiNsoN also replied. He said that he was not aware 
that there had been any cases of lead-poisoning where soft water 
had been substituted for hard water. He had had no experience 
of the taste of softened water, bat he very much preferred such 
naturally soft water as a mountainous district usually yields, to 
the very hard water supplied to Watford and St. Albans, and he 
believed that drinking such soft water was very beneficial to 
health. 

Professor Attfield remarked that the different experiences with 
regard to pipes, etc., being choked up could be easily explained. It 
was necessary for water actually to boil before any appreciable 
amount of carbonate of lime would be deposited as ** scale." 
Doubtless with Mr. Blathwayt the water boiled, and with Mr. 
Ayres and Mr. Hill it did not. 

Mr. G. H. Wailes and Mr. Thomas Hope were elected auditors 
of the accounts for 1894. 



Anniveesaey Meeting, 26th Februaet, 1895. 

(At Watford.) 

Sir John Evans, K.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., Sc.D., Treas.R.S., 
V.P.S.A., F.L.S., F.G.S., etc., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The Report of the Council for 1894, and the Treasurer's Account 
of Income and Expenditure, were read and adopted. 

George Massee, F.R.M.S., 41 Gloucester Road, Kew, was elected 
a Corresponding Member of the Society. 



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Hi PBOCEEDINGSy 

A letter was read from the President, Mr. Arthur Stradlinp:, 
M.R.C.S., F.Z.S., regretting his inability to be present on account 
of ill-health, and promising to deliver lus Anniversary Address at 
a future meeting of the Society. 

Sir John Evans, K.C.B., delivered an Address on **The Stone 
Age in Hertfordshire.** {Transactions, Vol. VIII, p. 169.) 

Stone implements found in Hertfordshire, etc., were exhibited 
by the author in illustration of his address. 

The following gentlemen were duly elected as the officers and 
Council for the ensuing year: — 

President.— nemj Seebohm, F.L.S., F.Z.S., Sec.R.G.S. 

Vice-Presidents,— '?ToiQ9,mT John Attfield, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S., 
FC.S., F.I.C.; Sir John Evans, K.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., Sc.D., 
Treas.R.S., V.P.S.A., etc. ; John Morison, M.D., D.P.H., F.G.S. ; 
Arthur Stradling, M.R.C.S., F.Z.S. 

Treasurer. — John Weall. 

Honorary Secretaries. — JohnHopkinson, F.L.S., F.G.S., F.R.M.S., 
F.R. Met. Soc. ; F. M. Campbell, F.L.S., F.Z.S., F.R.M.S., F.E.S. 

Librarian. — "W. K. Carter, B.A. 

Curator.— k. E. Gibbs, F.L.S., F.E.S. 

Other Members.— AUred T. Brett, M.D. ; H. George Fordliam ; 
Daniel Hill; Henry Lewis; Edward Mawley, F.R. Met. Soc, 
F.R.H.S.; William Ransom, F.S.A., F.L.S.; T. Vaughan Roberts; 
Stephen Salter; Frank W. Silvester; Rev. E. T. Vaughan, M.A.; 
George Herbert AVailes, Assoc. M. Inst. C.E ; Henry Warner. 

The thanks of the Society were accorded to Mr. Ai-thur Stradling 
retiring from the office of President; to Mr. Upfield Green, retiring 
from the office of Vice-President; and to Mr. A. P. Blathwayt, 
Mr. R. B. Croft, and Mr. George Rooper, retiring from the Council. 



Repobt of the Council for the Yeae 1894. 

The Council of the Hertfordshire I^atural History Society, in 
presenting the 2()th Annual Report, may congratulate the members 
on the continued prosperity of the Society after an existence of 
twenty years. At the same time it may be pointed out that 
the number of members who take an active part in the work 
of the Society is very small, and has considerably decreased 
within the last ten years, not nearly so many members contributing 
papers in the second decade of the Society's existence as in 
the first. This is not due to exhaustion of material, for the 
investigation of the flora and fauna of the county is very far from 
completion, and the scope of the Society has lately been much 
widened, its objects now including the investigation of the 
Ethnology, Pre -Norm an Archaeology, and Topography of Hert- 
fordshire, as well as that of its Meteorology, Geology, Botany, and 
Zoology, and the study of Physical as well as of Biological Science. 
The Council would, therefore, urge upon the members to do 



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SESSION 1894-95. liii 

all they can to further the ohjects of the Society, by deliverinj:^ 
lectures, reading papers, or contributing the results of their 
investigations relating to the county. In this direction there is 
plenty of scope for bibliographical research as well as for original 
observation. 

During the year thirty-one ordinary members have been electa 
and one corresponding member, twelve members have resigned, 
thirteen have been removed from the list for non-payment of 
subscription for several years, and the Council regrets to have 
to record the loss of three members by death — Dr. Duncan 8cott 
of Watford, Mr. Robert Smith of Goldings near Hertford (a life- 
member), and Mr. William Topley, F.R.8., of Croydon. 

Mr. Topley was for more than thirty years on the staff of the 
Geological Survey. From 1862 to 1880 he was engaged in field- 
work; he was then appointed to superintend the publication of 
maps and memoirs at the office of the Geological Survey in 
Jenny n Street; and in 1893 he was entrusted with the entire 
charge of the office. He was one of our leading authorities on 
applied geology, especially agricultural geology and water-supply. 
He became a member of our Society in 1892, and had promised 
to open the present session with a lecture on Agricultural Geology. 

The census of the Society at the end of the years 1893 and 1894 
was as follows : — 

1893. 1894. 

Honorary Members 20 20 

Corresponding Member 1 

Life Members 51 60 

Annual Subscribers 189 193 

260 264 

Although this shows a numerical increase of only four members, 
the effective increase is really seventeen, for in the 1893 census 
thirteen members were enumerated who were several years in 
arrears with their subscriptions and who were removed from our 
list early in 1894. 

The following papers or lectures have been read or delivered 
at "Watford during the year : — 

Jan. 23. — The Lower Micro-organisms and their Relation to Every-day 
Life; by D. Harvey Attfield, M.A., M.B., D.P.H. 

Feb. 13. — Crystals ana Precious' Stones ; by G. Herbert Wailcs, 
Assoc. M. Inst. C.E. 

27. — Anniversary Address : A Wonderful Animal ; by the President, 

Arthur Stradling, M.R.C.S., F.Z.S. 
March 20. — The Natural Historj- of the Salmon ; bv Georj^e Rooper, F ZS. 
April 17. — Report on the Rainfall in Hertfordshire in the year 1893 ; by 
John Hopkinson, F.L.S., F.G.S., F.R.Met.Soc. 

— Climatological ObserAations taken in Hertfordshire in the year 

1893 ; by John Hopkinson. 

Meteorological Observations taken at The Grange, St. Albans, 

in the year 1893 ; by John Hopkinson. 

— Report on Phenological Phenomena observed in Hertfordshire 

during the year 1893 ; by Edward Mawley, F.R. Met. Soc, 
F.R.H.S. 



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liv PBOCEEDDfGS, 

April 17. — Notes on Lepidoptera observed in Hertfordshire during the 
year 1893 ; by A. E. Gibbs, F.L.S., F.E.S. 

The Wasp-Visitation of 1893 ; by A. E. Gibbs. 

• Notes on Birds observed in Hertfordshire during the year 1893 ; 

by Henry Lewis. 

Nov. 27. — Herbert Spencer: a Sketch of his Life and Work ; by "William 
R. Hughes, F.L.S. 

Dec. 28. — Report on the Conferences of Delegates to the British Asso- 
ciation at Oxford in 1894 ; by John Hopkinson, F.L.S., 
F.G S., etc. 

A Tree- Wasp's Nest at Herga, Watford ; by Daniel Hill. 

A special meeting was held on the 23rd of January, when certain 
alterations in the Rules proposed by the Council were passed. The 
revised Rules were issued to the memhers with the February part of 
the * Transactions.' 

The following Field Meetings were held during the year : — 

April 28. — Ayot St. Peter and Ayot St. Lawrence. 
May 19. — Brocket Park and Wheathampstead. 

26. — Luton, Caddington, and Dunstable. 

June 23. — Tring. 

30. — Stevenage, the Wjmondleys, and Hitchin. 

Oct. 13. — Aldbury and Ashndge Park. 

Visits were also made to the British Museum (Natural History), 
South Kensington, on the 21st of April, and to the Zoological 
Gardens, Regent's Park, on the 16th of June; on each occasion 
demonstrations were made hy the President. 

The thanks of the Society are due for hospitality kindly afPorded 
at the above meetings to the Rev. H. Jephson at Ayot St. Peter; 
to Mr. and Mrs. Upton Robins at Delaport, Wheathampstead ; to 
the President and Mrs. Stradling at the Zoological Gardens ; 
to Mr. A. Macdonald Brown at Beech Grove, Tring ; to Mr. Charles 
Sworder at The Priory, Little Wymondley; and to Mr. "William 
Ransom at Fairfield, Hitchin. 

The seventh volume of the present series of the Society's 
* Transactions * has been completed, and the eighth has been 
commenced, two parts of each, containing 148 pages and seven 
plates, having been published during the year. Three-fourths of 
the papers in the seventh volume are essentially local, and the 
rest, with two exceptions, have some local bearing. The papers 
which give the results of investigations in Hertfordshire are, in 
meteorology and phenology the usual annual reports, eight in aU, 
a paper on the Climate of Watford, and one on Temperature and 
Rainfall at Throcking, each giving the results of ten years' 
observations, and a Naturalist's Calendar for Mid-Hertfordshire ; in 
botany a paper on the Mycetozoa, with a list of species found 
in Herts and Beds, and a list of Hertfordshire Hepaticse ; and in 
Zoology notes on the Lepidoptera, the Birds, and the Mammalia 
observed in the county. With local allusions there are two geo- 
logical papers, one on Ice and the other on Coal, and two zoological 
papers, one on Terrestrial British Quadrupeds and the other on 
Bats and some other Beasts. One of the two Presidential Addresses 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



SESSION 1894-95. 



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Ivi 



PROCEEDINGS, 



in the Yolume, on Francis Bacon, is of local interest ; the other, 
on Charles Darwin, though not of local, is of universal interest ; 
and the only other paper having no reference to the county is 
one, abridged, in the ' Proceedings,' on Man and Ape. 

Of the eight plates in the volume, five were produced at the 
expense of the Society, two are reprints, and one, the frontispiece, 
was presented by your Editor, Mr. Hopkinson. A feature for the 
first time introduced is the reproduction of photographs in illus- 
tration of the reports of the field meetings, eight of which, taken 
by your Editor, are shown on four of the plates. 

The Library has been open for the exchange of books on the 
first Tuesday of each month from 7 to 9 p.m., and after the 
evening meetings of the Society, but the number of members 
who have borrowed books has been very small. The Librarian 
regrets that the Catalogue is now out of print, but hopes to be 
able shortly to prepare a new and revised edition of it. A list of 
the numerous accessions during the year will be given in the 
* Proceedings.' 

Specimens of Mycetozoa have been presented by Mr. James 
Saunders, which are of special value as vouchers for his lists of 
species in our * Transactions.' 



Additions to the Library m 1894. 
Presented. 

TiTLB. 

Australian Association for the Advancement op 

Science. Keport of 1st Meeting, Sydney, N.S.W. 

1888. 8vo. Sydney, 1889 

— . Report of 2nd Meeting, Melbourne, Victoria. 

1890. 8vo. Melbourne, 1890 
. Report of 3rd Meeting, Christcburch, N.Z. 1891. 

8vo. Wellington, N Z., 1891 . . 
. Report of 4th Meeting, Hobart, Tasmania. 1892. 

8vo. Hobart, 1893 

Bacon, Francis. Proficience and Advancement of 

Learning. 8vo. London, 1852 .... 
Baxendall, J. Borough of Southport. Meteorological 

Department. Report of Observations for 1893. 

4to. Southport, 1894 

British Association por the Advancement op 

Science. Report for 1893. (Nottingham.) 8vo. 

London, 1894 

British Museum (Natural History). General Guide. 

8vo. London, 1893 

. Guide to the Mineral Gallery. By L. Fletcher. 

lb. 1893 

. The Student's Index to the Collection of Minerals. 

By L. Fletcher, id. 1893 

— — . Mineral Department. An Introduction to the 

Study of Meteorites By L. Fletcher. Id. 

1893 

— . . An Introduction to the Study of Minerals. 

By L. Fletcher, id. 1894 



Donor. 



Sir John Evans, 



Mr. J, Hopkinson, 
The Author. 



The Association. 
j Ti-usfees of the 
[ British Musettm. 



Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



SESSION 1894-95. 



Ivii 



Title. 
British MusErM (Natural History). Department of 

(it'olo^ and Palaeontolojtr. Guide to the Collection 

of Fossil FishM. By H. Woodward. 2nd ed. lb. 1888. 
. Guide to the Department of Geology and Palteon- 

tolofiry. Part I. Fossil Mammals and Birds. By 

H. Woodward. /A. 1890 

. . Part II. Fossil Reptiles, Fishes, and 

Invertebrates. By H. Woodward. /*. 1890 . 
. Department of Botany. Guide to Sowerby's 

Models of British Fungi By W. G. Smith, lb. 

1893 

. Department of Zoology. Guide to the Shell and 

Starfish Galleries. By A. Giinther. 2nd ed. lb, 

1888 

. . Guide to the Galleries of Reptiles and 

Fishes. By A. Giinther. lb. 1893 
. . Guide to the Galleries of Mammalia. By 

A. Giinther. 4th ed. lb. 1892 . 
CuviBR. Baron. The Animal Kingdom With 

additional Descriptions by E. GrifHth and 

others. Vols, ii-x, and lii-ivi. 8vo. London, 

1827-36 

. . Supplementary Volume on the Fossils. 

By E. Pidgeon. lb. 1830 

DiLLER, J. S. Notes on the Geology of the Troad. 

{Quart. Journ, OeoL Soe. 1883.) .... 
Harrisox, W. J. On the Search for Coal in the South- 
east of England 8vo. Birmingham, 1894 . 

Johnson, C, and J. E. Sowerby. Ferns of Great 

Britain. 8to. London, 1855 .... 

. Fern Allies. 8vo. London, 1866 

LiNDLEY, John. Ladies' Botany. 3rd ed. Vol. i. 8vo. 

London, n. d. 

Monck-ton, Claud, Pure Spring Water-supply for 

London. Proposed by G. Webster. 4to. London, 

1890 

MooRB, Thomas. Elements of Botany. 10th ed. Syo. 

London, 1865 

Natural Science. Vol. It. 8vo. London, 1894 
Ormbrod, Eleanor A. Report of Observations of 

Injurious Insects, and Common Farm Pests, during 

the Year 1893. 8vo. London, 1894 
Pbknino, W. H. a Contribution to the Geology of 

the Southern Transyaal. (Quart, Joum, Geol. Soe, 

18910 

Science Gossip. New Series. Vol. i, Nos. 4-10. 8vo. 

London, 1894 

Symons. G. J. (Ed.) Monthly Meteorological Magazine. 

Vol lii. 8vo. London, 1894 .... 

Topley, William. On Areas of Apparent UpheaTal. 

(Qftart. Joum. Geol, Soe. 1874.) .... 

The National Surveys of Europe. (i2<p. Brt't. 

A»»tte. for 1884.) 

. Report of the Committee on the Erosion of the 

Sea Coasts of England and Wales. {Rep. Brit. 

Auoe. for 1886.) 

. . ( ... for 1888.) 

. Gold and Silver: their Geological Distribution 

and their Probable Future Production. {Rep, Brit, 

Auoe. for 1887.) 



Donor. 

Trustees of the 
Bntish Museum. 



Mr, A. R, Gin man. 



Mrs, Topley, 

Mr, W, Whitaker, 

Mr, J, Utipkinson. 



Mr, W. Whitaker 



Mr. J, Hopktnso'f. 
Mr, A. £. Gibbs. 



The Authoress, 



Mr, jr. Whitaker. 
Mr, A, E. Gihbs. 
The Editor, 
Mrs. Topfey, 



TOL. vni.— part vin. 



Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



Iviii PK0CEEDING8, 

TiTLB. DOXOR. 

ToPLEY, William. Geology in its Relation to Hygiene. 

{Trans. Sanitary Inst. 1890.) . . . . . Mr. JF. Whitaker. 
Whitaker, William. Local Geology from a Sanitary 

Standpoint. [Tram. Sanitary Inst. 1892.) . . Ths Author. 
. On Maps showing the Area of Chalk available 

for Water Supply in the London Basin. (Jb. 1892.| 
. On Borings at Culford, Winkfield, Ware, and 

Cheshunt. {Quart. Joum. Geol. Soe. 1894.) . 

Received in Exchange. 

American Museum op Natural History. Bulletin. Vol. v. 8to. New 

York, 1893. 

. Report for the year 1893. lb. 1894. 

Bath Natural History and Antiquarian Field Club. Proceedings. 

Vol. viii, No. 1. 8vo. Bath, 1894. 
Belfast Naturalists* Field Club. Annual Report and Proceedings. 

Series 2, vol. iv, part 1. 8vo. Belfast, 1894. 
Birmingham Philosophical Society. Proceedings. Vol. viii, part 2. 8vo. 

Birmingham [18941. 

. Report. [Session 1892-93.] Jb. 

Birmingham Natural History and Philosophical Society. Journal. 

Vol. i, No. 1. 8vo. Birmingham, 1894. 
Boston (U.S.A.) Society of Natural History. Proceedings. Vol. xivi, 

part 1. 8vo. Boston, 1893. 
Bristol Naturalists' Society. Proceedings. New Series. Vol. vii, part 3. 

8vo. Bristol, 1894. 
Caradoc and Severn Valley Field Club. Transactions. Vol. i. No. 1. 

8vo. Shrewsbury, 1894. 
Cardiff Naturalists' Society. Report and Transactions. Vol. ixv, part 2. 

8vo. Cardiff, 1894. 
CoNCHOLOGY, JOURNAL OF. Vol. vii, Nos. 9-11. 8vo. Loods, 1894. 
Croydon Microscopical and Natural History Club. Proceedings for 

1892-93. 8vo. Croydon, 1893. 
Edinburgh, Botanical Society of. Transactions and Proceedings. Vol. xii, 

part 3. 8vo. Edinburgh, 1893. 
Geological Society. Transactions. Vol. vii, part 1. 8vo. 

Edinburgh, 1894. 
Royal Physical Society. Proceedings. Session 1892-93. 8vo. 

Edinburgh, 1893. 
Essex Field Club. Essex Naturalist. Vol. vii, Nos. 10-12. 8vo. Buckhurst 

HiU, 1894. 
Glasgow Philosophical Society. Proceedings. Vol.xxv. 8vo. Glasgow, 1894. 
Hampshire Field Club. Papers and Proceedings. Vol. ii, part 3. 8vo. 

Southampton, 1894. 
London, Geological Society of. Abstracts of the Proceedings. Session 

1893-94. 8vo. London, 1894. 
. Geologists' Assoclation. Proceedings. Vol. xiii, parts 6-10. 

8vo. London, 1894. 

. . List of Members, 1894. lb. 

. QuBKETT Microscopical Club. Journal. Vol. v, Nos. 34 and 35. 

8vo. London, 1894. 
. Royal Meteorological Society. Quarterly Journal. Vol. xi. 

8vo. London, 1894. 

The Meteorological Record. Vol. xiii, Nos. 60-52. 



Vol. xiv. No. 53. 8vo. London [1894]. 

Royal Microscopical Society. Journal. New Series. [Vol. vi.] 



1894. 8vo. London, 1894. 
Manchester Field-Naturalists' and Arch^ologists' Society. Report 
and Proceedings for the Year 1893. 8vo. [Manchester] 1894. 



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SESSION 1894-95. lix 

Manchbbtek Geographical Society. Journal. Vol. ix, Nos. 7-9. Vol. x, 

No8. 1-3. 8vo. Manchester, 1894. 
Geological Society. Transactions. Vol. xxii, parts 14-21. 

Vol iiiii, parts 1, 2. 8vo. Manchester, 1894. 

LiTERABY AND PHILOSOPHICAL SociBTY. Memoirs and Proceedings. 



Series 4, vol. viii, Nos. 1-3. 8vo. Manchester, 1894. 
Microscopy and Natural Science, International Journal of. 3rd Series, 

vol. iv, parts 20-23. 8vo. London, 1894. 
Naturalist. New Series. Vol. xix, Nos. 222-231. 8vo. London, 1894. 
New York Academy op Sciences. Transactions. Vol. xii. 8vo. New 

York, 1893. 

State Library. 76th Annual Report. 8vo. Alhany, 1893. 

. Bulletin No. 4. Stat© Legislation in 'l893. 8vo. 

Alhany, 1894. 

State Museum. Report No. 46, for the Year 1893. 4to. Albany, 



1894. 

Bulletin iii. No. 11. 8vo. Albany, 1893. 



Norfolk and Norwich Naturalists* Society. Transactions. Vol. v, 

part 6. 8vo. Norwich, 1894. 
Northamptonshire Natural History Society and Field Club. Journal. 

Vol. vii, Nos. 63-56. 8vo. Northampton, 1893. 
Rugby School Natural History Society. Report for the Year 1893. 

8vo. Ru^by, 1894. 
Smithsonian Institution. Annual Report of the Board of Regents to July, 

1893. 8vo. Washington, 1894. 
United States Department op Agriculture. Bulletin No. 4. The Prairie 

Ground Squirrels or Spemiophiles of the Mississippi Valley. By Vernon 

Bailey. 8vo. Washington, 1893. 
Geological Survey. 12th Annual Report, 1890-91. Part I. 

Geology. Part II. Irrigation. 4to. Washington, 1891. 

13th Annual Report, 1891-92. Part I. Report of the 



Director. Part II. Geology. Part III. Irrigation. 4to. Washington, 1893. 

. Bulletin. Nos. 97-117. 8vo. Washington, 1892-94. 

Monographs. Vol. xix. The Penokee Iron-benring 



Series of Michigan and Wisconsin. By R. D. Irving and C. R. Van Rise. 
4to. Washington, 1892. 

. . Vol. xxi. Tertiary Rhynchophorous Coleo- 

ptera of the United States. By S. H. Scudder. lb. 1893. 

. . Vol. xxii. A Manual of Topographic 

Methods. By H. Gannett. lb. 1893. 

Wiltshire Arch^kological and Natural History Society. Magazine. 

Vol. xxviii. No. 81. 8vo. Devizes, 1894. 
Yorkshire Geological and Polytechnic Society. Proceedings. New 

Series. Vol. xii, part 4. 8vo. Halifax, 1894. 

Naturalists' Union. Transactions. Part 18. The Yorkshire 

Carboniferous Flora, by R. Eidston. 8vo. Leeds, 1893. 

Philosophical Society. Annual Report for 1893. 8vo. York, 



1894. 

PxmCTHASED. 

Botany, Journal op. New Series. Vol. xxvii. 8vo. London, 1894. 

Entomologist. Vol. xxvii. 8vo. London, 1894. 

Entomologists' Record. VoL v. 8vo. London, 1894. 

Grevillea. Vol xxii. 8vo. Ijondon, 1894. 

Hertfordshire Illustrated Magazine. Vol. ii. 8vo. St. Albans, 1894. 

Nature Notes. Vol. v. 8vo. London, 1894. 

Novitates Zoologic.^. Vol. i, parts 1-6. 4to. Tring, 1894. 

Royal Natural History. Vol. i, parts 1-14. 8vo. London, 1894. 

Smith, W. G, Man, the Primeval Savage. 8vo. London, 1894. 

Zoologist. 3rd Series. Vol. xviii. 8vo. London, 1894. 



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Ix PROCEEDINGS, 

Ordix.uiy Meeting, 22nd March, 1895, at St. Albans. 

John Morison, Esq., M.D., F.G.S., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Mr. E. H. Jackson, 5, Lower Derby Road, Watford ; Mr. Henry 
George Moon, London Road, St. Albans; Mr. Thomas Cheadle 
Myddelton, Spencer House, St. Albans ; and Mr. J. B. Russell, 
B Sc, 17, Lower Derby Road, Watford, were proposed for member- 
ship of the Society. 

The following lecture was delivered : — 

** Extinct Monsters." By the Rev. Henry S. Hutchinson, B.A., 
F.G.S. 

The lecture was fully illustrated by photographs kindly shown 
by the oxyhydrogen lantern by Mr. T. Ask with. 



Ordinary Meeting, 26th March, 1895, at Watford. 

W. R. Carter, Esq., B.A., in the Chair. 

Mr. E. H. Jackson, Mr. H. G. Moon, Mr. T. C. Myddelton, and 
Mr. J. B. Russell, B.Sc, were elected Members of the Society. 

Sir Henry Bruce Meux, Bart., Theobalds, Waltham Cross, was 
proposed for membership. 

The following papers were read : — 

1. ** Report on the Rainfall in Hertfordshire in the year 1894." 
By John Hopkinson, F.L.S., F.G.S., F.R.Met.Soc. {Transactions, 
Yol. VIII, p. 131.) 

2. "The Floods of November, 1894, in Hertfordshire." By 
John Hopkinson. {Transactions, VoL VIII, p. 141.) 

3. "Temperature and Rainfall at Hitchin, 1850-94." By 
Wm. Lucas and John Hopkinson. {Transactions, Vol. VIII, p. 203.) 

4. " Kotos on Birds observed in Hertfordshire during the year 
1894." By Henry Lewis. {Transactions, Vol. VIII, p. 147.) 

5. " Xotes on Birds frequenting the neighbourhood of Herons- 
gate, Herts." By A. Sainsbury Verey, M.B.O.U. {Transactions, 
VoL VIII, p. 155.) 

Letters were read from Mr. J. H. Buxton, Hunsdon Bury, Ware, 
referring to the powers of the County Council for prohibiting the 
destruction of wild birds, and suggesting that steps should be taken 
for the preservation of the rare and beautiful birds of Hertfordshire; 
and from Mr. T. Fowell Buxton, Easneye, Ware, suggesting that 
the Society should get up an Association amongst the landowners 
for the preservation of magpies, kingfishers, and owls, a form of 
agreement being tendered to them for signature. 

Mr. Alan F. Crossman referred to the destruction of the great 
crested grebe for the purposes of trade, and also of the kingfisher. 
He thought that the proposed agreement would be valueless in 
law, but that a circular might be sent to the landlords asking 
them to prevent, so far as they could, the destruction of certain 
birds which were becoming extinct in England, and also that the 
County Council might be called upon to protect such birds. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



SESSION 1894-95. Ixi 

After further discussion it was resolved, on the proposition of 
M r. Grossman, seconded by Mr. Henry Lewis, that a representtition 
in favour of the protection of the nightjar, kingfisher, owls, 
stone-curlew, kestrel, and large crested grebe, bo drawn up by 
the Secretaries and submitted to the Hon. Walter Rothschild, and 
with his approval be laid before the Hertfordshire County Council. 



Ordinabt Meeting, 23rd Apeil, 1895, at Watford. 

Daniel Hill, Esq., in the Chair. 

Sir Henry Bruce Meux, Bart., was elected a Member of the 
Society. 

A Memorial, drawn up by the Secretaries of the Society for 
presentation to the Hertfordshire County Council, in favour of the 
protection in Hertfordshire of the following birds and their eggs, 
was read: — Nightjar, Woodpecker, Kingfisher, Owls, Stone Curlew, 
Grebes (scheduled); Wryneck, Buzzard, Honey Buzzard, Hobby, 
Merlin, Kestrel (not scheduled), 

A discussion ensued, and on the proposition of Mr. Alan F. 
Grossman, seconded by Mr. Henry Lewis, it was decided to sub- 
stitute the crossbill for the wryneck. It was also decided to 
represent to the County Council that it was unnecessary for the 
close time to commence earlier than the 15th of February, but 
that it should continue until the 31st of August as at present 
extended in Hertfordshire. 

The following papers were read : — 

1. "The Gale of the 24th of March, 1895, in Hertfordshire.** 
By John Hopkinson, F.L.S., F.G.S., F.R.Met.Soc. With remarks 
by Edward Mawley, F.R.Met.Soc, and F. W. Silvester. {Tram- 
actims. Vol. VIII, p. 199 ) 

2. " Report on Phonological Phenomena observed in Hertford- 
shire during the year 1894." By Edward Mawley, F.R Met.Soc, 
F.R.H.8. {Transactions, VoL VIII, p. 193.) 

3. " Notes on Lepidoptera observed in Hertfordshire during the 
year 1894." By A. E. Gibbs, F.L.S., F.E.S. {Transactions, 
Vol. VIII, p. 188.) 

4. " Note on the Blastopore of the Frog's Egg in Relation to 
the Hypoblast." By J. B. Russell, B.Sc. {Transactions, Vol. VIII, 
p. 129.) 

The following papers were taken as read : — 

1. *' Climatological Observations taken in Hertfordshire in the 
year 1894." By John Hopkinson, F.L.S., F.G.S., F.R.Met.Soc. 
{Tramactions, Vol. VIII, p. 125.) 

2. ** Meteorological Observations taken at The Grange, St. 
Albans, during the year 1894." By John Hopkinson. {Tram- 
actions, Vol. VIII, p. 161.) 



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Ixii PEOCEEDDfGS, 

Bye Meeting, 27th Apeil, 1895. 
NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM, SOUTH KENSINGTON. 

The Members were received in the Great Hall by Sir William 
Flower, the Director of the Museum, and were then conducted 
through the galleries devoted to the collection of fossil Vertebrata 
by Dr. Henry Woodward, Director of the Geological Department, 
who drew special attention to the great cast of the iguanodon's 
skeleton which has recently been set up. The iguanodon, he said, 
was a huge lizard-like reptile which flourished in the Secondary 
period. It stood neariy twenty feet high as it hopped or waddled 
along, kangaroo-fashion, on its hind-legs, while the thumbs of its 
short fore-Hmbs were each furnished with a nail, spur, or spine, 
a foot long. In spite of this formidable armature and its vast 
bulk, it was not a beast of prey, but a harmless vegetable-feeder, 
while its feet, ankles, pelvis, and in fact its whole organization, 
are remarkably bird-like in structure and arrangement. The 
great difficulties to be encountered in obtaining the skeletons 
of these enormous fossils were mentioned by Dr. Woodward, who 
stated that the fossil skeletons of these iguanodons were found 
at a depth of one thousand feet from the surface of the ground 
in a coal-mine in Belgium, and two years were spent in bringing 
them to the light of day; a cast of one of the skeletons was 
taken at great expense by the authorities of one of the American 
museums; and for a replica of this cast the British Government 
gave in exchange a mammoth with tusks eleven feet long, a mega- 
therium (the great extinct sloth), and a mastodon, which were 
worth together some thousands of pounds. 

In connection with this subject it was then pointed out by 
Mr. Arthur Stradling, the conductor of this meeting, how a 
scientific discovery may ajffoct the monetary vcilue of a fossil or a 
fossil- impression. Certain fossilized tridactylous footprints in the 
Connecticut Red Sandstone, had, he said, until a short time ago, been 
accepted as those of some gigantic bird. The creature, whatever it 
was, had evidently walked across soft mud which had subsequently 
hardened into stone without being disturbed, for on some of the 
slabs were the pits produced by the rain-drops of a shower which 
was falling at the time. But the geological formation in which 
these footprints were found was long antecedent to that which had 
hitherto been considered to be coincident with the earliest appear- 
ance of birds, even in the early stage of their evolution when they 
were tooth-bearing and featherless. Much discussion naturally 
arose from this, and the square half-yards of stone so impressed 
had found eager purchasers at the rate of 200 guineas per footstep. 
It had, however, now been shown that this great three-toed, 
bird-footed lizard of the Belgian coal-mine — the iguanodon which 
Dr. Woodwald had just described — belonged to a race which must 
at one time have reigned as the dominant type over almost the 
whole surface of the earth, and in its bipedal walk must have left 



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SESSION 1694-95. Ixiii 

footprints absolutely identical with those of apparent but spurious 
avian origin ; and as there is nothing whatever anomalous in the 
geological position of this iguanodon, the market value of these 
footprints has fallen to a few shillings each. 

Mr. Stradling then conducted the members to the Osteological 
(JaUery on the top floor of the Museum, where he gave a running 
commentary on the various groups of animals existing at the 
present day, represented in this room by their skeletons only, 
with special reference to the likeness or contrast presented by 
their feet, horns, antlers, tusks, etc. The collection of human 
skulls and skeletons was taken first and compared with the similar 
collections representing the larger apes, which are placed in 
close juxtaposition. The scientitic study of ** criminology," from 
the shape of the head and of certain bones, which has recently 
come into vogue, was then mentioned, as well as a late extra- 
ordinary discovery with respect to ** giantism." It has been 
found that a little gland at the base of the skull, called the 
pituitary body, for which no use is known, but which seems to 
be functional in the lower vertebrates and to diminish in impor- 
tance as we ascend in the scale, until its uselessness would appear 
to reach a climax in man, in all cases of abnormal development 
becomes enlarged, and the question has been broached as to 
whether it might not be susceptible to external influence. Gigantic 
growth, ho said, is an accident of the individual ; it is not 
hereditary, aod seems rarely to commence until the age of thirteen. 

The entire tour of the gallery was made, Mr. StradUng lightening 
his discourse with many illustrative anecdotes and reminiscences. 
The larger skeletons in the wing of the gallery were examined 
under exceptional advantages, as permission had been obtained 
for the barrier to be taken down expressly for the Society. 



Field Meeting, 11th Ma.t, 1895. 
TEWIN AND PANSHANGER. 

A numerous party, including members from Watford, St. Albans, 
Harpenden, Hitchin, and Wormley, assembled at Welwyn Station 
at half-past 3, and, under the direction of Mr. Hopkinson, walked 
into Tewin Water Park, taking, by permission of the Earl of 
Limerick, a private path through the wood by the side of the 
Eiver Mimram. The weather being hot and bright, the privilege 
of a cool and shady walk was much appreciated. 

On entering the grounds of Tewin Water House, the members 
were received by the Earl and Cotmtess of Limerick, who very 
kindly and quite unexpectedly invited them in and provided 
refreshments, after which another pretty walk was taken by 
the river and through the woods, Lord Limerick accompanying the 
party and pointing out some of the finest trees, especially 
the weU-grown service-trees near the house, and the avenues of 
beech-trees which run in different directions forming a kind 
of pattern. The ash-trees also are particularly fine. 



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bdv PEOCEEDHTGS, 

On leaving the park a copse was passed through, and a field- 
path was taken to Tewin Church. Here the chief object of 
attraction is the singular tomb of Lady Anne Grimston (oh, 1710). 
From beneath it grow seven ash-trees, apparently springing from 
one root, and three sycamores, which cilso seem to be similarly 
connected. These trees have lifted and broken the stonework 
of the tomb, and the iron railings which enclose it, pressing 
against the stems of the trees, are in some plfiwjes so completely 
embedded in the wood that they could not possibly be severed 
from it. In fact the trees have grown around the iron. These 
old railings are now enclosed within a fence of new ones. There is 
a popular legend connected with this tomb, as with all similar 
tombs, but it is so absurd, and in this case so completely without 
foundation, that it would not be worth notice were it not that 
thousands of people visit the tomb every year in the firm con- 
viction that Lady Anne Grimston was an unbeliever, and thus, in 
substituting a supernatural for an evident natural cause of the 
destruction of her tomb, they do injustice to the memory of a 
pious lady. 

The Church (St. Peter's) was entered, but it presents very little 
of interest. The interior was partly restored in the year 1864. 

Arrangements had been made for tea at Lower Green, but they 
were not earned out, and the party walked on across the meadows 
and over Harden Hill, through the beautiful lime-tree avenue, 
to the River Mimram again. Panshanger Park was then entered, 
and the walk through this beautifully-undulating and richly-wooded 
park to the Cole Green Lodge was much enjoyed. Some of the 
trees near this lodge are very old and quite hollow, but still leafing 
freely. 

Tea was partaken of at the Cowper Arms, near the station, and 
it was so promptly and well provided without previous notice 
that the falling through of the arrangements at Tewin was by 
no means regretted. 



Field Meeting, 8th Juhe, 1895. 

GREAT GADDESDEN, NETTLEDEN, AND FRITHSDEN. 

It had been intended to hold a Field Meeting once a fortnight 
during May and June, and this one was first arranged for the 25th 
of May. Special arrangements having to be made for reduced 
railway fare, carriages, and tea, members were requested in the 
circular announcing the meeting to intimate their intention of 
taking part in it, but so few responded to this request that it was 
thought advisable to postpone the meeting, and the result was 
that instead of the party being only six, as it would have been on 
the earlier date, it was twenty-six. This was a larger number 
than had been expected, for several who came had not written, 
and on arriving at Berkhamsted Station at about three o'clock 
it was found that there was not sufficient carriage accommodation, 



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Traru. Hertf Nat. Hiit. Soe., Vol. VIII, Plate XV. 



Tomb of Lady Anne Grimston at Tewin. 



The Rn'ER Gade at Water End. 

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SESSION 1894-95. Ixv 

causing a considerable delay before the party could start for the 
drive across the Common to Water End. Usually at this time 
of the year the goi-se on Berkhamsted Common is in full bloom, 
but it was only here and there that a few blossoms were seen, for 
the gorse on our commons had this year nearly all been killed by 
the severe frost of February, masses of dingy brown taking the 
place of the usual blaze of golden yellow. 

On arriving at Water End, a village which is prettily situated 
on the River Gade where the road is carried over it by a handsome 
stone bridge, the carriages were left, and the party crossed the 
meadows by the side of the river to Great Gaddesden, noticing on 
the way the numerous springs issuing from the chalk which supply 
water to water-cress beds, and thence augment the volume of the 
river. 

At Great Gaddesden Church the members were met by the Vicar, 
the Rev. W. T. Tyrwhitt Drake, and under his guidance the chief 
objects of interest in the church were examined. It is an Early 
English edifice, probably erected on the site of an earlier church, 
for at the time of the Conquest, according to Domesday Book, 
there was a priest at Gaddesden, and there was a vicarage here 
before the year 1255, when the records of the See of Lincoln 
commence. Most of the monuments in the church are to members 
of the Halsey family, which has been settled at Gaddesden for 
many generations. The Halsey chapel, built about the year 1730, 
is on the north side of the chancel. In the year 1877 the wall 
separating it from the chancel was pulled down and in its place 
two open arches were erected by Mr. T. F. Halsey, M.P. for the 
Western Division of Hertfordshire, whose seat, Gaddesden Place, 
is beautifully situated on the opposite hill. The tower of the 
church, which was rebuilt not many years ago, has a beacon at 
the north-east angle. The nave is broad and has a fine oak roof. 
The capitals of the four arches south of the nave are very hand- 
somely carved in foliage and flowers. The registers, which were 
shown by the Vicar, date from the year 1559, and are in a good 
state of preservation. 

Accompanied by Mr. Tyrwhitt Drake the party then walked 
over the hill, along the lane which marks the county boundary, 
to Nettleden in Buckinghamshire (now transferred to Hertford- 
shire), and its pretty little church was visited, the chief features 
of interest in it being pointed out by Mr. Drake, who, on leaving 
the party, was cordially thanked for his kind attention. 

Nettleden is picturesquely situated in a dry chalk valley in 
which probably once ran a stream ; and from it another hill was 
crossed by a field-path leading by the side of a curiously -constructed 
hollow way, and by a somewhat steep descent on the other side, 
the next village, Frithsden, was reached. Here, in a shady spot 
under the shelter of a wood (Frithsden Copse) on the next hill- 
side, tea was partaken of, most satisfactorily provided from the 
village inn. 

A pleasant walk through Frithsden Copse and across the Common 



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Ixvi PEOCEBDINGS, 

brought the members to Berkhamsted station, where they separated 
for their respective destinations. 

The following ornithological notes are contributed by Mr. Alan 
F. Grossman : — 

**I think nearly the only thing worth mentioning from the 
ornithological point of view is about the dabchick. I saw three 
nests of this bird, but did not ascertain the number of eggs in any 
case. They were all on the Gade at Water End. I watched the 
hen bird (?) leave each nest, and only in one case were any of the 
eggs uncovered. In all the other nests the birds covered the eggs 
with dead leaves or weeds before leaving, using the beak to do so. 
I might mention that the bird also uncovers the eggs with her beak, 
laying each piece of weed or leaf on the edge of the nest to have 
it at hand to use again. I did not, however, see the bird uncover 
the eggs on this occasion, but a fortnight ago I watched one doing 
so at the same place. 

** The garden- warbler seemed not uncommon about Potton End, 
although I am led to believe that in some parts of the county it is 
comparatively scarce. The nightingale seemed very nearly to have 
finished singing, showing that in most cases young birds had been 
hatched. I only heard one all the afternoon. Mr. Brown told me 
that he thought he heard the nightjar once during the afternoon." 

The meeting was under the direction of Mr. Hopkinson. 



Field Meeting, 15th June, 1895. 
LUTON HOO. 

A considerable number of members assembled at the New Mill 
End Lodge of Luton Hoo Park, where they were met by Mr. 
James Saunders, of Luton, the Director of the meeting. Several 
others, who arrived later, only joined the main party at the close 
of the meeting. 

The chief feature of Luton Hoo Park is the lake, which is an 
artificially-widened portion of the River Lea, a mile and a quarter 
in length and a tenth of a mile in width at the widest part. The 
lodge at which the park was entered is at the lower end of the 
lake, and just below it the embanking of the lake has caused 
a waterfall to be formed. This was first inspected, and then the 
members walked by the side of the lake in the direction of Luton, 
crossed the foot-bridge at its upper end, and returned on the 
right-hand bank as far as the island. This is a wild spot, over- 
grown with verdure, where Nature is left to do as she likes, the 
trees being allowed to grow, and fall, and rot without interference, 
so that it was quite a paradise for the naturalists, the most 
enthusiastic of whom spent a considerable time on the island. 

Through the kindness of His Excellency, Monsieur de Falbe, 
the pleasure-grounds, gardens, and conservatories were then 
visited by those who did not consider the island to be a greater 
attraction. 



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SESSION 1894-95. Ixvii 

Before lea\dng the park, tea was partaken of by most of the 
party at the New Mill End Lodge. 

Mr. Saunders reports that he found on the island or in the 
woods around the lake the Mycetozoa Lycogala epidendron, Stemo- 
nitu fusca, var. confluens (an unusually large growth of a rare 
form), and Trichia varia. He also reports the finding of the 
following flowering plants : — Ervum hirsutum, Samhucus ehulus^ 
JEippurU vulgaris^ Symphytum tuberosum, and Carex leporina. 
And in the lake he found the following fresh -water MoUusca: — 
Spharium comeum, Anodonta cygnea, Planorhis carinatuSf P, aymeus, 
Limnaa peregra, L, auricularis^ and L stagnalis. 

The finding of Helix pomatia led to a discussion as to the 
probability of Luton Hoo having been a Koman station; but 
although the apple- snail is found near many ancient encampments, 
it is most probably a truly indigenous species which the Eomans 
no doubt used as an article of food, having been accustomed to 
partake of the representative species, H. lucorum, in Italy. 

In addition to the plants recorded by Mr. Saunders, the 
following are the more interesting species which were noticed : — 
£uonymus europaus (spindle-tree), Trifolium striatum, Hippuris 
vulgaris (in the water), Serophularia aquatica^ 8. nodosa. Iris 
pseudacorus, I. fatidissima (the former in flower, the latter not yet 
in bud), Polygonatum multijlorum (Solomon's seal), and the Carices 
C, ripariOf C. acutiformis, C, hirta, and C. glauca, 

Moor-hens with their young were seen on the lake, and the 
sedge-warbler was heard, evidently being present in considerable 
numbers. 

Field Meeting, 22nd June, 1895. 
DUNSTABLE AND TOTTERNHOE. 

This meeting was organized by the Geologists' Association of 
London, and was under the direction of Mr. WiUiam Hill, F.G.S., 
of Hitchin, a member of the Geologists' Association as well as of 
the Hertfordshire Natural History Society. The place of meeting 
was the London and North- Western station at Dunstable, whence 
the members of the two Societies, numbering about forty, and 
each Society being equally represented, walked over the Downs to 
Tottemhoe, visiting on the way the extensive quarries of Messrs. 
Forder & Co. in the Grey Chalk, which forms the upper portion of 
the Lower Chalk, its position being between the Tottemhoe Stone 
and the Melbourne Rock, the base of which was seen at the top of 
one of the quarries. The chalk here is quarried to be burnt into 
lime. 

Maiden Bower, which seems most probably to have been an old 
British camp, was then visited, and its chief features of interest 
were pointed out by Mr. Worthington Smith. It forms a level 
plain, about nine acres in area, nearly circular, and enclosed by 
a vallum, the banks of which were stated by Britton and Bray ley 
at the beginning of the present century (* Beauties of England and 



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Ixviii 



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SESSION 1894-95. Ixix 

^STales,' vol. i, p. 29) to be from eight to fourteen feet high, but 
are now very little raised above the general surface of the ground. 

The principal object of the meeting was then carried out, and 
that was to see an example of the ancient quarries of the Tottemhoe 
Stone, which consisted of galleries tunnelled under Tottemhoe 
Knoll. It is probable that these quarries were worked at least 
as early as the time of the Norman Conquest. In many Hertford- 
shire churches early Norman decorative work is of this stone, 
which is excellent for interiors, admitting of very fine carving, 
but is of too perishable a nature for exteriors, as may bo seen by 
the present state of the west front of Dunstable Priory Church, 
which was inspected later in the day. 

Most of the tunnels which have been worked for this stone for 
centuries, up to a comparatively recent period, are now closed by 
fallen debris, and even their entrances are concealed by having 
become grassed over, but one of them was recently re-opened by 
Messrs. De Beringer and Gower, the owners of the large quarries 
at present worked at Tottemhoe. Permission for the party to 
enter this tunnel had been kindly granted by them, and men 
with lamps conducted the greater number of those present, in 
several separate parties, through the tunnel and some -of its 
ramifications for a distance of more than 100 yards in a direct line 
under the hill. 

The quarries which are at present being worked were then 
visited, and several fossils were obtained from the Tottemhoe Stone, 
including part of the jaw of a saurian, with the teeth in position. 
Mr. HiU states that ** Messrs. De Beringer and Co., by means of a 
trial shaft, have proved the bed of Tottemhoe Stone to be at least 
32 feet thick " where these fossils were obtained, and that ** blocks 
equal in quality for building purposes to those seen in the pit were 
obtained at the bottom of their shaft." (* Proc. Geol. Assoc.,' 
vol. xiv, p. 194.) 

Returning across the Downs, Dunstable Priory Church was 
visited. It is but a small remnant of the original Priory. ** The 
glory of Dunstable," say Britton and Brayley, **wa8 its once 
celebrated priory, yet of this extensive building little remains but 
the part now appropriated for the parish church, and a few frag- 
ments in the adjoining wall. It was founded by Henry the First, 
about the year 1131, for black csmons, in honour of St. Peter. . . . 
The priory church was originally in the form of a cross, with a 
tower in the centre, supported by four lofty arches, parts of which, 
belonging to the two western pillars, still remain ; these are of 
a large size, with clustered columns, surmounted with hexagonal 
capitals." ('Beauties of England and Wales,' vol. i, p. 19.) 

But by far the most interesting portion of the church is the 
west front, the whole of the ornamental work in which is carved 
out of Tottemhoe Stone from the ancient workings which had just 
been visited. ** The west front," the same writers say, '* has 
been considered as * one of our great national curiosities,' from its 
singular intermixture of circular and pointed arches, and the curious 



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IXX PROCEEDINGS, 

manner in which its ornaments are arranged. The great doors had 
four pillars on each side, with Saxon capitals supporting five 
mouldings, the outermost of which is ornamented with zigzag 
work ; the second has angels and foliage in alternate ovals ; the 
third, heasts' heads, jessant foliage ; the fourth, a spread eagle and 
the signs of the Zodiac, of which Pisces and Capricorn still remain; 
the fifth, flowers, etc. The capitals have David playing on the 
harp, a figure prostrate to him ; a bishop in pontificalihus^ with 
mitre and crosier, and a bearded man in a cap ; two more bearded 
men hold a scroll perpendicularly, on whose top is a headless beast, 
etc. The lesser door has seven mouldings, on five pillars exclusive 
of the inner, composed of roses and laced work, and nail-headed 
quatrefoils. The arch between the two doors is half a zigzag and 
half a straight moulding, and the interlaced arches within it rest 
on capitals charged wiOi grotesque figures ; one seems to have 
a number of souls and a devil. The space over the small door is 
ornamented by various compartments displaying flowers. Above 
the doors are three rows of arches : the first consists of seven flat 
arches, with pedestals for statues ; the second of six small and two 
large, open to a gallery leading to the bell-tower, with a seventh 
arch between the latter, placed over the door, all on treble clustered 
pillars. The third row has five pointed flat arches with single 
pillars. Over the west door, under the arch, are three ornamental 
niches ; and under the west windows of the tower are four roses 
in squares. *' {Loo, cit., pp. 19, 20.) 

The church was entered, but the interior features have not the 
same interest, from a geological point of view at least, as that 
attaching to the exterior of the building. 

The members of the Hertfordshire Society then left from the 
Great Northern station, a few minutes' walk from the church, 
the members of the Geologists' Association leaving by a later train 
after having tea in Dunstable. 



Field Meeting, 19th October, 1895. 

THE GROVE, WATFORD. 

"When a naturalist settles down to work in his study, he knows 
exactly the amount of material at his command, and under such 
circumstances he has not the charm of uncertainty, and possibility 
of a pleasant surprise, so often experienced by the somewhat 
despised collector. Undoubtedly the type of collector who has 
no ultimate object in view cannot claim much sympathy from 
the true stcident of nature; but, on the other hand, every true 
student of nature must be a collector, otherwise his field of view 
must necessarily be narrow, and his power of comparison imperfect, 
owing to a lack of the knowledge pertaining to the habits and 
mode of life of the particular group of organisms in which he 
is interested. Every ramble in the country adds to the know- 
ledge of the student of nature, and although it must be admitted 



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frans. Herts Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. VI JI, Plate XVI. 



Part of West Front of Dunstable Church. 

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SESSION 1894-95. Ixxi 

that when a person starts with the object of collecting funiii, 
and visits suitable localities, and at the proper season, he naturally 
expects to find at least a certain number, even if the primary- 
object is not realized the attempt is not a failure, as might at 
first sight be considered. In fact, such partial disappointments 
often lead to unexpected results; meteoric conditions and other 
factors likely to account in some manner for the unexpected 
results are carefully noted, and in course of time repeated obser- 
vations show that what was at first considered as an anomaly 
resolves itself into a law. 

Whether this problem had been worked out by the members 
of the Hertfordshire Natural History Society, and as a body 
they were assured in their own minds that few or no fungi could 
be found in the autumn of 1895, is not certain; but probably 
such was the case, for, during the early part of the day set apart 
for the annual fimgus foray, only Mr. Hopkinson and Mr. Massee, 
with one of the Earl of Clarendon's keepers, rambled through 
Grove Park and Woods in search of fungi. 

The almost entire absence of fungi during the first hour's search 
seemed to suggest the condition of things already noted; but on 
entering Grove Park the first surprise of the day manifested 
itself. Numerous objects scattered amongst the grass under an 
oak-tree attracted attention, and very soon specimens of the rarest 
and most interesting of British fungi — Strohilomyces strohilacetcsy 
Berk. — ^ere being carefully packed for future study. This species 
was established by Berkeley on a specimen found near Ludlow 
many years ago; afterwards a second specimen was collected in 
Wyre Forest, near Worcester; and the present discovery is of 
much interest as indicating the tenacity of a fungus belonging 
to an antiquated and primitive type having its headquarters in 
Western Australia. 

A second rare species — Collyhia longipes^ Bull. — was also found 
in the same park in considerable abundance. 

The real importance attaching to the discoveries indicated above 
can only be appreciated to its full extent by those interested 
in the sequence and evolution of life on the globe ; and to gain an 
insight into this most fascinating subject the study of fungi may 
be strongly recommended. 

But although in the morning the search for fungi was carried 
on by only two members of the Society, in the afternoon they 
were joined by several others, but not by all who came, for the 
St. Albans contingent, owing to their train being late, never 
found the Watford members, who duly met the Directx)r and 
Keferee at the appointed hour and place. 

The Editor has to thank Mr. Msissee for the foregoing remarks 
on the collection of fungi, and on the rare species found, and also 
for the following list which embodies the results of the day's 
collecting, all but two or three of the species having been found 
in the morning. Those now first recorded for Hertfordshire are 
indicated by an asterisk. 



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Ixxii 



PROCEEDINGS. 



Hymenomycetes. 

Agaricus (Amanita) phalloides, Fr. 

„ (Lepiota) procenis, ticop, 

,, ,, rachodes, Vitl. 

,, ,, hispidxw. Lasch. 

,, ,, lenticularis, La^ch,^ 

,, (Arraillaria) melleus, Vahl. 

,, (Tricholoma) sejunctus, Sow. 

,, yy albo-brunneus, Pera. 

,, (Collybia) longipes, Bull. 

,, (Clitocybe) ela vines, Fr. 

,, ,, pithyopnilus, Fr, 

,, „ tuba, Fr. 

,, ,, laccatus, Scap. 

,, (Mycena) purus, Pers. 

,, ,, poly^^raramus, BuU. 

,, ,, peltrttus, Fr.* 

,, (OmphaliaJ striiepileus, Fr.* 

,, ,, campanella, batsch. 

,, (Inocybe) asterosponis, Qnelet. 

,, (Galera) tener, Schaeff. 

,, „ bypnorura, Batsch. 

,, (Hypholonia) velutinus, Pers, 

,, ,, hydropbilus, Bull. 

Oortinarius talxis, Fries * 
Hy^opborus limacinus, Fr.* 



Lactarius turpis, Fr, 

,, contro versus, Pers.* 
Bussula sardonia, Fr.* 

,, fracjilis, Pers. 
Marasmius oreades, Fr. 

,, peronatus, Bolton, 
Panus concbatus, Fr.* 
I^enzites tiaccida, Bull.* 
Tremella mesent^rica, Betz. 

,, versicolor, Berk.* 
Dacryomyces deliqueseens, Buhy. 
Clavaria cinerea, Bull.* 
Thelepbora laciniata, Pers, 
Corticium radiot*um, Fr,* 

,, molle, Fr. 

,, lividum, Pers,* 

,, comedens, Fr, 
Stereum hirsutum, Fr. 
Merulius serpens, To(U.* 
Polyporus bispidus, Fr.* 

,, adustus, Fr. 
Strobilomyces strobilaceus, Bei'k.* 
Boletus cbrysenteron. Fr. 

,, variecolor, B. ^ Br. 

D1SCOMYCETB8. 
Peziza brunnea, A. ^ S, 



The thanks of the Society are due to the Earl of Ckrendon for 
kindly allowing the members free access to his woods and park. 



With Tcry great regret the Editor here records the death of the 
Earl of Limerick and of Monsieur De Falbe, to both of whom 
the Society is indebted for kind assistance at the Field Meetings 
in 1895, the former at Tewin Water and the latter at Luton Hoo. 



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Trans, fferts Nat, EUt. Soe., Vol. VIII, Plate I. 




ANCIENT BRONZE IMPLEMENTS. 

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TEANSACnONS 

OF THB 

HERTFORDSHIRE NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY. 

I. 

THE BRONZE AGE. 

By Sm John Evajts, K.C.B., D.C.L.. LL.D., Sc.D., Trea8.R.S., 
V.P.S.A., etc. 

The iubttanee of a Lecture delivered at Waifordy lUh November^ 1893. 

PLATES I-III. 

As your President has informed you, I was appealed to in the 
most touching manner to give some kind of an opening lecture at the 
beginning of the present session of this Society. No subject purely 
within the province of Natural History seemed available for me, 
but on loolang at the subjects included within the scope of the 
Society I found that one of them was Pre-historic Archaeology, 
of which you have an official Recorder. 

Now Pre-historic Archaeology is a comparatively wide term, and 
embraces aU those phases of human civilization which took place 
prior to the advent of written history in any given country, and I 
think it is well for any Natural History Society to embrace Pre- 
historic Archaeology within its scope, for, after all, of all created 
animals, man claims the first place, and anjrthing that relates to 
the history and development of man and of human civilization ought 
to be of interest to all, and specially to those who are students of 
natural history. 

1 will not apologise in any way for selecting such a subject, but 
I may say, in the words of an old Roman author, '' I am a man, 
and I regard nothing human as foreign to me," or I may quote 
one of our English poets, and say, 

*' The proper study of mankind is man.'* 

My lecture will be confined to only one of those periods into 
which Pre-historic Archaeology has been divided — the Bronze 
Period. The question naturally arises — What do we mean by the 
Bronze Period r 

In the first place, what is bronze ? Bronze is an alloy of copper 
and tin in certain proportions — about nine parts of copper to one of 

VOL. Vm. — PABT I. 1 



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2 Sm JOHN EYANfl — THE BBjOKSE AGE. 

tin, — ^which produces a comparatively hard and malleable metal, 
and the name of bronze is derived from a source which will not at 
once be obvious to all. We often, in fact eveiy week we hear 
of men making the passage to India by Brindisi. The old name for 
Brindisi was Brundusium, as all who have read their Horace will 
be well aware; and there is a metal, consisting in the main of 
copper and tin, which was known as Brundusian metal, and irom 
that came the word ** bronze." The Bronze Period is that which 
is characterized by the use of that particular alloy of copper and 
tin. In order to make this clear I must go into the question of 
the division of pre- historic times. "We find, if we trace the 
progress of man backwards in time, that, though we might call the 
present day the age of steel, of printing, of gunpowder, or what 
not, yet that, going a little farther back, the principal tools and 
weapons or other implements in use were not so much made of 
steel as of iron, and looking farther back still, that the iron tools 
superseded the use of those made of another metal — ^bronze. In 
a similar manner we find bronze weapons coming in and super- 
seding the stone weapons which were in use when no metal what- 
ever was known for cutting purposes. "We must not, however, 
suppose that at what may be termed the close of the Stone Period 
the use of stone entirely went out. Even at the present day we 
find stone used, not only for the purpose of striking a light, but by 
the modem carpenter as a scraping tool in the modified form of 
a broken bit of glass. 

In the same way as stone survived for special purposes when it 
had gone out of genend use in consequence of bronze having come 
in as the material for cutting tools, so also when bronze went out of 
use it still to some extent survived, partly for ornamental purposes 
and partly for religious and ceremonial uses : for in all cases and in 
all countries we find that the religious ceremonials continue and 
preserve the usage of former times in a manner which no other 
usages do. Those Ages, as I said before, overlap one another, 
though they are as distinct as the three principal colours of the 
spectrum, while, like them, they blend and intermingle, so that 
it is hard indeed to say where one ends and the other begins. 

"We have, in addition to the minor monuments discovered in 
the soil, historical testimony as to the succession of these three 
Ages. A great presumed authority on Homer, no less a person 
than our former Prime Minister, Mr. Gladstone, has said that 
the poet lived at a time when the use of iron was just com- 
mencing, when the commodity was rare and its value very 
great ; and Hesiod looks back with an admiring envy from 
his Iron Age to the Heroic period, and in glowing terms 
depicts a time when iron was not known and all implements 
were made of bronze. Lucretius, in a well-known passage, states 
that the ancient arms were the hands, nails, and teeth, as well as 
stones, and occasionally branches torn from the trees. Afterwards 
the power of iron was discovered, but, he adds, the use of bronze 
was earlier than that of iron. There is also a very curious 



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SIB JOHir EYANS — THE BBONZE A6B. 3 

memorial of this use of bronze surviving in the Greek language. 
A blacksmith, a man who works in iron, is called, even in classic 
times, a chalkeus, a man who works in bronze, showing that the 
name still survived when iron had supplanted bronze. In religious 
ceremonies we find numerous instances of bronze survii-ing. 
The Tuscans, when they laid out the boundary of a new city, 
employed bronze for the ploughshare ; the knives and shears 
used in ceremonial performances by the Romans were made of 
bronze ; and Medea and Elissa are said to have reaped their 
harvests with bronze sickles. Though iron came into use in Italy 
at least 600 years before Christ, bronze survived for battle-axes 
and spears to a much later period. It is hard to say when iron 
was first introduced into Egypt, but its use does not go back to the 
earliest period of Egyptian history, and probably to not farther than 
1300 or 1400 years B.C. It was in use in Egypt earlier than in 
Greece. An early Greek writer, writing B.C. 100, gives an account 
of bronze wedges being used in ancient Egyptian gold mines, and 
he subsequently refers to other bronze antiquities. It is now 
thought that bronze and copper were in use in Egypt probably 
nearly 4000 years before Christ. In the course of my remarks 
I sludl call attention to a very remarkable spear-head of bronze 
from Egypt, belonging to a period somewhere between the days 
of Joseph and of Moses. 

But between the Bronze and Iron Ages we have a certain tran- 
sitional period, from which some examples have been found in 
Austria, in the neighbourhood of Halstatt. About 2U00 graves 
have there been examined, and in them were found implements, 
not only of bronze but also of iron, which in form and character 
had apparently been modelled on those of bronze. 

Except in the metal, there is no difference between the bronze 
sword and the iron one which succeeded it. In our own country 
we have antiquities to which Mr. (now Sir Wollaston) Franks has 
given the name of Late Celtic, which belong to a time when 
iron had come into general use, but prior to the Roman occupation 
of this country. 

Bronze, as I have said before, is a composite metal of copper 
and tin, and a natural inference would be that at some period of 
the world's existence there must have been a Copper Age. Of 
that Copper Age we have in Europe but very little trace. However, 
in India, where it seems probable that the bronze civilization of 
Egypt and Europe originated, a number of copper implements have 
been found, consisting of axes and other tools or weapons in their 
simplest form. Some copper tools have occasionally been found in 
other countries, and the question has arisen whether this is not 
due to the scarcity of tin rather than to the fact that copper was 
in use prior to bronze. A Copper Age has been claimed for 
Hungary, but there the copper implements belong to a late period 
in the Bronze Age, and it appears that the softer metal was 
probably preferable to bronze for the particular purposes to which 
these implements were applied. 



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4 SIB JOHN ETAirS — ^THE BBONZE AGE. 

The question lias arisen — ^Whence did the ancients, whether here, 
or in Egypt, or elsewhere, derive their tin ? The Egyptians, in 
all probability, obtained it from the East. Here, not improbably, 
the tin was procured from Cornwall, where we know that there 
was an early commerce for tin, even in Phoenician times. 

Homer gives an account of bronze casting; that is to say, he 
gives an account of men throwing into the fire the indomitable 
copper, and tin with it. The properties of the alloys of copper 
and tin are very remarkable ; a certain amount of tin, up to ten 
per cent., adds materially to the heirdness of the metal, without 
injuring its malleability. When, however, the mixture contains a 
larger proportion, 30 or 40 per cent., of the softer and more readily- 
fusible metal, the result is a very hard and very brittle alloy. 
We employ such an alloy for the specula of telescopes, and it is 
known as speculum metal. But the old bronze-founders seem to 
have been aware of the fact that the addition of a greater pro- 
portion than usual of the softer metal hardened the copper, and 
we find hammers and other tools made of this instead of ordinary 
bronze. 

In treating this subject on the present occasion I prefer to 
regard it from the technological point of view. I will describe 
most of the different forms of weapons and instruments, more 
particularly those found in the British Isles, though I may 
occasionally touch upon those found on the continent of Europe. 
In Britain we have a considerable number of tools which were used 
in the arts of peace, some of which, however, were also applicable 
for the purposes of war; but we have in addition others which 
were certainly used as weapons of war, and there are certain 
remains which were strictly personal ornaments. 

As to the methods of manufacturing the different forms, and the 
way in which they were produced, I will speak subsequently ; 
I think it well now to give some general view of the different 
forms of weapons, implements, and ornaments found in this 
country. Besides the diagrams shown on the walls I have brought 
a selection of specimens, which may be inspected after the lecture. 

The first and simplest form is that known as a celt. Celt is a very 
improper word to have ever been used in connection with a tool 
of this kind, for '* celt" in English is derived from the Latin word 
celtUf and that only occurs once in the Book of Job, in the Vulgate 
translation, and is, moreover, merely an error in transcription. But 
it is supposed to mean a chisel, coming from calare, to carve, the 
proper word being calumf and that being confused with the word 
caelum t **the heavens," the word eeltis has been preserved and used 
as the name for these bronze implements. There are various forms 
of these celts. One, as will be seen from Pig. 1, was perfectly 
plain, having its sides and face nearly smooth and fiat, and some- 
what curved longitudinally from end to end; another (Fig. 2) 
will be noticed as having fianges, not unlike the modern rail of 
the railway ; another, known as a palstave, was furnished with a 
groove on either side ending in a well-defined stop-ridge and with 



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am JOHK EYAirS — THE BBONZE AGE. 

projecting wings, sometimes with and sometimes without a side- 
loop (see Figs. 3 and 4) j and lastly, one furnished with a socket 
for the reception of the haft and with a loop at the side, is 
known as a socketed celt. One of these is shown in Fig. 5. 
The general purpose for which they were used seems to have 
heen that of an ordinary axe or hatchet. They are found in 
several stages, from a large size, evidently that of the original 
casting, down to a much smaller size, when they had been worn 
down by use, and by grinding, and possibly repaired after portions 
had been broken on. These implements are found over the whole 
of Europe. They also occur, though rarely, in Asia, and I have 
seen specimens from China and Yun-nan, The earliest celts are 
nearly flat and plain at the sides, and were no doubt modelled 
from those in stone. Here is a stone hatchet from Denmark and 
a bronze hatchet from Cyprus. As regards the face and sides they 
are almost identical in form, and the probability is that that of 
metal was brought in as a substitute for that of stone. 

At this point it may be well to consider the probable origin of 
copper implements. Copper, found in its native state, can be 
hammered into shape. We can understand a savage regarding 
a lump of native copper as a stone, trying to chip it into shape, 
and finding that by blows of his stone hammer he could shape it. 
As a perfect illustration of this, we find in America and Canada 
tools and weapons, hammered by means of stone hammers out of 
native copper, which have reached the required shape probably 
without the intervention of fire. Frequently European celts were 
ornamented on the face with very delicate hammered markings, 
giving them in some cases a surface having the appearance of 
Morocco leather. The earlier forms were mounted by being 
inserted in a wooden dub, but it was found that they acted 
as wedges and tended to split the handle, so a stop-ridge was 
introduced; and at last they reached the palstave form, ^vith a 
strong cross-ridge, which absolutely prevented their being driven 
in further than was intended. The sides were sometimes drawn 
out by hammering, thus forming flanged celts, and in some cases 
the flanges themselves were bent over. 

The next form after the flanged celt was the palstave. The 
term is Scandinavian in origin, a kind of hoe somewhat similar to 
these bronze implements, called a paalstab, being still in use in 
Iceland. The word paalstab is derived from pali to dig, " pall " 
(like the French pelle and Latin pala) meaning a kind of spade. 
The same word still survives in England in ** peel," the kind of 
wooden shovel used by bakers for putting the loaves into the oven. 
" Stab" is equivalent to our staff. The word paalstab occurs in 
the Sagas, and is applied to one of the weapons used for battering 
the shields of the enemy. The flanges were gradually hammered 
over more and more till they formed a kind of socket on either side 
of the blade, and at last some clever founder discovered a way of 
casting one with a single socket, and thus produced the socketed celt, 
the latest fomu We find the flanges of ^e palstave still surviving 



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6 8IK JOHN ETAW8 — THE BBONZE AGE. 

in many cases on the outside of the socketed celt, although the 
necessity for them had disappeared. Most of the socketed celts 
were provided, like some of the palstaves, with a loop on the side 
for the insertion of strings to bind them to the handle. To haft 
any of these celts involved finding a branch of a tree which entered 
another one at right angles. 

Besides the forms already described there was the tanged celt, 
which approached very closely to the modem chisel. A specimen, 
from Wallingford is shown in Fig. 6. Socketed chisels were more 
rare, but several specimens have been found. One from Heathery 
Bum Cave, Durham, is shown in Fig. 7. Besides the ordinary 
straight chisel they made use of the hollow one or gouge, one of 
which is represented in Fig. 8. A number of hammers have been 
discovered made like the socketed celts, so that the handle, instead 
of going through the head, went into it. They have been often 
found in bronze-founders' hoards, in which there were also found 
scraps of old metal, sometimes the moulds in which new objects 
were to be cast, and occasionally the new article in an unfinished 
state. A hammer from the Isle of Harty is shown in Fig. 9. 
Anvils were occasionally found, and doubtless many of the socketed 
hammers were mounted on stakes so as to serve as anvils. Axes 
perforated with a hole for the reception of the handle, after the 
present method of hafting, have not yet been discovered in England, 
although several have been found on the continent. Knives were 
of course in use, the ordinary form being straight, double-edged, 
and fitted with a socket, through which passed one or two rivets, 
as will be seen from Fig. 10. Another form had a flat tang, 
sometimes provided with rivets like Fig. 11, and sometimes with 
a ribbed tang merely driven into the handle. Single-edged blades, 
like those in use at the present time, are very rare in England, 
although common on the continent. Occasionally a human figure 
formed part of the handle, and sometimes a ring was dexterously 
cast upon it. Implements which have been looked upon as razors 
have also been found, so that it seems probable that the people of 
the Bronze Age shaved. A double-edged curved blade with a tang 
and a perforation through the blade was the usual form in this 
country, like that from Wallingford (Fig. 12). The blades were 
frequently ornamented in a very artistic manner. Very few saws 
have as yet been discovered in England, although severed specimens 
have been found on the continent. I have one in which the teeth 
are pyramidal and broader than the back of the blade, so that 
it cleared itself in sawing. Files of bronze have been found, but 
they belong to a late period, and none have as yet been discovered 
in England. Awls are found amongst the earliest implements; 
they were apparently used for sewing. In Denmark a ladies* 
housewife of that period consisted of an awl, a pair of tweezers, 
and a knife. The awl was used for boring holes in the leather, 
through which the thread was passed and caught by the tweezers, 
and of course the knife was used to cut it off. These appliances 
are rarely found in this country. 



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Trans, Herts Nat. Hist. Soe., Vol, VIII, Plate 11, 




ANCIENT BRONZE IMPLEMENTS. 

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SOL JOHN ETAirS — THE BRONZE AGS. 7 

"We have evidence that the people at that time were acquainted 
"with some kind of grain, and that they reaped it in the manner which 
Pliny describes as practised by the ancient Gauls, namely, cutting off 
the ears only. In Switzerland a wooden handle designed for a 
bronze sickle has been found. It has recesses cut in it for the four 
fingers as well as for the thumb, thus giving a perfect grasp. A 
socketed sickle from the Thames is shown in Fig. 13. Buttons of 
bronze are frequently found, and fish-hooks have turned up very 
similar to those in use at the present day. Among the earliest 
forms of weapons which were used in the Bronze Age are small 
daggers, of which it is hard to say whether they were knives or 
daggers, and to which the term knife-daggers has been applied. 
They were sometimes socketed and sometimes tanged, but were 
usually fixed to their handles by two or three rivets. An example 
from a Yorkshire barrow is shown in Fig. 14. One found in one 
of the Wiltshire barrows had the handle decorated by driving 
in tiny gold pins so as to form a delicate pattern, which it 
would be very hard to reproduce at the present day. A copy 
of Hoare's figure of it is given in Fig. 15. 

Passing to weapons of a more purely warlike character, I will 
commence with the sword. The bronze swords have been generally 
regarded as Koman, but long before the Romans appeared in 
England the Britons were well acquainted with iron, and did not 
use bronze swords. As a matter of fact they must belong to a 
much earlier period, being distinctly pre-Roman. They were 
hafted in various ways, the hilt usually being perforated for the 
reception of rivets, by means of which handles of stag-horn, cow- 
horn, or wood were fastened to them. Fig. 16 represents a 
specimen from the Thames. Occasionally they are found with 
bronze hilts. Others were smaller, of rapier-like form, with two 
rivet holes at the base, and these were used more for thrusting 
than cutting. Many were only fitted for piercing, like the modem 
bayonet. 

There is one curious feature about the bronze swords which has 
led to much speculation. Many of them have such small handles 
that the ordinary hand of a modem Englishman is barely capable of 
grasping them, whereas the thin, wiry htind of a Hindoo or other 
Eastern is still able to go between tlje hilt and the pommel. 
From that circumstance it has been inferred that the bronze- 
using people were of small stature with very delicate htinds, and 
resembled what some people term ** our Aryan ancestors." But 
this view cannot be thoroughly substantiated. The large swords 
usually had large handles, into which large hands could go, while 
small swords had but small handles. The handle seems to have been 
adapted to the size of the weapon, just as in these days the whole 
hand can go into the handle of a hand-saw, whereas only two 
fingers will pass into that of a small key-hole saw. The swords were 
apparently kept in wooden sheaths provided with plain bronze chapes, 
which were riveted to the wood. In others the bronze ends for 
the sheaths were provided with two long projections like the fiukes 



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8 SOL JOHN EYAKS — THE BROKZE AGE. 

of an anchor, which seem as if they would catch at once in any 
brushwood the wearer had to march through. Possibly it might 
have been an advantage to catch them in something to enable the 
sword to be withdrawn. 

After the swords come the spear-heads. These were usually 
cast with sockets, so that they belong to a comparatively late 
period, although possibly some of the tanged weapons like daggers 
were used as spear-heads. They are usually leaf-shaped, and 
secured to the shaft by rivets, as in the example given in Fig. 17. 
Another form was provided with two eyes, through which strips 
of leather could be passed to secure it to the shaft, like Fig. 18 ; 
and lastly, there are some with apertures or perforations in the 
blade, intended to serve the same purpose. I have a spear-head, 
found in Ireland, no less than 24 inches in length, and in the blade, 
17 inches from the point, are two orifices, which were probably 
intended for the reception of a cord. I showed the blade to Mr. 
Clibbom, the late Irish curator of the Royal Irish Academy, who 
asked me if I could teU him the purpose of those orifices. In my 
innocence I replied that I thought they were for the reception of 
strings to hold it to the shaft, because there were no rivets. 
** Nothing of the kind," said Mr. Clibbom. ** What then are they 
for ? " I asked. " They're for poison ! " he replied. To that I 
remarked, ** Is it not adding insult to injury to poison a man after 
stabbing 17 inches into his body ? " 

Arrow-heads of bronze are hardly ever found, inasmuch as flint 
arrow-heads survived into the days of bronze. There is one form 
of bronze instrument, a vocal instrument, which occurs more 
frequently in Ireland than in Britain — a trumpet. Curiously 
enough in Caesar's time the ancient Britons still preserved a 
trumpet, very much of the same kind. On a coin of Tasciovanus 
struck at Verulam, there is an effigy of a horseman wielding one 
of these instruments, and they are frequently delineated on Roman 
coins which commemorate victories over Gauls and Britons. Another 
weapon of only occasional occurrence in this country is the halberd. 
It is more common in Ireland, but extremely rare in "Western 
Europe. One or more have been found in Spain, which gives 
support to the idea that there was communication between Ireland 
and Spain in these early tj^es. 

Turning to weapons of defence, I may describe some shields 
which certainly belong to the end of the Bronze Age. That shown 
in the diagram is 14 inches in diameter, and made from a single 
sheet of bronze, with large bosses stamped out in it. The most 
common type in the British Isles is one having a series of con- 
centric rings, from 12 to 30 in number, with rings of small studs 
between them. 

Lastly I come to the ornaments, of which the chief were torques 
or twisted necklaces. Bracelets and armlets are also abundant. 
Several forms of ear-rings are found, of which one was made in the 
form of half a tube, with a small projecting hook in the centre to 
fasten it to the ear. In modem times it might have served to hold 



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SIB JOHN ETAN8 — THE BB0N2X AOB. 9 

a cigarette. Varions forms of pins have been found, and in addition 
to those of bronze and gold many necklaces have been discovered 
made of amber and jet. 

Cauldrons made of a number of thin plates of bronze hammered 
into shape and riveted together have been found, and in further 
evidence of the foreign intercourse already noticed, several of them 
seem to be of Etruscan origin. Some oi the trumpets were built 
up of flat plates hammered over and riveted in a similar manner 
to the fire-hose of the present day. This implies an immense 
amount of skill on the part of those who constructed them. 

I must now shortly consider what is the chronology of the 
period, what date is to be assigned to these objects. It must be 
evident that the Bronze Periods in the different countries of Europe 
could not chronologically have all been of the same date. We 
cannot expect that at the time when bronze or copper was first 
known in Egypt it would have been known in the north of 
Scotland, in Ireland, or in England, and it must have gradually 
spread from some centre or other ; and though we might say that 
in Egypt it goes back to 4000 years before Christ, yet iron was 
found in Egypt 1300 B.C., while in Greece bronze was almost the 
only metal to about 1000 b.g. Iron was not in common use 
throughout Europe until some centuries later, and though probably 
there was a great amount of intercourse along the shores of the 
Mediterranean, and the civilization of one or another of the 
southern countries was not very different, yet as we go farther 
north it is evident that the introduction of iron and the disuse of 
bronze, and the introduction of bronze and the disuse of stone, must 
date from a later period than in the more favoured districts bordering 
on what at one time was the centre of civilization — Egypt. Iron 
was well known in Britain at the time of Caesar's invasion. Take 
that as 50 b.c. ; it is evident that it must have been introduced at 
a considerably earlier period. It had long been known in Gaul 
and Germany, and I think we may safely say that in this country 
bronze must have gone out of use some 200 or 300 years b.c, 
occasionally surviving in remote districts and being occasionally 
used for ornamental purposes. In this country probably bronze, 
as also iron, was introduced from Gaul. It seems likely that the 
original home, both of copper and bronze implements, was in Asia, 
where both copper and tin are found, and whence we have extremely 
early examples. 

As to the civilization of the people who used the bronze we have 
very good evidence from some of those Swiss lake-dwellings of 
which so much has been heard. During dry weather the shores 
of some of the Swiss lakes have been laid bare, and on them have 
been found the remains of habitations erected on piles, from which 
when the water was high a number of implements were lost and 
buried in the lake, and when from time to time the dwellings were 
burnt down the whole property of those who lived in them was 
deposited at the bottom of the lake. These lake-dwellings are of 
Tarious dates, some belonging to the Stone, some to the Iron, and 



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10 8I& JOHN EYAKS — THE BBONZE 16£« 

a certain number to the Bronze Age ; and from them we may infer 
what was the state of civilization of those who occupied them 
during the Bronze Period of Switzerland. First of all, we know 
that they were acquainted with lire— they could not work their 
bronze without it — but as to their means of producing fire, it would 
appear that they used the ordinary pyrites (sulphide of iron) and 
a piece of flint. As to their clothes, they employed the skins of 
animals, which they were able to sew together by means of the 
awl I have already mentioned, and they wore woollen cloth, of 
which fragments have been discovered. They also employed flax, 
not only for weaving purposes, but also for the manufacture of 
string and net ; and they were acquainted with the art of spinning 
and weaving, as we know from the spindle-whorls which have 
been found. As to domestic animals, they had the dog, the ox, the 
sheep, the goat, the pig, and the horse, so that they were not very 
much behind us at the present day so far as domestic animals are 
concerned. They hunted the red deer, the roe, the boar, the hare, 
and other animals ; they fished with bronze fish-hooks exactly like 
those in use at the present day, except as reg£irds the metal of 
which they were constructed; and they also had nets — I do not 
know whether they were limited as to the size of the mesh. 
They used arrows tipped with flint, as bronze was much too 
precious a metal to be lost; they prepared their skins with stone 
scrapers, as was done during the Stone Period ; and they had the 
tools which I have mentioned. They had wonderful skill in cast- 
ing those tools and weapons. They cultivated cereals, principally 
barley, and mcule pottery of a superior kind, ornamented with colour 
and sometimes with tinfoil, although they were unacquainted with 
the potter's wheel. An amber cup, however, evidently turned in 
a lathe and provided with a handle, has been found in England, 
and at the close of the period many articles were turned out of 
Kimmeridge shale. 

The British Bronze-people wore fewer ornaments than the Swiss 
lake-dwellers, but had more jet and gold. They wore gold torques 
and bracelets, ear-rings, and pins for the dress and hair. That 
they had intercourse with other nations is shown by the fact 
that they had ornaments made of ivory, and also glass beads. 

"We can in some countries divide the Bronze Age into periods* 
In England three distinct stages can be traced. The first is 
characterised by flat or slightly flanged celts and knife daggers, 
which are found in barrows in connection with perforated stone axes 
and occasionally knives of flint. Next came the period of more 
distinctly flanged celts and tanged spear-heads or daggers ; and 
lastly that of palstaves and socketed celts and other tools and 
weapons. It was only in this last period that the true bronze 
sword and socketed spear-head made their appearance. 

Boughly speaking we may consider that the Bronze period 
would extend from about 1200 or 1000 b.o. to, say, 200 years, 
or possibly later, before Christ. 

I cannot now go into the manner of the introduction of bronze 



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SIB jomr ETAirs — the bbokze age. It 

into this country, nor consider whether it was the result of in- 
vasion or of trade, possibly Phoenician, nor can I enter into the 
anatomical characteristics of the men of this country of the Bronze 
Age beyond saying that they were dolicho-cephalic — long-headed 
men. 

Some account of the method of casting and making the various 
weapons may be of interest. In casting the earliest forms, moulds 
open to the air on one side were used, but the later ones had both 
sides moulded. Examples in stone of both the single and double 
moulds have been found. The two halves of the double moulds 
were tied together with string. The hollow in the socketed celts 
and spear-heads was produced by means of a clay core, which in 
some cases may have been kept in position by little scraps of 
bronze. I have in my collection a most complete set of founder's 
tools, which were discovered in the Island of Harty, part of 
Sheppey. Among them are several moulds for socketed celts and 
one for gouges, and some of the articles have evidently been cast 
in these moulds. The ordinary method of casting a socketed celt 
seems to have been to put the two halves of the mould together 
and then to ram clay into them. The core thus obtained was taken 
out and cut down so that the walls of the socket would be of 
the right thickness ; it was left full size at the top so as to form 
a mould for the top edge of the celt, except where channels were 
cut for the passage of the molten metal. The clay core would 
be burnt to a hard brick by the heat of the casting, and its 
extraction would present some difficulty. The workman whose 
stock-in-trade we are considering had a pointed tool which he 
drove into the burnt clay and so managed to get it out. Originally 
he had two, but one of them had the point broken off short, just 
where it would come against the margin of a socket. The celts 
cast in this manner were blunt at the edges and had to be hammered 
out to sharpen them. After this a whetstone would be used to 
Enish the sharpening and to smooth down the rough sides. The 
small anvil, hammer, and whetstone for doing this were found 
in the hoard. This workman not only cast hatchets but he 
moulded gouges, and he has left the only example of a mould 
for this purpose which has been discovered. 

I hope that I have now given a fair idea of how these celts were 
manufactured, and I will add a few words as to the manufacture of 
shields. It is very hard to tell how the old workmen obtained 
the thin sheets of metal necessary for their construction. Moulds 
have been found intended to form discs of metal like small 
pancakes, and they would be able to beat these out into sheets 
on their stone anvils by hammering and constant annealing. 

As of great interest, though not immediately connected with my 
subject, I exhibit a bronze spear-head which once belonged to 
Kames, a king of Egypt of the seventeenth dynasty, who lived 
about 1760 years b.c, or between the times of Joseph and of Moses. 
Inscribed in hieroglyphics on the blade is the whole of his name 
and titles. It seems probable that it was not originally of 



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ii SIR JOHK EYAirS — THE BBOITZE les. 

Egyptian origin, but was imported from some place further east. 
This is, in all probability, the first bronze weapon to wliich an 
approximately exact date can be assigned. I have also in my 
possession a flat axe which bears the same name. Even in 
Mesopotamia, where not improbably this spear-head was made, 
the method of coring could not at that time have been known, 
and the socket has been made by bending over a flat plate. The 
socket having been made in this manner and the blade cast, 
the two were laid in position in a mould, and hot metal was poured 
in till the joint was made fast. That they were acquainted with 
the art of burning bronze to bronze in Ireland at a very early date 
is proved by the fact that swords have been discovered witb a 
small portion of the blade burnt on to the hilt. 

The subject of which I have treated represents a long and im- 
portant phase in the progress of human civilization, the various 
instruments discovered affording a most complete record of the 
mode of life of those who made them. 

Even supposing that the chronology of the Bronze Age is in 
some degree speculative, I trust the slight sketch I have given of 
the habits, methods of life, and personal equipment of those who 
occupied our country from 2000 to 3000 years ago has not been 
devoid of some general interest. 

EXPLANATIOUT OP THE PLATES. 
PLATE I. 

1. Plain Celt. 4. Palstave with side loop. 

2. Flaaged Celt. 6. Socketed Celt 

3. Palstaye without side loop. 

PLATE II. 

6. Tanged Chisel from Wallingford. 10. Knife with socket. 

7. Socketed Chisel from Durham. 11. Knife with flat tang. 

8. Socketed Gouge. 12. Razor from Wallingford. 

9. Hammer from the Isle of Harty. 13. Socketed Sickle ht)m the Thames. 

PLATE III. 

14. Knife-dagger from a Yorkshire 16. Sword from the Thames. 

Barrow. 17. Spear-head with rivet-holes. 

15. Knife-dagger from a Wiltshire 18. Spear-head with loops. 

Barrow. 



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Trans. fferU Nat, Hi$t. Soc., Vol. VIII, Plate IIL 



AXCIEXT BRONZE IMPLEMENTS. 

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II. 

THE LOWER MICEO-ORGANI8M8 AND THEIE RELATION TO 
EVERY-DAY LIFE. 

By D. Haktbt Attpdeu), M.A., M.B., CM., D.P.H. (Cantab.). 

A L$etwre delivered at Watford^ 2Zrd Jtmuaiy, 1894. 

(Abridged.) 

Mt subject is so extensive that anything like a comprehensive 
survey of it would require not merely one lecture but a series. 
Hence the particular micro-organisms I can deal with are only 
those which one is constantly hearing of, either as our kindly friends 
or fierce foes. To the naked eye they are invisible, yet they are 
quite capable of working an infinity of good or harm that might 
well have earned for them in years gone by, before their corporeal 
existence was demonstrated, the names of good and evil spirits. 
One at least really was, as we now know, of service to the old 
miracle-mongers — I allude to the micro-organism which is the cause 
of what they termed the ** Blood-portent on Bread," and the cause 
of milk changing into so-called blood. This is the Bacillus pro- 
digiomsy which, when growing on bread or milk gives to either a 
reddish appearance. 

To micro-organisms we owe that conversion of sugar into alcohol 
which is essential to the production of wine, beer, and spirits, and 
they are essential to that rising of dough which is a part of the 
every-day process of bread-makmg. There is one bacterium which 
lives, moves, and multiplies in alcohol. So far from being a tee- 
totaler, it swallows or absorbs nothing but alcohol from birth to 
death. I allude to the Bacterium aceti, the active principle of the 
so-called vinegar plant^ whose life-work is to convert the alcohol 
of beer and wine into the acetic acid characteristic of vinegar; 
indeed, ordinary vinegar cannot be produced without this micro- 
organism. 

The greater number of these very important yet excessively 
minute bodies are plants of the simplest structure, with the most 
elementary modes of propagation, but yet with extraordinary 
powers of multiplication. With regard to this latter statement I 
may say that in the course of some experiments made by Professor 
Watson Cheyne with a microbe known as the Staphylococcus 
pyrogenes-aureuSt 248 individuals became over 20,000,000 in the 
short space of twenty-four hours. 

These micro-organisms are often, though from an etymological 
point of view incorrectly, designated under the general title of 
Bacteria. As far back as 1728, Leuwenhoeck saw something in 
putrid water, but in those early days microscopes were poor, and 
though he may have seen bacteria his observations were far from 
definite. Not till 100 years later were any authenticated observa- 
tions made, when Ehrenberg stated that we were surrounded on all 
sides by micro-organisms. Schwann, a few years after this, stated 



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14 D. H. AITFIELD — THE LOWEB MICBO-OBQAKISKS. 

that the air constantly contained various putrefactive and fennen- 
tative germs, and also that fermentative processes were dependent 
on the access of living organisms. Since that time, owing to the 
labours of such renowned workers as Pasteur, Koch, Klebs, and 
Du Bary abroad, and Klein, Crookshank, Sims-Woodhead, Watson 
Cheyne, and many others in our own country, steady progress has 
been made in the knowledge of these organisms, which may be 
well termed, as I have said, our invisible friends and foes. 

As to a classification of the micro-organisms for general purposes, 
the best will be that depending on their physical form. Microbes 
consist of single cells composed of that wonderful complex organic 
substance called protoplasm, surrounded with an envelope of Sk 
cellulose-like substance, and may be thus classed : — 

(I.) Cells more or less spherical, termed cocci. 

(II.) Cells more or less cylindrical, known as bacilli. 

The first class, with spheric£il cells, is divided into several groups. 
{a.) Single separate round cells known as micrococci, {h.) Two 
such cells in more or less close contact ; these are termed diplococci. 
(<?.) Several cells Joined one to the other to form a chain ; these are 
therefore called streptococci, (rf.) A large number of cells in 
close contact with each other, forming an irregular bunch, of 
grape-like structure, known as staphylococci, (e.) SpherioAl cells 
grouped in a peculiar way, resembling a bale or bundle of goods 
corded round in three directions, and known as sarcinae. 

The second main division, with cylindrical cells, has a number 
of subdivisions depending on the various length, thickness, or 
curvature of the members, and contains such genera as Bacillus, 
Leptothrix, Spirillum^ and some others which need not be mentioned 
here. 

Having thus roughly classed the microbes, I will say a few 
words as to how they are grown for experimental purposes and 
also shortly touch on the methods of bacteriological research. 
This is all the more necessary owing to the fact that Bacteriology, 
the name of the science which deals with these micro-organisms, is 
of quite recent growth, and is but little understood except by those 
who make the subject a special study. Everyone can imagine how 
the scientific chemist works with his test-tubes, and stills, and so 
on ; most people understand or can picture how the anatomist 
works by aid of his knife and microscope; but the case is quite 
different when we come to study the methods of the bacteriologist, 
whose science, as I have said, being of much more recent date, the 
various terms used by him convey but little information to the 
uninitiated. These micro-organisms are not only ubiquitous, but 
are present also in enormous quantities. In our food, and on our 
bodies and clothes, they are met with in vast numbers. The mouth 
is a very good forcing-ground for several species. If one is un- 
fortunate enough to have a decayed tooth the bacteria thrive all 
the better. A tiny drop of moisture from such a carious cavity is 
spread over a thin microscopic cover-glass, dried, and then treated 
with a colouring solution of gentian-violet. The excess of staining 



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D. H. ATHTKLD— THE LOWEB KICBO-OBeAKISlCS* 15 

material is wadhed off and tbe preparation again dried and mounted 
in Canada-balsam. The Tarious micro-organisms are thus fixed and 
coloured, and hence may easily be seen. A somewhat special 
microscope is necessary for their examination ; it must have what 
is known as a one-twelfth-inch oil-immersion lens, and also must 
carry a good substage condenser. Any less powerful objective i* 
almost useless for observing these microbes, the largest of which 
are only what is known in microscopical nomenclature as 5/c, 
that is, five micromillimetres in diameter. A micromillimetre or 
Greek m is the one- thousandth of a millimetre, and a yard is nearly 
1000 millimetres. To make these mathematics less troublesome to 
grasp, I may say that if the largest of the microbes were placed 
side by side, over 6000 of them would be necessary to give a line 
one inch long. To occupy the same space about fifty times as 
many, that is, over a quarter of a million, of the smallest would 
to required. 

A few words now as to the methods employed in bacteriological 
research and analysis, and as to the principles on which are 
established the causal, or at any rate intimate relation of micro- 
organisms with disease in its various forms. As a typical case, the 
procedure in the bacteriological examination of water may be 
taken. The first object is to ascertain the number of bacterid 
present, and then to isolate and identify the various species. With 
these objects in view, plate-cultivations are made. Into a tube of 
sterile melted nutrient jelly, a small quantity of water, say one or 
two cubic centimetres, is introduced. The water and jelly are 
thoroughly mixed so as to equally distribute the micro-organisms 
through the melted jelly. This is now poured out on to a glass 
plate — ^hence the term "plate-cultivation" — ^and placed in an 
apparatus to set. When cold the plate is transferred to a moist 
chamber and placed in the incubator, which is kept at a certain 
temperature. In the course of from 12 to 36 hours a number of 
little white or faintly-coloured spots are seen on the surface of the 
gelatine. Each microbe in the water has set to work, and by rapid 
reproduction has given rise to a colony of its own species. The 
colonies may now be counted, and the approximate number of mi- 
crobes in the original Water be so ascertained. While these colonies 
are small they can be easily picked up with a platinum needle, and 
cover- glass preparations may then be made from them. When a 
tube of sterile jelly is inoculated with one of these little colonies, a 
pure culture is obtained. This can be recultivated and examined, 
when its various characteristics are recognised, and its possible 
identity with a known species established. Before we can say that 
a certain micro-organism is actually the causa eausans of any 
particular disease it must respond to Koch's four postulates : {a) 
The micro-organism must be found in the blood, lymph, or diseased 
tissues of man, or other animal, suffering from, or dead from, the 
disease, (h.) The micro-organism must be isolated from the blood, 
lymph, or tissues, and cultivated in suitable media outside the 
animal body, and these pure cultivations must be carried on 



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16 D. H. ATTFISLD— THE UdWEBL MICRO-OBaAiriSlCS* 

thiougb successive generations of the organism, (e,) A pnxe culture 
thus obtained must, when introduced into the body of a healthy 
animal, produce the disease in question, (d.) Lastly, in the inocu- 
lated animal the same micro-organism must again be found. 

[In the course of the lecture a large number of photographs of 
the better-known bacteria were shown by the aid of the oxy- 
hydrogen lantern. The following are a few of the species 
exemplified, with the remarks made upon them.] 

Proteu9 vulgaris^ Bacterium termo^ and Spirillum undula, — ^These 
are intimately associated with the phenomena of putrefaction. 
They are of the highest importance to man, and may well come 
under the title of invisible friends ; for they utilise the excretions 
of living beings and the carcases of dead anmials and plants, after 
breaking them down into their simplest constituents, to supply 
those elements which are necessary for the nutrition of plants; 
thus, from dead organic matter producing the food which is 
necessary for the vegetables, which are in their turn the food 
of animals. 

Sarcina, Bacterium figwrans^ Spirillum tenue^ and S. volutans. — 
These are, if not active friends, certainly not dangerous enemies. 

Baeillw anthracis, — This is the direct cause of wool-sorters' 
disease in man, and what is known as splenic fever in cattle. 

Koch's ^^ comma bacillus J*^ — ^Whether this is the true cause, or 
only an attendant circumstance, of Asiatic cholera, is still the 
subject of active discussion. Professor Max von Pettenkofer used 
to say of this bacillus, of which both he and his colleague, 
Professor Emmerich, of Munich, ate a considerable quantity 
without developing cholera, or indeed suffering from any un- 
pleasant consequences : "To produce an attack of cholera three 
things are necessary — (1) the bacillus, (2) a suitable soil for it to 
grow on, that is, a person in a susceptible condition, and (3) a 
tertium quid^ What this ** third something " was, my old master 
Von Pettenkofer did not pretend to say, but he was convinced that 
without it one did not catch cholera. 

The ^^ tubercle bacillus.^' — This is perhaps one of the most 
dreaded of our foes among the micro-organisms. It is the cause 
of that fatal and widespread disease, consumption, or, as it is more 
scientifically termed, tubercular disease. 



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ni. 

THE NATUEAL HISTOET OP THE SALMON. . 
By QsoEos BooPEB, F.Z.S. 
lUad at JFat/ord, 20th Mareh, 1894. 

Shaeespzabb tells us that there are ''Seven Ages" of man. 
There are, too, seven ages of the salmon. The first is the e^g» 
The eggs are deposited, some time in the winter months, in beds of 
gravel over which a rapid stream flows, principally in the upper 
reaches of the river, where the water is more aerated than it is 
lower down, and free from pollutions of any sort ; for clay, earth, 
or any extraneous substance would choke and destroy the embryo 
fish. Indeed, from the time of entering the river, the object of 
the fish seems to be to arrive at its source. Until they have 
spawned they never descend, but, resting at times in favourite 
pools, continually struggle upwards. Only the late fish spawn in 
the lower waters. 

To such as have only seen the salmon in prime condition, the 
appearance of the fish when on the eve of spawning would indeed 
be a surprise. The female is dark in colour, almost black, and her 
shape sadly altered for the worse from that which she presented 
when in condition. As for the male, he is about as hideous a beast 
as can well be imagined. His general colour is a dirty red, 
blotched with orange and dark spots. His jaws are elongated, and 
the lower one is furnished with a huge ''beak," as thick and 
nearly as long as my middle finger; his teeth are sharp and 
numerous; and his head, from the shrinking of his shoulders, 
appears disproportionately large. His skin is slimy and disagree- 
able to handle. In fact a more repulsive creature in appearance 
does not exist. 

Arrived on the spawning ground, the female, then called a 
baggitt, alone proceeds to form the nest — ^the ** redd " it is termed. 
This she effects by a sort of wriggling motion of the lower part of 
her body working on the loose gravel. Many authors state that 
this is effected by the action of the tail, but I do not think so ; the 
convex formation of the body at that period would prevent the tail 
from touching the gravel imless the fish stood at an angle of 45^, 
in which case the stream would carry her down. The " redd," a 
deep trench, being formed, she proceeds, attended by the male fish, 
frequently by two "kippers," as they are called, to deposit her 
eggs. This she does, not all at once, but in small quantities at 
intervals, frequently returning to the redd for the purpose. The 
eggs are at once fecundated by the milt of the kipper. This 
process goes on for two or three days, the fish smking down 
occasioncdly into the pool below to rest and recover their strength. 
The effect of the fertilization of the ova is to add greatly to t^eir 
specific gravity ; the eggs sink, and are at once covered with gravel 
by a sinular motion on the part of the baggitt to that used in the 



VOL. Vni. — ^PABT I. 



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18 G. BOOFEB — THE SALMON. 

formation of the redd. Here, the process being completed, the 
eggs remain during a period of from 120 to 140 days, according to 
the temperature of the water. At the expiration of that time, the 
little fish come into existence, and after a few days wriggle out of 
their gravelly bed and seek refuge under some rock or stone 
adjacent, where they remain in safety for 12 or 14 days longer. 

The appearance of the young £sh at that time gives little promise 
of the beautiful form which they subsequently attain. They 
are indeed shapeless little monsters, more like tadpoles than £sh, 
each furnished with a little bag of nutriment forming a portion of 
the abdomen. On this, for two or three weeks, they subsist, until, 
on its being absorbed, they take the form and assume the rank of 
fishes. They are then about one inch in length, and are known 
as salmon fiy or samlets — the second stage. Some of the eggs 
are washed down the stream during the process of spawning, and 
become the prey of trout and other fish which swim near the redds 
for the purpose of feeding on them. In this they do no harm 
whatever, for these eggs, being uncovered and unfecundated, 
could never arrive at maturity. 

The kippers, when not actually engaged in the spawning process, 
swim rapidly about the redd, fighting fiercely with one another. 
The use of their beak, which I have described, appears to me 
then to come into operation. Mr. Pennell, in his volume of the 
Badminton Library, and many other authors, erroneously describe 
this beak either as a weapon of offence, or as a sort of pickaxe 
used in digging out the redd. It seems to me that nature has 
provided this singular excrescence as a protection and safeguard 
against the savage attacks made by the fish on each other. So 
large is its size, and so closely does it fit into a hole or socket 
formed in the upper jaw, that it would appear almost impossible 
for the fish even to open his mouth ; but he does so, to some 
extent at least, and with his cat-like teeth inflicts deep, and some- 
times dangerous, wounds on his antagonists. As for its alleged 
use as a digging implement, it is out of the question. The 
substance of the beak is cartilaginous, not homy, and by no means 
hard ; it would be worn down in the process of digging in ten 
minutes, and, as I said, the female alone prepares the redd. This 
suggestion, I may remark, is entirely origineil. 

After leaving the stone or rock under which it has sought pro- 
tection, the growth of the young fish is very rapid, as is natural in 
a creature destined to attain such huge dimensions as the salmon 
is capable of: one of 83 lbs. in weight is recorded by Yarrell as 
having been captured. In the course of a month or six weeks the 
fry have attained to the length of four inches, and are then called 
**parr" — ^the third stage in their existence. The parrs bear con- 
spicuously on their bodies transverse marks or bars, which are 
common to the young of every member of the salmon family. 
Unfortunately, there is another little fish, a humble relation of 
the lordly salmon, also barred, very similar in appearance, which 
too is called a parr, and the identity in name and similarity in 



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G. BOOPEB — THE SALMON. 19 

appearance has occasioned great confusion and much heated con- 
troversy, especially as they are inhahitants of the same waters, and 
affect, to some extent, each other's company.* The time of their 
remaining in the parr stage is also a suhject of dispute: Mr. 
Pennell says two or three, sometimes four, years, but my own 
opinion is tiiat they remain one year only. 

In the second April of their existence a change in the appear- 
ance of the parr occurs ; he assumes the silvery scales of the adult 
fish, wearing his new apparel over his old barred coat He is now 
called a " smolt " — the fourth stage ; and perhaps, with a wish to 
exhibit himself in his new and beautiful apparel, he evinces a 
daily-increasing restlessness and desire to quit his home and to go 
forth into that world of waters he may have dreamed of in his 
ante-natal tomb. The wish is soon realized. "With the first floods 
in May myriads of these lovely little fishes start on their downward 
journey towards the sea. It is a beautiful sight to watch their 
movements when descending. For many days the river teems 
with them, and not a square foot of water is without one, each, 
when the stream is at aU rapid, swimming tail first ; and as they 
are carried down, fighting against the stream, as it were, darting 
upwards for a foot or two, again to be carried a yard downwards. 

As fry the smelts were exposed to many dangers, but they are 
nothing to those which beset them as parrs on their journey 
towards the sea. Their enemies are legion. Trout and pike 
devour them; gulls flop down and swallow them wholesale. 
Herons, stan^g mid-leg deep in the water, pick them out as 
they pass, and even their blood-relations — ^fathers, mothers, uncles, 
axmts— " kelts," as the fish after spawning are called, devour them 
without scruple. Unluckily too for them, a certain number of 
these hungry kelts, having recovered to a great extent their con- 
dition, and being convalescent as to their appetite, accompany 
them on their seaward journey, and prey upon their young com- 
panions as they travel. I believe that a hungry old kelt will 
devour forty or fifty smelts in a day. It is illegal to capture, or 
at least to appropriate if caught, one of these little fish, or the 
ravenous monsters who prey on them — a useless aud mischievous 
prohibition to my thinking. Smelts are capital eating, and for the 
boys great fun in catching. Of course if 100 or 1000 are taken 
out of the river there are 100 or 1000 fewer in it, but the same 
may be said of the river itself; take 100 or 1000 buckets-full out, 
and there will be that number of buckets-full fewer in it. But 
the abstraction would make no appreciable difference in the volume 
of water. As for the kelts they are for the time barren fish. 
Strange that the law should protect the multitudinous fry and the 
spent fish, and permit the destruction of the baggitts, heavy in 
spawn, the teeming mothers of millions. 

* In the Ythan, a river in Aberdeenshire, a portion of which I now rent, all 
the tront are barred, and so remain, whatever their size. They are, however, 
genuine trout (Saltno fario)^ having the distinctive blood- rea mark on the 
adipose fin. — G. R. 



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20 6. BOOPEB — THB SALMON. 

Arrived at the sea, the little fish are met by a fresh array of 
enemies. The army of gulls is always with them, and it is re- 
inforced by cormorants, divers, and other sea-birds, besides which 
shoals of ravenous fish await their arrival, and assist in thinning 
their ranks. It is wonderful that any should escape ; indeed, but 
for the extraordinary fecundity of the salmon, they would speedily 
be annihilated, but such is their prolific nature that a remnant 
always survives, to return to the spawning beds and keep up the 
supply. Mr. Frank Buckland calculated tibat the number of eggs 
laid by a salmon was about 1000 to the pound weight, a fish of 
15 lbs. therefore producing 15,000 eggs. 

The food of the smolts during their sojourn in the sea is 
abundant, consisting chiefiy of sand-eels, molluscs,' and marine 
insects. They increase accordingly very rapidly in size, and in 
three or four months the fish that came down five or six ounces in 
weight returns to the river from which he came, a grilse of from 
four to six pounds. 

The grilse is the fifth stage of the salmon's existence. Unless 
accidentally prevented, the grilse always returns to his native 
river, and, after spending the autumn and winter at home, and 
providing for the continuance of the family by spawning, as already 
described, he returns as a kelt — ^the sixth stage — to the sea in the 
following year, reappearing the next year as a salmon of at least 
ten or twelve pounds weight — the seventh and last stage. 

Such is a short history of the salmon, from '^ the cradle to the 
grave," for his life, if he escape the manifold dangers to which he is 
exposed, is but a repetition of what I have stated. I shoidd have 
mentioned that, after spawning, the fish speedily recovers his 
colour, and to a great extent his condition; the baggitt at once 
loses her dark complexion, the kipper discards his hideous livery, 
his great beak is rapidly absorbed, his sides become silvery, and 
his back assumes a dark bluish tinge. 

After spawning, the fish are called kelts, whether they are male 
or female ; there is little difference in their appearance. Both are 
gifted with an inordinate appetite, and, as the river furnishes an 
abimdance of food, they speedily assume very syihmetrical pro- 
portions, and are really, at least the majority of them, extremely 
handsome fish — ^in fact, excepting to a practised eye it is difficult 
to distinguish between a well-mended kelt and a clean fish. There 
is a prejudice against them as food, and, as I said, the law requires 
that, when caught they shall be put back into the river — a great 
mistake, I think. Besides that tiiey are really wholesome, if not 
dainty food, they are greatly appreciated by fishermen and others 
to whom they may be given. Moreover, at least nine out of ten 
that have been caught with a fly or spinning-tackle die from 
exhaustion, having been pulled about for an hour or more in the 
water before they were landed, for they are very strong, and they 
fight to the last. They are, also, too generally landed with the 
help of a gaff. 

Mr. Pennell describes the kelt as "unfit for food, almost 



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6. BOOPEB — ^THE SALMON. 21 

poisonous," but I fancy that he has had little practical experience 
with kelts. Before the Act protecting them was passed, one could 
not make a more acceptable present to a gillie or labourer than a 
good kelt, and despite the Act they are still eaten stealthily by 
itie fishermen, and anyone who can get hold of one. For myself, 
unless a water-bailiff is in sight, I never return a really good kelt 
to the water ; I just slip him " cannily " into the bushes, and a 
gillie or shepherd comes and takes him home, when opportunity 
offers, and feasts with his family right royally upon him. 
Hundreds, indeed, are sold at a high price, even in London. The 
flesh, I admit, is soft and light-coloured, instead of being firm and 
red, and the flavour is very inferior to that of a clean fish, but it 
is not bad eating, and it is just as wholesome as a clean fish. To 
talk about it as *' almost poisonous" is simply nonsense. 

There are many statements published about the salmon which 
must be taken eum granoy indeed, with a very big pinch of salt. 
It is stated in many books that from the time of his entering the 
fresh water he never eats. It is odd, if this be the fact, that there is 
no more killing bait for a salmon than a gudgeon, a parr, or a great 
dollop of earthworms. In the volume of the Badminton Library, 
to which I have alluded, the pace at which the salmon swims is 
given as wonderfully rapid. Mr. Fennell puts it at 1500 feet a 
minute ; and although this high rate of speed is not attributed to 
him on all occasions, it is no doubt implied that his ascent of the 
river is at some such rate. Now, the fact is that the pace at which 
the salmon travels up the river, the water being in swimming 
order, is just one mile an hour, neither more nor less. The same 
author tells us that the fish will jump to a height of 10 or 12 feet 
out of the water, a fact which must have been drawn from 
imagination, not observation. I venture to say that no salmon 
that ever swam jumped out of the water more than, perhaps, four 
feet. The ascent of the rapid, almost perpendicular, streams which 
the fish surmounts is effected by the immense power of the tail. 
Give him but "black" water to swim in, and the fish will 
surmount an obstacle of any reasonable height ; but this is effected 
by swimming, not jumping. 

[Mr. Eooper gave two animated accounts of his capture of a 
salmon, one being the record of a fish caught in a river, the other 
that of one caught in a lake. They will be found in his book 
• Thames and Tweed.'— En.] 



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IV. 

THE WASP INFESTATION OP 1893. 

By A. E. GiBBS, F.L.S., F.E.S. 

Read at Watford, 11th Aprils 1894. 

It is hardly right that the abundance of wasps in 1893 should 
pass unnoticed by our Society. Both the tree- and ground-wasps 
were particularly troublesome, invading our dinner-tables, stripping 
our fruit trees, taking possession of the grocers' and confectioners' 
shops, and indeed maldng their unwelcome presence felt almost 
everywhere. It is not my intention to enter upon any description 
of our British Yespidse, nor to discuss their habits. This has been 
done so admirably by Miss Ormerod in her * Report on Injurious 
Insects for the year 1893,' that little is left to be said. She has 
gathered some valuable reports from various parts of the country, 
which show how general the infestation was. I have simply 
endeavoured to collect notes from correspondents with regard to 
the plague of wasps in our own county. 

St. Albans. — I had two nests in my garden wall at Avenue 
House in such a position as to make it almost impossible to destroy 
them. Mr. H. Lewis says: "Considerable damage was done by 
the plague of wasps to our garden fruit last summer. Especially 
was this the case with the Victoria plums. Those left on the trees 
were quite spoilt, and when we attempted to gather the fruit we 
found in many instances only the skins left; the rest were in 
nearly every case full of wasps. When on a fishing expedition, 
the wasps attacked the fish as soon as caught, and every few yards 
along the river's bank wasps* nests were observed, although many 
had been destroyed but a short time before. On relating this to 
Mr. G. Dickinson, of Dyers Hall, Harlington, Beds, I foimd that 
his experience was much the same. He told me of a friend whose 
roach were attacked almost as soon as caught, and said that the 
wasps will very soon eat away a hole in the fish." Miss Ormerod, 
in her report, also gives some information with regard to the wasp- 
plague at St. Albans. Mr. Nutting writes from the Gardens, 
Child wickbury : ** We suffered, as others did, more than usual last 
year from the depredations of wasps, but I think not so much so as 
those living on a lighter, warmer soil. I have invariably noticed 
that the warmer the soil the more wasps there are. As we are on 
a cold stiff clay, we are not so much troubled with them. With 
regard to exceptional damage done, beyond the destruction of more 
fruit than usual, especially plums, I do not think that I have any- 
thing to report. We prevented them from getting into the vineries, 
otherwise we should have sustained a loss there, as they seem to 
be particularly fond of grapes. Next to grapes, plums seem to 
be favoured by them, and the manner in which they work together 
and clean out the fruit is interesting. They usually cut into the 
fruit a short distance from the stem, on what might be termed the 



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A. E. GIBBS — THE WASP INFESTAnOK OF 1893. 23 

shoulder of the fruit, and clean it out thoroughly, leaving only the 
bare skin. I have taken out 20, and sometimes more, from a single 
fruit ; they seem to get intoxicated. Certainly, if careful, one may 
take the whole lot one by one, and destroy them without being 
stung. I have cleared out several in this manner without being 
attacked. I do not know of any attack on man or beast, nor, with 
the exception of the cases I have read about, have I ever known 
wasps to attack anyone unless in self-defence. I do not consider 
them to be half so pugnacious as bees, and personally the sting 
from a wasp is not nearly so bad as that from a bee. "When 
gathering fruit I have had them walk over my hands and arms and 
never offer to sting. A great many ways and means of destroying 
them were advanced last season, but the most effective and least 
dangerous is gas-tar. I have destroyed many nests, and have 
always found this to be the safest method. If you suffocate them 
with powder, cyanide of potassium, or anything else, the chances 
are that some recover. To be sure of them they have to be dug 
out, and this means labour and often disfigurement of surroundings, 
whereas gas -tar carefully poured into the hole finds its way into 
the nest, and does its work effectually; only in cases where tar 
cannot be applied would I use anything else. It is generally 
supposed that whatever you use to exterminate the wasps must be 
used after dark, otherwise you lose a quantity of them, but this is 
not the case where tar can be applied, as I found out last summer. 
I discovered a strong nest in the park here one day, and poured 
the tar in about seven o'clock in the evening. I may here add a 
word as to wasps attacking people. Although scores were hover- 
ing over the hole, not one offered to attack me. Had I attempted 
to drive them in any way I should have probably got the worst of 
it. I besmeared the ground around the hole, and the next morning 
it was covered with wasps which had exhausted themselves in 
attempting to get into the nest; the whole lot were totally de- 
stroyed. Only two unfinished nests of tree-wasps came under my 
observation. Some years ago, when living in Lancashire, we often 
noticed them suspended in big rhododendron bushes." Mr. F. W. 
{Silvester, of Hedges, St. Albans, tells me that there was a wasps' 
nest in one of his fields, and that the insects attacked the horses 
and men so severely that he was obliged to leave a piece of land 
unploughed until the nest had been destroyed. Mr. Silvester, like 
most of my correspondents, complains of the destruction of his 
plums and apples, but informs me that the peaches were not so 
badly injured. 

Berkhahsted. — Mr. F. Q. Lane, of The Nurseries, writes: 
"There was here as elsewhere an enormous number of nests, 
and we never before saw so many nests built in trees; one in a 
small spruce-fir was quite as large as a football, which is unusual 
about here, the nests mostiy being about the size of a cricket-ball." 

Watfokd. — Dr. Brett has favoured me with the following notes : 
— ** Mr. D. Hill, of Herga, Watford, said that ho destroyed about 
seventy queen wasps in the spring of 1893, and at least twelve 



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24 A. E. GIBBS — THE WASP nrFBBTATIOir OF 1893, 

nests during the summer. His method was to place a piece of 
cyanide of potassium about the size of a wabiut into the hole, and 
then a little water. It should be done twice occasionally, because 
the cyanide does not always kill the grubs, and then they come out 
afterwards. A wasp never comes out again. Mr. Sainsbury, next 
door, had two nests in a shed. Mr. W. E. Moore, of Westfield, 
had one built on a tree. The specimen is in the Public Library 
now. Much injury was done to wall-fruit. The tom-tits began 
eating the fruit and the wasps finished it off.'' 

Elstreb. — Mr. W. J. Belderson says : " The antiquated methods 
of pouring tar into the hole and firing it, and of making a ' devil ' 
with gunpowder (gunpowder damped, put in the mouth of the hole 
and fibred, and a clot of dirt placed* over it), have been superseded by 
a more efPectual means. A table-spoonful of cyanide of potassium 
put into the hole completely destroys every wasp that comes near 
it, and there is no danger horn, the wasps. I destroyed one nest 
(of many) last year, a strong one. 1 put in the chemical, and 
stood for about five minutes watching the wasps. They kept 
coming to the nest in swarms. After that time Mr. Beckett, 
the head gardener at Aldenham House, suggested that we should 
count them. He timed while two of ns counted, and in two 
minutes 270 entered the nest. The wasps flew to the hole, and 
then, seeing their dead companions, hovered around, but after a 
second made a dart into the hole, and not one came out again. 
After an hour had elapsed we dug them out to destroy the comb, 
and had about a pint of wasps, all dead. At a grocer's shop in 
the neighbourhood a two-cwt. bag of sugar was warehoused 
amongst others. Wasps got in, and when tbe bag was weighed 
there were barely six stones left, including dead wasps." 

Babnet. — The following description of an encounter between a 
wasp and a bee is written by Mr. Frank F. Sherrrff, of Brightside, 
Ravenscroft Park, High Bamet : — " I witnessed last autumn a 
fierce encounter between a wasp and a bee. I was attracted to 
a fiower-bed by what I presumed to be the noise and turmoil of a 
humble-bee in the web of a spider, but which proved to be a savage 
attack upon a honey-bee by a hungry wasp. I am inclined to 
believe that the bee was surprised by the wasp on a neighbouring 
flower, and that robbery, instigated by the bee*s load of honey, was 
the inciting cause. The rapid movements of the combatants as 
they tumbled over one another amid the flowers rendered it difficult 
at first to distinguish bee from wasp. But as the fight proceeded, 
and the fury of the fray gradually subsided, I could see the two 
insects in deadly embrace struggling to bring their stings into play. 
The bee, encumbered by its honey, to which it still clung with 
fatal tenacity, was evidently at a disadvantage, and endeavoured 
in vain to escape from the relentless clutch of its assailant. The 
wasp, on the other hand, holding its antagonist firmly between its 
fore-legs, brought its sting into action and drove it repeatedlv into 
the body of its victim. At this period I interfered and tned to 
drive away the victor, but it returned again and again to the spot, 



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Jl. S. QIBB8— the WISF IVFBflTiLTIOV OF 1893. 25 

and tearing open the body of its victim, deToored the greater 
portion of it, leaving only the head, legs, and wings, and the shell 
of its body. Once more I drove away the wasp, and buried the 
remnants of its barbarous feast, but it again returned, and for some 
time afterwards hovered about the flower-bed, seeking the remains 
of its prey." 

Smallford.— Mr. Arthur Smith writes: ** I did not see any 
tree-wasps' nests, but I took a large one from the inside of a 
hollow tree. The greatest damage here was done to apples. In a 
small orchard of about a dozen trees I should think there were 
quite a dozen bushels of apples completely eaten, besides those 
which were commenced, and thereby prevented from keeping. 
With regard to plums I have to thank the wasps for teaching me 
a " wrinkle " as to fruit-preservation. We had the greater part of 
the plums picked before they were anything like ripe, in the case 
of greengages when they were just hard, before they were good 
enough for wasps to eat, and bottled them, without cooking, by 
merely pouring over them hot syrup, and they have during the 
winter turned out splendidly. Had these means not been adopted, 
I do not suppose the wasps would have allowed one to ripen. We 
were fortunate to escape any attacks either upon man or beast, but 
every nest was treated witii a pint or so of gas-tar as soon as dis- 
covered, a remedy, or rather destroyer, which we found both the 
cheapest and most efficient. I am sorry I did not keep an account 
of the number of nests destroyed." 

Hatfieu). — Mr. T. Brown, of Symonds Hyde, Hatfield, informs 
me that he destroyed a great number of nests during the season. 
His method was to work at night by the aid of a lantern, when the 
insects would fly to the light and not attack the person operating. 
He recommends cyanide of potassiimi, and to use it effectuallv he 
stops the entrance to the nest up, ascertains the exact position of the 
nest, and makes a hole direct into it, through which he pours the 
cyanide. The stragglers may be killed in the morning. Nests 
should be destroyed early, before the colony gets strong. No 
hanging nests were noticed. He found the wasps very troublesome 
in destroying the fruit crop. Three trees of Quarrendon pippins, 
an early sweet apple, were attacked first. The apples that fell 
during the night had a place as big as the tip of the fbiger eaten in 
them by six or seven o'clock in the morning, and during the day 
the apple was almost entirely cleared out. Two hornets were 
killed in the house. 

Welwtk. — Mr. T. B. Blow writes that his experience was as 
follows : — "Though we had a perfect plague of wasps, yet mv bees 
did not suffer at idl. When the wasps appeared so plentifully we 
narrowed all the entrances to the hives, and thus stopped any 
attempt of the wasps to enter the hives. A large number of 
wasps' nests were destroyed, and in this way the numbers were 
rapidly diminished." 

HiTOHiN. — A most interesting report comes from Mr. Eichard 
Shillitoe, of Bancroft, Hitchin. It is as follows : — ** The number 



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26 A. E. GIBBS — THE WASP INFESTATION OF 189S. 

of ground-wasps' nests in our neighbourhood was, of course, 
exceptionally large, as many as twenty or more nests having 
been destroyed in a single bank. We also had an unusual number 
of pensile or hanging nests, taken from hedges, bushes, out- 
buildings, etc. I have six or eight very beautiful specimens in 
glass cases. I do not think that there was any increase in the 
number of hornets. One or two interesting points in reference 
to the hybernation of the queen wasps have lately come under 
my observation, which I think rather tend to show that queen 
wasps are not so easily destroyed by hard frosts as some people 
imagine. Instead of hybemating in solitary state under the 
bark of trees, etc., they appear to have swarmed together this 
year in large numbers. In a heap of stones near Ickleford 
Gate-house on the Bedford Boad, large numbers were found by 
the road-men who were turning the stones over before putting 
them on the road. The wasps had simply crept into the interstices 
between the stones, and there established themselves for the 
winter. In another place, at St. Ibbs, near Hitchin, a quantity 
(said to be about 200) of queen wasps were found in an old piece 
of sail-cloth or canvas that had been put outside upon the roof 
of a shed. It was blown off during a gale of wind, and was found 
to be saturated with rain-water, and a * teapotfull ' of wasps was 
taken out of it and thrown into the fire. They had evidently 
passed through the severe frosty weather that we had about 
Christmas, on the top of the roof with no other protection than 
a piece of canvas. If queen wasps are capable of hybemating 
safely under such circumstances, and in such numbers, I am afraid 
we are likely to have a greater wasp-plague than ever next year, 
unless the nests and young are destroyed by imfavourable weather 
in the spring." 

The above reports show how very general the infestation was. 
I fear that we shall not escape very easily this year, for the 
number of queens flying about just now is unusual. 1 found 
one queen hybemating among my botanical specimens. They will 
creep into any convenient comer, and I fancy the "swarming" 
alluded to by Mr. Shillitoe is accidental rather than intentionsd, 
and that the queens found that the spots mentioned would make 
convenient winter quarters, and therefore took possession singly 
and not en masse, 1 beg to thank my correspondents for tiie 
trouble they have taken to send me information. 



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REPORT ON PHENOLOGICAL PHENOMENA OBSERVED IN 
HERTFORDSHIRE DURING THE YEAR 1893. 

By Edwabd Mawlet, F.R.Met.Soc., F.R.H.S., 

Phenological Recorder to the Royal Meteorological Society. 

Head at Watford, 17 th Aprils 1894. 

I AM pleased to be able to record that since the last Report was 
issued there has been a welcome increase in the number of 
obserrers, the following new stations having been added to the 
list — Broxboume, Watford, Radlett, and Baldock. The distribution 
of the observing stations is also very satisfactory, the southern 
part of the county being represented by Watford and Radlett, 
the south-east by Broxboume, the west by Berkhamsted, the north 
by Hitchin and Baldock, while the central portion finds repre- 
sentatives at St. Albans and Hertford. 

The following list shows the localities represented, their approxi- 
mate heights above sea-level, and the names of the observers. 



Station. 


Height a1 
Sea-lev 


^J® Obsbevbr. 


Broxboume (Wormley Bury) 

Watford (The Platte) _ 


160 fee 
240 , 
320 , 
380 , 
400 , 
300 , 
400 , 
370 , 
140 , 
230 , 
260 , 


jt. Lady Frances Bushby. 
, Mrs. G. E. Bishop. 
, H. J. Lubbock. 
, Mrs. J. Hopkinson. 

Miss E. F. Smith. 
, Henry Lewis. 
, Mrs. E. Mawley. 

J. J. Willis. 
, W. Graveson. 
, J. E. Little, M.A. 
, H. G. Fordham. 


Radlett (Newberries) 

St. Albana (The Grange) 

St. AlbauB (Addiscombe Lodge) 

St. Albans (Worley Road) 

Berkhamsted (Rosebank) ^ 

Harpenden 

Hertford 


Hitchin 

Baldock (Odsey) „.. „ 



The plants on the list came into flower as a rule in the different 
localities in the following order — Hertford I, Hitchin 2, St. Albans 
3. Broxboume 4, Harpenden 6, Great Berkhamsted 6, and 
Watford 7. Placed in this way all the old stations arrange them- 
selves, as in the two previous years, according to their respective 
heights above sea-level, the lower levels giving the earlier, and the 
higher the later, dates. This, however, is not the case with the 
new stations, judging by the observations sent in last year. 

The Winter of 1892-93. 

During December the weather remained fairly mild until just 
before Christmas, when a severe frost set in which lasted four 
weeks. After this long frost had broken up, mild weather again 
mostly prevailed until the close of the season. The memorable 
frost of this winter proved very trying to vegetation generally, but 



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28 



E. HAWLET — PHENOLOGICAL PHENOMENiL 



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OfBSSETED nr HSBTFOBSSHIRE DT 1893. 29 






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30 E.. 1UWLEY — ^PHEirOLOGICAL PHEVOMENJl 

was, on the whole, less destructive than the frosts of either of the 
two previous winters. Two half-hardy plants growing in my own 
garden at Berkhamsted, however, which had passed without serious 
injury through the previous eight winters, fell victims to this one, 
viz., montbretias and globe artichokes. This was no doubt owing 
to the exceptional depth to which the frost penetrated the ground, 
and to the long period the soil around their roots remained frozen. 
To the agriculturist this was a very unsatisfactory season. The 
prolonged frost not only prevented the working of the land, but 
also destroyed the turnips, and in February the ground was again 
rendered unworkable owing to the continuous and heavy rain]^. 
In the gardens the winter frosts, for the third year in succession, 
committed sad havoc among the vegetables. The last rose blooms 
of the season were destroyed by cold and wet in my garden at 
Berkhamsted on the 6th of December, which is twelve days earlier 
than the average date of their destruction in the previous eight 
years. 

In all parts of the county the hazel was backward in flowering. 
According to the mean date given at the end of the table it was, 
at Ave of the six stations sending in returns, from a week to ten 
days late. The song-thrush was first heard about a fortnight later 
than usual, while the honey-bee visited flowers, at three out of 
the four stations recording its first appearance, on the same day, 
February 19th, which is rather more than three weeks behind the 
average date. 

The Spbhtg. 

This was a most remarkable season. In March there occurred 
only two unseasonably cold days, in April but four, and in May 
again but two. The total rainfall amounted to less than one-fourth 
of the mean for the quarter, while the sun shone on an average for 
rather more than seven hours a day. 

The greatest sufferers from the continued drought were shallow- 
rooted plants. Trees and shrubs, on the other hand, appeared 
to be in no way injuriously affected, having at that time an 
abundant supply of moisture to draw upon in the subsoil, owing 
to the heavy February rains. Most of the spring wild flowers 
made their appearance singularly early, but the continued heat and 
drought caused them to fade rapidly, and to make but poor growth. 
The spring com was planted in most places under very favourable 
conditions, but germinated very slowly, while the grass made but 
very little progress. The observer at Addiscombe Lodge, St. Albans, 
states that some sweet-peas which were sown on March 20th did 
not appear above ground until April 18th. The fruit trees and 
other flowering trees and shrubs blossomed abundantly, but the 
display of bloom was soon over. 

The coltsfoot, as usual, flowered very irregularly, being earlier 
than the average in some districts, and later in others, and the 
same may be said of the wood-anemone. But towards the end 
of March the continued heat began to tell, and from that time 



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OBSEBTSD m HERTFORDSHIRE IS 1893. 31 

the flowering of all plants took place in advance of the mean. 
For instance, hlackthom blossomed from a week to ten days earlier 
than usual, garlic hedge-mustard about a fortnight earlier, horse- 
chestnut about three weeks earlier, hawthorn from three weeks 
to a month earlier, the white ox-eye about ten days earlier, the 
dog-rose more than three weeks earlier, and the black knapweed 
also fully three weeks in advance of its average date. 

The swallow was reported as having been first seen at four 
stations a few days earlier, and at three a few days later, than 
the mean date. The cuckoo was first heard at most stations a few 
days behind its usual time. The nightingale at all but one station 
was a few days late. 

The dates sent in for the first wasp vary greatly, ranging from 
March 16th to April 29th, but the small white butterfly was seen 
in most districts from a few days to a fortnight early, while the. 
orange-tip butterfly was about three weeks early. 

The Summer. 

This proved another very dry and warm season, while the record 
of bright sunshine was greater than in any summer since that of 
the Jubilee year, 1887. June and August were singularly hot and 
dry months, but during the greater ptirt of July the weather was 
only moderately warm, and rain fell at frequent intervals. 

Owing to the continued drought, which may be said to have 
lasted from the beginning of March until the end of the first week 
in July— or for eighteen weeks — vegetation suffered severely. The 
grass was burnt up in the pastures, and where cut for hay yielded 
one of the lightest crops on record. In Sir John Lawes' grass' 
experiments at Rothamsted, the plot which never receives any 
manure yielded 3 cwt. of hay per acre instead of its usual average 
of 21 cwt. ; and the plot the most heavily manured yielded 23 cwt. 
per acre instead of an average of 57 cwt. The com made but poor 
growth, and came to maturity remarkably early. At Harpenden 
Sie cutting of winter oats began during the first week in July. 
The refreshing rains of July improved the grass lands for a time, 
but towards the end of the season they were becoming as bare as 
ever, owing to the dry weather again setting in during August. 
Strawberries proved in most places- a poor crop, while bush-fruits on 
the other hand were as a rule abundant. 

Two of the summer plants on the list having flowered during 
the previous season, only two others remain for notice here 
— the harebell and the greater bindweed. The harebell was a few 
days late in flowering at the only two stations at which it was 
noted. This plant, owing no doubt to its shallow roots, suffered 
more than any of the others. In fact the great drvness of the 
ground appeai^ed to retard both its growth and flowenng consider- 
ably. The greater bindweed, on the contrary, being deep-rooted, 
came into blossom more in advance of its average date than any of 
the other twelve plants — the variation from the average amounting 
at two stations to as much as six weeks. 



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32 £. MAWLET— PHSrOLOeiCAL PHSlfOiaEHA DT 1893. 

Ths AuTUiar. 

The weather was moderately warm during Septemher and 
October, but in November there occurred frequent slight frosts at 
night. Indeed, November was the first month which had been in 
any way unseasonably cold for ten months. The second drought of 
the year, which set in during the second week in August, lasted 
throughout September, and was more distressing to vegetation 
generally than the previous one, owing to the greater dryness of 
the subsoil. Between Apnl 2nd and July dlst no rain-water at all 
came through the 2i feet of uncropped soil in either of my percola- 
tion-gauges. This may be regarded as the first drought of the 
year. Again, in part of August and the whole of September, or 
during the second drought, no measurable quantity of water passed 
through either of these gauges. Pastures were again brown and 
parched, the root-crops were at a standstill, apples and pears 
ripened prematurely, and few flowers were to be seen in either 
hedgerows or gardens. The frequent and heavy rains of October, 
coming upon ground singularly warm for the time of year, the 
whole aspect of the landscape was soon transformed. The pastures 
became green again, the roots improved rapidly, and the land was 
soon in splendid order for getting in the autumn com. The second 
flowering of many trees and shrubs, as well as of some herbaceous 
plants, was one of the most noteworthy features of this season, and 
was almost everywhere noted. All wild fruits, except holly- 
berries, were unusually plentiful. 

The yield of the com crops of all kinds was much below the 
average, but the grain, as a rule, proved of excellent quality. 
Apples and pears yielded somewhat irregularly, but were on the 
whole good crops. 

The last plant on the list, the ivy, came into flower about a 
fortnight in advance of its average date. 

Swallows took their departure nearly a week earlier than in 
1891, and more than three weeks earlier than in 1892. 



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VI. 

EEPORT ON THE BAINFALL IN HERTFORDSHIRE IX THE 

YEAR 1893. 

By JoHw HopiDTMiT, F.L.8., F.G.S., F R.Met.Soc. 

lUad at Watford, 17M April, 1894. 

Thb number of our ramfall observers in the year 1 893 is greater 
than in any previous year, the records entered in our principal 
table being 40, an increase of four upon the number for the year 
1 892. The number of daily records received shows a still greater 
increase, being 33, or six more than that for the previous year. 

Of the stations for which records appeared in the table for 1892, 
one only is omitted this year, — Kytes, Watford, — ^no reply to my 
applications having been received from the observer there. Against 
this one loss there are five additions, records having been received 
from Bancroft, Hitchin ; Pendley Manor, Tring ; Frogmore, and the 
Cohie Valley Water Works, Watford; and Brocket Hall, Welwyn. 

These alterations increase the number of stations in the river- 
district of the Hiz from three to four, in that of the Upper Thame 
from one to two, in that of the Lower €k)lne from three to four, 
and in that of the Mimram also from three to four. 

Particulars of the 40 lainfall stations, and the monthly and total 
lain&dl and number of days on which at least 0*01 inch of rain 
fell, or, when the measurement is taken to thousandths of an inch, 
0005 inch, are given in Tables I and II, pp. 35-37. 

A supplementary table (Table III, p. 38) gives five other records 
of the total rainfall in the year. Two of these are the records of 
additional gauges at Bothamsted, and three are taken from *• British 
Bainfall, 1 893.' The rainfall returned for Aldenham House, Elstree, 
is not here given, the record being incomplete. 

The mean rainMl in the county in the year 1893 was 22*56 
inches. This is 4*18 inches below the mean for the decade 
1880-89, and 3*87 inches below that for the half -century 
1840-89.* The year was therefore a decidedly dry one. 

This is the third year in succession with about twice as much 
rain in the second half as in the first. The fall in the first half of 
1891 was 9*57 ins., in the second half, 20*05 ins. ; in the first half 
of 1892, 8*67 ins., in the second half, 16*07 ins.; in the first half 
of 1893, 7*35 ins., in the second half, 15*21 ins. The defect in the 
first six months of 1893 is entirely due to the dryness of the four 
months March to June, January and February having together 
4*98 ins., or 2*49 ins. per month on the average, while March, 
April, May, and June had an aggregate rainfall of 2*37 ins., giving 
an average monthly fall of only 0*59 in. 

Droughts in 1893. — According to the definitions of Mr. Symons 
(in ^ British Rainfall ') an '^ absolute drought " Ib a period of more 

• See * Trans. Herti. Nat. Hist. Soc.,' Vol. VI, p. 84. 

VOL. Vni.— PAUT u. 3 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



30 


)} 


if 


17 


29 


n 


91 


18 


24 


ti 


)) 


23 



34 J. HOPKIWSON — ^BSPOBT ON THE 

than 14 consecutive days without any rain, and a " partial 
drought" is a period of more than 28 consecutive days with an 
aggregate rainfall not exceeding 0*01 in. per diem. The great 
dryness of the spring of 1893 will be best brought out by an 
analysis of such droughts which have occurred in it at the 33 
stations for which we have daily records of the rainMl. 

Of absolute droughts there were three : (I) in March and April, 
(2) in May, (3) in June. The first of these was an absolute 
drought at all stations, lasting for 

31 days, March 17 to April 16, at 2 stations. 
„ 16, „ 10 „ 

The two stations at which rain is not recorded to have fallen 
on the 16th of April are Cowroast and Welwyn Rectory; rain 
(001 in.) fell on the 22nd of March at Odsey and Bennington 
House, reducing the length of the drought at those stations to 24 
days. The average duration of this drought was 29j days. 

The second absolute drought lasted for 

16 days, April 30 to May 15, at 1 station. 

15 „ „ 30 „ „ 14, „ 6 stations. 

The third lasted for 

16 days, June 6 to June 21, at 1 station. 

1^ » >» 6 >» 99 20, „ I „ 

15 „ „ 7 „ „ 21, „ 3 stations 

The Old Nurseries, Cheshunt, is the station at which no rain fell 
on the 15th of May ; Frogmore, Watford, is that at which none fell 
from the 6th to the 2l6t of June. 

A partial drought extended throughout the months of March 
and April and through the greater part of May, its duration being 
from about eleven to thirteen weeks. It prevailed at all the 
stations, and lasted for 

89 days, March 1 to May 28, at 3 stations. 

88 „ ,, 2 ,, „ 28, ,, 3 ,, 

78 „ Feb. 28 „ „ 16, „ 10 „ 

77 „ March 1 „ „ 16, „ 8 „ 

76 ,, ,, 2 ,, ,, 16, „ 9 ,, 

The difference of ten days or more in the duration of the 
partial drought at the different stations is chiefly due to the varia- 
tion in the fall of rain during a thunderstorm which occurred on 
the 17th of May. The average rainfall on this day at the six 
stations with a partial drought of 88 or 89 days was 0*30 in. ; at 
the twenty-seven stations with a partial drought of 76 to 78 days 
it was 0-47 in. The stations at which the partial drought lasted 
for 89 days are Royston, Odsey, and New Bamet ; those at which 
it lasted for 88 days are Therfield, Much Hadham, and Bayford- 
bury, Hertford. Its average duration was 79 days. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



BAIKFALL IN HEBTFORDSHIBB IN 1893. 



S^ 



Table I. — Hebtfobdshibe Kaikfall Stations, 1893. 



"8 

1 



4. 
ft 

6. 



10. 
tt 
t» 
>» 

12. 
f> 
If 
»» 

13. 

>» 

14. 

» 

» 

15. 

17. 

»» 

>» 

18. 



Station. 



•Royston 
•Odfley ... 



♦flitchin— The Firs 

„ The Maples 

• ,, Bancroft 

• „ High Down 



•Tring — Elm House .... 
f, Pendley Manor . 



•Cowroast . 
'Berkhamsted — Rosehank 



Obsbbtsb. 



•Great Oaddesden Vicarage... 
•H. Hempstead— Apsley Mills 

• „ Nash Mills 

♦Kensworth— The GroTe ... 

Harpenden — Rothamsfced . 

•St. Albaofl — Gorhambury ... 

• „ The Grange ... 

•Watford— Oaklands 

• ,, Frogmore 

„ ColneValWaterWks 

Rickmansworth — Moor Park 



•Welwyn Rectory 

•Hatfield— Brocket Hall.. 
•Datchworth Rectory 
Hertford— Marden Hill.. 



Fairhill W. Bonner Hopkins.. 



Rev. W. T. Drake 
J. Dickinson & Co. 



•Steyenage— Weston Patk .. 
• ,, Bennington House .. 

•Therfield Rectory 

•Throcking Rectory... 

•Buntingf ord — Hamels Park 

•MuchHadham 



•Hertford— Bar 
•Ware— Red House . 
• ,, Fanhams Hall . 



•Broxboume — Stafford House 
•Cheshunt— Old Nurseries ... 

,, College 

•New Bamet — Gas Works ... 
•Southgate — The Lawns 



Hale Wortham 

H. George Fordham 

William Lucas 

William Hill 

Francis Ransom 

Joseph Pollard 

E. J. Le Quesne 

J. G. Williams 

Rupert Thomas 

Edward Mawley 



Diameter Height of Gauge 



Miss S. Grace Jones 
Lawes and Gilbert .. 
Hon. Wm. Grimston 
John Hopkinson 



Edward Harrison 

Arthur P. Blathwayt 

William Verini 

Lord Ebury 



Rev. Canon Wingfield 
Lord Mount Stephen 
Rev. J. Wardale ... . 
Richard Hoare 



M. R.Pryor 

Rev. Dr. Parker 



Rev. J. G. Hale .... 
Rev. C. W. Harvey . 
E. Wallis 



T. Woodham Mott 

W. Clinton Baker 

Joseph Francis 

Miss Joyce Croft... 



G. J. Newbery 

Paul and Son 

Rev. Dr. Reynolds 

T. H. Martin 

George A. Church 



of 
Gauge. 



ins. 
8 
5 



5 

8 
24 

12 

5 
5 
5 
5 

5 
5 

5 
5 



above 



Ground. Sea-level 



ft int. 

6 

1 o 

2 I 
I I 

9 

1 I 

1 2 

2 O 

4 2 

I O 

I o 



5 6 

I o 

1 o 

2 O 

4 

1 o 
I o 
o 6 

8 

1 o 

4 3 

I o 

I o 

I o 



ft.+ 

2695 

260 T 

238 T 
220^ 
212 X 
422^ 

460 
500 P 

345 L 
401 tT 

550 T 

427^ 
260 

237 T 

630 B 
420 T 
425 T 

380 /|N 

273 T 
182 
220 
340 T 

228 T 
250 
386 T 
257 T 

470 T 

408 ;r 

500 
484 T 
400T 

222 B 

250 
112T 
253 T 

118T 
92 T 
94 T 

212 

240 T 



• Daily fall received for these stations. 

t For explanation of these symbols see Vol. YII, p. 53. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



36 



7. HOPKIKSOIf — BEPOBT OK THE 



Table II. — Baikfall ts 



RiTBK District. 



QQ 



. Rhee 



5 I 3. Hiz 

H 

I I 4.Up.Thame J 

I 



00 

H 

w 



BQ 



o 



6. Balbonme 



7. Gade 



8. Ver 



10. Lo. Colne 



12. Mimram 



13. Beane 



14. Rib 



16. Ash 

17. UpperLea J 



18. LowerLea^ 



Station. 



RoystoiL. 
Odsey^.... 



Hitchin— The Firs 

„ The Maples..^ 

,, Bancroft 

„ High Down.... 

Tring — Elm House 

„ Pendley Manor 



Cowroast 

Berkhamsted- 



-Rosebank 
FairhiU .. 



Great Gaddesden Vicarage .... 

Hemel Hempsted — Apsley Mills 

„ Nash Mills ^ 

Eensworth — The Grore „...«..«..« 

Harpenden — Rothamsted 

St. Albans — Gorhambury ...„ 

„ The Grange 

Watford— Oaklands 

„ Frogmore «. „„ ^.. 

„ ColneValleyWaterWorks 

Rickmansworth— Moor Park 



Welwjn Rectory 

Hatfield— Brocket Hall .... 

Datchworth Rectory 

Hertford— Marden Hill ^ 

Stevenage— Weston Park 
Bennington House 

Therfield Rectory 

Throcking Rectory 



Buntingford— Hamek Park 
Much Hadham ..^ „ ««. 



Hertford— Bajrfordbury , 

Ware — Red House 

,, Fanhams Hall .^. 



Broxbonme — Stafford House , 

Cheshunt — Old Nurseries . 

„ College 

New Bamet— Gas Works «.... 
Southgate — The Lawns ««.„.... 



Mean for the County 



Jan. 



ins. 
1-63 
r6i 

1-65 

1-88 
1*95 

1-97 
2-15 

2*05 
2-05 

2'12 
2'OI 

1-93 

176 

1-93 
1-91 
I 96 

2-OI 



2-05 
1-87 



;:?i 



1-91 
1*94 
179 
160 

1-88 
169 

2-12 
178 
180 

1-88 

167 
174 
1-45 

1-58 

1-63 
I -61 
1-59 



182 



FsB. 



inf. 
2*92 
2-63 

308 
309 
3-i6 
260 

3-46 
3-61 

3*57 
369 
363 

348 
324 
298 

3-80 
346 
352 
336 

3-61 
3*37 
3'3i 
3*92 

324 
2-84 
306 
3*14 

299 
2-91 

317 
289 
272 

2-87 

300 
2*46 
2-68 

285 
301 
283 
320 
303 



316 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



SAINFALL nr HERTFORBSHIHB IN 1893, 



87 



HESiroiiDSHraB in 1893. 



Apl. 


Mat. 


JUNB. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sbpt. 


Oct. 


Not. 


Dbc. 


1 Yrar. 


Days. 


ins. 
•13 
•15 


int. 

77 


ins. 
•66 
•92 


int. 
348 
360 


im. 
2-49 
315 


int. 
I 01 
129 


int. 
311 
334 


ins. 


inf. 
I 62 
1-43 


ins. 
20-52 
21*01 


146 

167 




•93 

•91 

I 02 

142 


•78 

•89 


2*34 
2*37 
259 
316 


240 
242 
251 
252 


i-io 

1-39 
127 
1*23 


3-62 
398 


2-34 
2-35 

2-22 

2-19 


190 
204 
1-72 

174 


2077 
20*92 

21-53 
2214 


155 

160 
159 


•18 
•25 


•83 

IIO 


:|| 


252 

2-68 


165 
105 


•89 
1*04 


3-88 
420 


270 
292 


260 


21*12 
22*60 


•M 


•18 

•20 

•19 


•96 

•86 

1-26 


■64 


275 
214 
217 


1-83 
2*33 
231 


1*21 
IIO 
103 


391 

4*21 

405 


262 
317 
309 


246 
2^75 
2-85 


22*80 
2394 
24II 


IS 


•25 

•15 

•10 


i-oi 

I 02 

•96 


•83 
•90 
72 


265 

2-12 
224 


2-i8 

2l8 


•90 
III 
124 


425 
4-59 
496 


330 
2-52 

274 


2-66 
2-50 
2*43 


2437 
2278 
2278 


159 
153 
151 


•32 

•22 

•14 


•94 

l'20 

165 


130 
72 


2-88 

292 
348 
306 


2*33 
228 
302 

2-IO 


IIO 

109 

IIO 

108 


4*43 
4*35 
4-85 
507 


2^81 

2-58 
306 
289 


217 
rji 
2-8i 
2-41 


24-45 
2382 
2680 
2500 


144 
151 

170 


•10 
•06 


116 

I'02 


1 


263 

2*97 
2-66 
278 


2-42 
224 
I 60 
2-20 


142 

1*55 
123 

1*39 


5-89 
580 
606 
675 


280 
2-41 
226 

3" 


275 
270 


2628 
2530 
2V61 
28-77 


157 
150 

165 


•13 
•14 


132 
115 


•69 

•68 


2*40 
303 
239 
2*37 


316 
235 

3*45 
301 


123 
116 

'^ 
•87 


396 
409 

3" 


2-ii 

215 
274 


2*22 
238 
2-IO 
215 


2218 

22-68 

21-80 

21 22 


146 


'•'d 


1-24 

I 20 


59 
•58 


408 
274 


3-6i 
273 


''U 


416 
356 


2-33 
2*53 


195 
225 


24-55 
21-54 


152 
159 


•15 
•14 
•II 


•81 
•95 

I-2I 


72 


401 
3-86 
309 


340 
300 
215 


1-22 

1-32 

•93 


3-88 
306 


2'20 
216 
246 


213 


2353 
22-34 
2094 


161 
168 
137 


-16 


I -02 


•82 


248 


2-58 


•85 


2-94 


284 


2^52 


21-35 


143 


"II 
•10 
-II 


•94 
115 
123 


•ss 


261 
218 
2-57 


2-35 

2-5J 

278 


•88 
78 
71 


291 
320 
328 


260 

2*33 
2-59 


2-39 


2038 

1979 
21-50 


152 
135 
159 


•II 
•10 
•10 

•04 

•21 


•99 

I-I4 

•91 
I 00 


•84 
•64 
•76 


240 
2-8S 
290 
2*44 
238 


275 
2-56 

208 
172 


1 

•67 

•93 

107 


342 
3;4i 


2-55 
2*39 
2-33 
232 

2*31 


2*22 
212 
224 
2-S2 

2-33 


2056 
21-32 
2058 
2042 
2032 


162 
141 
138 

180 


•15 


105 


76 


278 


246 


108 


400 


2-56 


2-33 


2256 


154 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



38 



J. H0PKIN80K — BEPOBT GS THE 



Table III. — Supplementakt to Tables I aitd II. 



1 


Stetion. 


Observer. 


Gauge. 


Rain- 
fall. 


Days. 


Dia- 
meter. 


Height 
above 
Sea. 


8. 
t« 

10. 
12. 
17. 


Harpenden — Rothamsted 

Watford— Kyte8'„.„ 

Welwyn — Danesbnry «... 
Hertford— Haileybiiry..... 


Sir J. Lawesand) 
SirH.Gnbert.....) 
Mrs. Horsman .... 

A. M. Blake 

A. A. Lea 


ins. 
8 

72x87 

5 
5 
5 


feet. 
420 
420 
239 

260 


ins. 
2380 
25- 10 
2389 
2272 
2238 


H5 
156 
141 

145 
142 



Distribution of Rainfall throughout the Year. — Of the total rainfell 
32i 7o ^^^ during the winter months (Jan., Feh., and Dec.), 7 % 
during the spring (March to May), 26^ ^j^ during the summer 
(June to Aug.), and 34 % during the autumn (Sept. to Nov.>. 
The fall during each quarter and each season, and the deviation 
from the mean for the half -century 1840-89, was as follows : — 
Fall. Diff. Fall. Diff. 

Ist qnarter.„....... 6*39 ins. —0*24 in. Winter .«««««.... 7*31 ins. -f 1*68 in. 

2nd „ ««...« 1-96 —4*06 Spring 161 —4-40 

Srd „ 6-32 —0*99 Summer 6*00 -1-32 

4ih „ 8-89 +1*41 Autumn 7*64 +017 

April was excessively dry; March and June also were very dry ; 
February was very wet; October was excessively wet. The 
difference in each month from the mean for the half-century was — 

in. in. in. in. 

Jan. ...« —0*49 ApriL... —1*63 July ._ +0-28 Oct. ... +106 

Feb +1*46 May..„. —1*08 Aug..... +008 Nov..... 

Mar...... —1*20 June..... —1*34 Sept —1*36 Dec +0*36 

Thus the fall for the first two months was about an inch above 
the mean for the period, for the next four months more than Jive 
inches below the mean, and for the last six months nearly half an 
inch above the mean. 

The absolute maximum fall in any one day in each month,' and 
the station recording it was — 



Jan. 26— Bancroft, Hitcbin.... 
Feb. 21— Bennington House.. 
Mar. 1— Red House, Ware.... 
April 20— TheGroTe.Kensw'tb 
May 17— TbeGrange,S.Alb'n8 
June 27— Colne V^ey Water 
Works 



ins. 
0*39 
0-69 
0*38 
017 
0*93 

0*38 



ins. 
2*18 
0*92 



July 12— Gorbambury 

Aug. 30— Datchworth Rectory 
Sept. 8 — The Maples, and 

Bancroft, Hitchin 0-69 

Oct. 9— Moor Park . 8*11 

Nov. 14— Much Hadham 0-85 

Dec. 20— Red House, Ware 066 



The wettest day in each month at the 40 stations was — 

January 9tb at 2 stations, 26th at 37, 6tb and 26th at 1. 

February 21st at 28, 22nd at 1, 26th at 4, 27tb at 3, 2nd and 2lBt at 1, 2l8t 
and 27th at 2, 22nd and 26th at 1. 

March Ist at 34, 3rd at 3, 16th at 2, 1st and 3rd at 1. 

April 16th at 20, 17th at 2, 19th at 2, 20th at 3, 29th at 10, 16th and 29th 
at 2, 17th and 29th at 1. 

May 17th at 32, 20th at 1, 29th at 7. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



&AINFALL nr HEBTV0BD8EIBB IK 1893. 



39 



Jme 8rd at 1, 6th at 2, lOtli at 1, 22iid at 23, 27tli at 11, 6th aod 27th at 2. 

July 9th at 3, 12th at 11, 19th at 8, 23rd at 4, 25th at 2, 26th at 10, 30th at 
1, I9tha]id26thatl. 

August Ist at 5, 3rd at 5, 4th at 1, 5th at 1, 9th at 4, 22nd at 1, 23rd at 5, 
3l8t at 16, Ist and 9th at 1, let and 23rd at 1. 

September 8th at 13, 19th at 11, 26th at 5, 28th at 8, 8th and 25th at 1, 19th 
and 28th at 2. 

October 9th at all stations. 

Koyember 14th at 19, 18th at 1, 25th at 20. 

December 8th at 1, 12th at 21, 13th at 1, 20th at 16, 8th and 12th at 1. 

The day in each month on which a heavy fall of rain was most 
general over the county was therefore — 

Jan. 26th April 16th July 12th Oct. 9th 

Feb. 21st May 17th Aug. 31 st Not. 26th 

March Ist June 22nd Sept. 8th Dec. 12th 

The number of wet days in the year (average of 36 gauges) was 
154, being 14 below the mean for the 20 years 1870-89. Of the 
total number there were 67 (or 37 per cent.) in the winter months, 
16 (or lOi per cent.) in the spring, 39 (or 25 J per cent.) in the 
summer, and 42 (or 27 J per cent.) in the autumn. 

The average number of wet days in each month, and the deviation 
from the mean for the 20 years 1870-89, was as follows : — 

Jan. 20 +5 April 8 —10 

Feb. 21 +7 May 8 — 5 

March 5 — 8 June 9 — 4 



Oct. 16+1 
Nor. 15 —1 
Dec. 16 e 



July 18 +4 
Aug. 12 —1 
Sept 11 —2 

Distribution of Main/all throughout the County. — ^The following 
table (Table lY) gives the mean fall for each month and for the 
year in each of the five river-districts represented, and in the two 
main hydrographical divisions of the county, the catchment-basins 
of the Great Ouse and the Thames, and also the difference in the 
year from the mean for the decade 1880-89. 

Table IV. — Rainpaxl is the Rivee Distbicts. 



MOKTHS. 


Cam. 


Itbl. 


Thamb. 


COLNB. 


Lba. 


0U8B. 


Thames. 




ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


Jan. _ 


1-62 


''71 


206 


1*95 


174 


1-68 


r8s 


Feb. _ 


277 


298 


3*53 


3-50 


294 


2-91 


320 


March 


•22 


•37 


•35 


•49 


•38 


•32 


•43 


^t... 


•14 


•24 


•22 


•14 


•12 


•21 


•14 


•96 


I -07 


•96 


I -08 


104 


1-03 


105 


June ..... 


79 


•82 


•61 


•88 


•67 


•81 


•75 


July «... 


3*54 


262 


2-6o 


270 


2-82 


292 


276 


Augu«t 


2-82 


2-46 


'•35 


2-22 


270 


258 


2-44 


Sept „ 


IIS 


125 


•96 


118 


•96 


1*22 


4-08 


October 


3-22 


370 


4-04 


494 


3-42 


354 


Nor. _ 


2 0I 


2-27 


281 


2-8i 


246 


2- 19 


263 


Dec. .... 


1-52 


1-85 


2-37 


2-68 


2*25 


174 


2-43 


Tear 


2076 


21-34 


21 86 


2460 


2150 


21-15 


22-8l 


Diff.from 
















1880-89 


—274 


-3-93 




— 4*37 


-4*05 


-2-38 


—4-33 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



40 J. HOPKIKSOir — ^BEPOBI OK THE 

The mean rainfall in each of the minor riTer-basins or 8nl>- 
districts represented was as follows : — 

ins. ins. 

Cam Rhee 20*76 ,Miiiiram 21-97 

IvEL Hiz 21-34 ( Beane 23-06 

Thamb.^ Upper Thame 21-86 j,^ 1 Rib 22-27 

(Bufbourae 23-62 ^^ \ Ash 21-36 

Gade 23-31 f Upper Lea. 20-56 

Ver 26 02 V Lower Lea 20-64 

Lower Colne 26-99 

The total yearly fall ranged from 19-79 ins. at the Red House, 
Ware, to 28*77 ins. at Moor Park, Rickmansworth ; and the total 
monthly fall from 0*04 in. at New Bamet in April, to 6*75 ins. at 
Moor Park in October. The greatest fall in any one day was 
3* 1 1 ins. at Moor Park on the 9th of October. 

Distribution of Rainfall in each Month, — ^The nomenclature used 
in the following account of the chief falls of rain is the same as in 
my previous reports, falls of at least ^ inch being styled consider- 
able, i inch very considerable, 1 inch great, \\ inch very great, 
li inch heavy, l} inch very heavy, and of 2 inches and upwards 
excessive. This analysis only applies to the 33 stations for which 
I have returns of the daily rainfall. 

January. — Rainfall a little below the average, but on an un- 
usually large number of days, nearly all for the first two or three 
weeks in the form of snow, which was sometimes several inches 
deep. On no day was there a considerable fall of rain recorded. 
There was a silver thaw on the 18th. 

Febbuabt. — Rainfall very heavy, and again on a very large 
number of days, only seven days being without a sufficient fall to 
record. Very little on a few days only fell as snow. On 21st the 
&11 was considerable at fourteen stations, and on 26th at one 
station. 

March. — A very dry month, with rain on very few days, nearly 
all falling before the 5th, after which date there was a measurable 
quantity only on two days on the average throughout the county, 
yielding less than a tenth of an inch (exactly 0*087 in.). On no 
day was there a considerable fall of rain recorded. 

April. — An excessively dry month, with rain on even a smaller 
number of days than in March, at nearly aU stations rain falling 
only on 16th, 20th, and 29th. At most stations an absolute 
drought of thirty days terminated in the middle of this month. 
No considerable fall of rain was recorded. 

Mat. — Another very dry month, with rain on very few days, 
but not so exceptional in either respect as March or April. About 
half the rain recorded in the month fell on the 1 7th, on which day 
the fall was veri^ considerable at three stations and considerable at 
six. There was also a considerable fall at four stations on 29th. 

June. — The fourth very dry month in succession, and with rain 
on very few days, nearly all falling after the 21 at. At no station 
was a considerable fall recorded. 



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BAINVALL m HBRTFOBBSHIBB IN 1893. 41 

JiTLT. — A. rather wet month, with rain on a large number of 
days, mostly between 8th and 26th. On 9th the fall was consider- 
able at one station; on 12th it was excessive at Gorhambury 
(2*18 ins.), great at Brocket Hall (1-10 in.), very considerable at 
three stations, and considerable at one; and on 19th there was a 
considerable fall at two stations. On 25th the fall was great at 
Boyston (1*04 in.), and considerable at two stations; on 26th it 
was great at the Old Nurseries, Cheshunt (1*04 in.), and consider- 
able at three stations; and on 30th it was considerable at one 
station. Severe thunderstorms occurred in several parts of the 
county on the 8th and 9th (Saturday and Sunday). At Royston 
on the Saturday a house was struck by the lightning and much 
damaged. The chimney was partly demolished, a large portion of 
the brickwork of the outer wall being forced out, and the bricks 
sent flying a considerable distance. The window-frames were 
shattered, and the water-supply pipe was cut in two. At Hertford 
on the same day the storm is reported as exceptionally severe, the 
rain Mling in torrents and some of the rain-drops being as large in 
diameter as a shilling. At Bengeo two horses were struck by the 
lightning and killed, and at Thundridge two stacks of straw were 
set on fire and totally destroyed. The greatest fall of rain in 
either of the two days was 0-52 in. at High Down, Hitchin, on 
the Sunday. Thunderstorms also occurred on 25th, 26th, and 
31st. 

August. — Rainfall a little above the average, on about the usual 
number of days. There was a considerable fall on the 1st at four 
stations ; on the 3rd, 4th, and 5th, at one ; on the 9th at four ; and 
on the 22nd at one. On the 31st the fall was verg considerable 
at six stations and considerable at six. There were thunderstorms 
on 4th and 10th with heavy rain. On the 4th, at Batch worth 
Rectory, 0*44 in. fell in 20 minutes; and on the 10th, at Rose- 
bank, Berkhamsted, 0*52 in. fell in the same time. At St. Albans 
on the loth the lightning was very vivid, the rain torrential for a 
few minutes, and large hailstones fell. As this storm occurred at 
about 3 a.m. the rain was of course registered to the 9th. 

Septbmbeb. — Rainfall very small, and on rather less than the 
average number of days. Most of the rain fell during the latter 
part of the month. On 8th the fall was considerable at three 
stations, and on 26th at two. On 23rd there was a gale with 
heavy rain and hail in many places in the county. 

October. — Rainfall very heavy, but on little more than the usual 
number of days. The first half of the month was much wetter 
than the second half, but the excess was chiefiy due to the fall 
on one day (the 9th). On 5th the fall was considerable at three 
stations; on 6th at one; and on 7th verg considerable at one, and 
considerable at six. On 9th the fall was excessive at Oaklands, 
Watford (2*72 ins.), Progmore, Watford (2 51 ins.), Nash Mills, 
Hemel Hempstead (2-1 6ins. ), and The Grange, St. Albans (202ins.); 
iferg heavy at Apsley Mills, Hemel Hempstead (1*92 in.); heavy 
at Gorhambury, . St. Albans (1*74 in.), Rothamsted, Harpenden 



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42 J. HOPKnrsoN— SEPOBi as thx 

(1-63 in.), Rosebank, Berkhamsted (1*62 in.), Weston Park, 
Stevenage (1-55 in.), Great Gaddesden Vicarage (1*50 in.), and 
Brocket Hall, Welwyn (1-60 in.); veri/ great at Fairfield, Berk- 
hamsted (1*48 in.). High Down, Hitchm (1*36 in.), Kensworth 
(l'32in.), Bennington House (I'^Qin.), and Cowroast (1-25 in.); 
great at New Bamet (1-21 in.). The Firs, Hitchin (1-19 in.), Ban- 
croft, Hitchin (1*19 in.), The Rectory, Wei wyn (1-15 in.), Fanhams 
Hall, Ware (1*13 in.), Throcking Rectory (112in.), Broxboume, 
(Ml in.), Batch worth Rectory (MO in.), Therfield Rectory 
(1-07 in.), Hamels Park (1-06 in.), Southgate (105 in.), and 
Odsey (1*02 in.); and very considerable at six stations. On 17th 
there was a considerable fall at two stations, and on 21st at one. 
A very violent thunderstorm occurred on the 7th. The wind rose 
to a gale, many trees were blown down, and other damage was 
done. The gale was most destructive in the neighbourhood of 
Bushey. An account of its effects there is appended. 

November. — Rainfall rather heavy but not exceeding the aver- 
age, November being usually a wet month, and although rain was 
recorded on half the days in the month, the usual number was not 
quite reached. On 14th the fall was very considerable at seven 
stations and considerable at fifteen; on 18th considerable at seven; 
and on 25th very considerable at two and considerable at thirty. 
The fall on the 18th was due to a snowstorm which commenced 
on that — Saturday — anight and continued into Sunday morning. 
The wind being very high, the snow drifted, and blocked roads 
and railway lines all over the county, from Hitchin and Royston 
in the north to Rickmans worth in the south-west and Bishop's 
Stortford in the east. To clear the line between Hitchin and 
Royston a snow-plough had to be employed, and the line 
between Bishop's Stortford and Takeley (in Essex) was so com- 
pletely blocked that trains could not be worked over it on the 
Monday morning. The roads were in places blocked with snow 
several feet in depth. At Throcking no service could be held on 
the Sunday owing to the approach to the church being snowed up. 
At Rickmanswortii the gale was so violent that windows were 
blown in, fences were blown down, chimney-pots fell in all direc- 
tions, and trees were uprooted. 

December. — Rainfall rather above the average, but less than in 
November, and on the usual number of days. On 12th there was 
a considerable fall at four stations, and on 20th at three. The fall 
on the 1 2th was accompanied with a furious gale which blew down 
many trees and did other damage, but not so great as that done by 
the gale of the 18th of November. The fall of a large fir tree 
blocked the railway-line between Cole Green and Hertingfordbury, 
and the London Road near Hertford was blocked by a tree falling 
right across it, while some damage was done to houses in Hertford 
and other places. Rickmansworth again suffered severely, 
chimney-pots and tiles being blown off the houses, fences being 
blown down and conservatories damaged, some trees being uprooted, 
and others having large branches broken off them. 



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SAIKFALL m HZSTTOBOSHIBE DT 1893. 43 

I%s Storm of the 7 th of Oetcher at Buih$y, — Between 6 and 
7 p.m. on Saturday the 7th of October, a tenific thunderstorm, 
accompanied by a violent gale, or whirlwind as it would appear 
to have been, swept across the centre of the parish of EuBhey. 
It seems to have commenced near Pinner, and it exhausted 
its energies a little to the east of St. Albans, its direction being 
almost in a straight line from S.S.W. to N.KE. The night 
was intensely dark, the lightning most vivid, like balls of fire, and 
the peals of thunder were very loud. Bain fell in torrents, and 
water rushed through the village of Bushey in streams in its 
course towards the Colne. 

The following account is slightly condensed from a report which 
appeared in the * Watford Observer' of the 14th of October. 

The storm came from the direction of Pinner, swept across 
Hartsboume Manor Park and over Merry Hill Lane, crossed the 
top of Clay Hill by the spring-hole inscribed ** Pro bono publico," 
and, contmuing straight across Mr. Fowler's meadows, leaving 
Cold Harbour Farm on the left and Hart's Farm on the right, 
passed on to Tyler's Farm and straight towards Letchmore Heath, 
between Delrow on the left and Hillfield on the right. In Harts- 
boume Park much damage was done to the trees and fences, one 
large tree in the park being torn right up and carried a consider- 
able distance ; and at Merry Hill much damage was done to fences, 
chimney-stacks, windows, roofing, etc. The terrific force of the 
gale here was evident from a quantity of galvanized iron roof- 
sheeting being stripped of^ sheds at Merry Hill Lane and some of it 
carried a long way and deposited in Mr. Fowler's meadow. On 
Clay Hill the dwelling-house of Mr. W. Ashby, jun., was partly 
unroofed, windows were blown in, and tiles and glass fell in all 
directions. The large gates to the hay-yard of Mr. W. Ashby, sen., 
were burst open and split, the roof of his stables was completely 
stripped, and the tiles, bricks, and even large pieces of timber from 
the stables were hurled into the adjoining meadows. Portions of 
the fence and porch, and some of the slates of the next house, 
Lismore Cottage, were blown away, some of the woodwork being 
carried half-a-mile. Several other houses near were also damaged. 
A holly tree was suddenly snapped off from the bottom of the 
trunk and hurled against a man and a boy, carrying them several 
yards down the road against a bank on the south side. They were 
much hurt. A heavy hay-cart was swept from the middle of Mr. 
Ashby 's yard against the wall. On Mr. Fowler's farm large trees 
were uprooted, and the tops of others weighing nearly a ton were 
twisted off and carried away. On Tyler's Farm several large trees 
were blown down, one, with its immense roots, being lifted com- 
pletely out of the ground ; buildings also (houses, cow- sheds, etc.) 
were damaged. Similar damage was done to trees, buildings, etc., 
at Letchmore Heath. 

Since the above was in type I have received from Mr. K. J. 
Tarrant, of Craven Cottage, Bushey Heath, the following further 
account, also slightly abbreviated. 



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44 J. HOPXIKSOir — THS BAHTFALL IK 1893. 

" The thunderstonn was a very remarkable one, being of a true 
cyclonic character, a tornado in fact. During the whole afternoon 
electrical tension had been extreme, the instruments here, especiaUy 
the electrometer, being much disturbed. Distant thunder was 
heard about 3.30 p.m., and a sharp fall of the barometer set in. 
At about 6.5 the storm broke out to the S.W. It appeared to 
have originated to the south of the village of Pinner, but did 
not then develop the energy it afterwards displayed, the first 
case of damage being the partial unroofing of a bam near Pinner 
Church. It then passed at the back of Woodridings, where 
several large trees were torn up and garden-fences and roofs 
broken, and crossed the L. and N.W. main line at Pinner Station, 
lifting up the seats on the platform and carrying the corrugated- 
iron roof of a shed nearly a mile, depositing it in a field, where 
also were found the tops of two fir trees which must have been 
blown a mile and a half. After crossing the Watford road near 
Burnt Oak Farm, it passed up the valley below Grseme's Dyke 
to Hartsboume. (Its further track is given above.) 

**The width of the whirlwind was only about 50 yards, and 
outside this track nothing was touched, but within its infiuence 
the effects were remarkable. It appeared to have exerted the 
greatest force in the hollows, nearly all the trees blown down 
being in the lowest positions; in many cases where the trunks 
were too firmly rooted they were wrung in half about eight feet 
from the ground, the fibres of the wood being twisted like the 
strands of a rope. A line of trees standing parallel to the course 
of the storm had all the branches on one side broken, on the other 
untouched, while some of the trees uprooted were lying with their 
tops to the direction from which the wind had come. 

** As seen from here the cyclone appeared as a very low cloud, 
absolutely black, and apparently reaching the ground. It appeared 
to completely envelop the trees, and travelled with great velocity, 
while the enormous speed with which it rotated on its axis is 
shown by the damage done. The noise when distant was like that 
produced by a large flock of starlings in flight ; as it approached, 
however, tiie roar resembled that of a train, but at this point, 
some 800 yards distant from the track of the storm, the air was 
perfectly still. The electrical phenomena accompanying it were 
very intense, but I have not been able to trace any actual damage 
by lightning, although the close proximity of the storm is proved 
by the fact that three of the fuses in the electric-lighting engine- 
room in the garden were melted, probably by induction, as ^ere 
was no sign of the building having been struck. From 6.40 the 
barometer commenced to recover itself. I am strongly of opinion 
that a so-called cyclone is simply an effect of electrical t^sion, 
and that any thunderstorm of sufficient energy is likely to be 
accompanied by a * wind-spout ' similar to the above." — JT. J. Tarrant* 



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VII. 

CLIMATOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS TAKEN IN HERTFORDSHIRE 
IN THE TEAR 1893. 

By JoHH HoPHKSow, F.L.8., F.G.S., F.R.Met.Soc. 

S$ad at Watford, nth April, 1894. 

Observations contmue to be made at the five stations for which 
the six previous annual reports have been drawn up, and therefore 
I give for the year 1893 the usual series of tables. 

The mean temperature of Hertfordshire in 1893, deduced from 
these observations, was 2°* 6 above that of the six previous years, 
and l®-2 above the mean of 1882-86. Tlie year was therefore 
decidedly warm. The mean daily range was very great, being 
2^-7 greater than in 1887-91, and 2°-l greater than in 1882-86. 
The extreme range was greater than in any previous year. The 
air was much less humid than the average of the six previous 
years, the amount of cloud was rather less, and the rainfall was 
considerably less, and on a much smaller number of days. The 
weather was very warm in spring and summer, excessively dry 
in spring and the early part of summer, but cold and rather wet 
in autunm. 

All the observations are made at 9 a.m., the mftyiTnnTn tempera- 
ture and rainfall being entered to the previous day. 

R0Y8T0N. 

(London Eoad.) 

liatitude : 62° 2' 34" N. Longitude : 0° 1' 8" W. Altitude: 

301 feet. 





Observer 


: EaU fFortham, F.R.MetSoc. 






Months 


Temperature of the Air 


i3 


e 

2 


Bain 


Means 


Extremes 


^ 


1 




Mean 


Min. 


Max. 


Range 


Min 


Max. 


1 


^ 




o 

















•& 




ins. 




Jan. _ 


340 


295 


384 


8-9 


155 


500 


67 


163 


21 


Feb 


40*5 


34-6 


464 


11-8 


240 


581 


81 


69 


2-92 


19 


March _ 


45-9 


350 


568 


21-8 


242 


680 


s-; 


4 5 


017 


4 


April — 


520 


37-8 


^1 


28-5 


26-2 


829 


67 


31 


013 


2 


567 


44.6 


68-8 


24-2 


321 


79-3 


72 


57 


IIS 


7 


June 


617 


489 


74-6 


257 


368 


88*o 


71 


SI 


066 


II 


July 


637 


530 


74*5 


21*5 


43*9 


903 


78 


6-3 


348 


17 


AugnBt_ 


65-5 


54-9 


761 


21*2 


42*0 


Ts 


73 


53 


2*49 


II 


Sept. ^. 


55*3 


47-1 


634 


I5S 


371 


It 


5 "5 


I'd 


9 


Oct. ... . 


512 


43-3 


59-1 


270 


67-1 


5-6 


3-II 


17 


Nor 


404 


340 


46-8 


12-8 


247 


60 'O 


87 


7-2 


215 


II 


Dec 


393 


33-4 


45*2 


II-8 


202 


551 


89 


6-3 


1*62 


17 


Year _ 


505 


41*3 


597 


i8-4 


15-5 


93-0 


79 


57 


2052 


146 



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46 



J, HOPKINSOir^-CLIKATOLOOICAL OBSEBVATIOirS 



BERKHAMSTED. 

(Eosebank.) 
Latitude: 61^ 45' 40" N. Longitude : 0° 33' 30" W. Altitude : 

400 feet. 
Observer: Edward Maioley, F.R.MeL8oe. 



Months 


Temperature of the Air 


1 

S 






1 


Bain 


Means 


Extremes 




1 


Mean 


Min. 


Max. 


Range 


Min. 


Max. 


Jan 

Feb 

March .... 

^.^-: 

June 

July 

August.... 

Sept..-. 

Oct 

Not. 
Dec 


o 

34-6 

40-3 
450 
509 

V^ 

62-3 
63-9 
56-6 

503 
404 
391 



30-, 
34-8 
337 
37-3 

%\ 

42-5 

34-4 
32-8 




39-1 
457 

72-0 

717 

74-3 
66.4 
58-0 
46-5 
45 4 




90 
io*9 
227 

27 '2 
22-6 
23-6 

i8-8 

20-8 

19-6 

15-5 
12-1 

12-6 




12-4 

253 
21-9 
249 

357 
340 

39-8 



517 
668 

8o-6 

f7-5 
85-5 
91*0 

79-5 
66-3 

597 
551 


Vo 

93 
92 

11 
67 

6s 
7' 
70 

8s 
90 
93 


8-6 
8-3 
4*4 
41 
5 9 

tl 

6-6 
5*9 

71 


ins. 

369 
0*46 
020 
0-86 
098 
214 
2*33 

I'lO 
4-21 

317 
275 


21 
21 

5 
3 

1 

20 
12 

>3 
16 
16 
19 


Year ... 


50-0 


41 -o 


590 


180 


12-4 


91-0 


78 


6-5 


23-94 


163 



ST. ALBANS. 

(The Grange.) 

Latitude : 51° 45' 9" N. Longitude : 0** 20' 7" W. Altitude : 

380 feet. 
Observer: John Ei^kinson, F,R,MeLSoe, 



Months 


Temperature of the Air 






1 

5 


Rain 


Means 


Extremes 




1 


Mean 


Min. 


Max. 1 Range 


Min. 


Max. 


Jan 

Feb... 

March.... 

M^f - 

June 

July ........ 

August..... 

Sept 

Oct .. 

Not 

Dec _ 




34-4 
397 
45-6 

5^;2 

6o-6 
62-6 
647 
563 
503 
409 
39 "O 




30'i 
34-2 
35'9 
39*4 

49*6 
54-0 

47-6 
43*2 
34-8 
33*2 




38-8 
45-2 

55-3 
65 
66-5 
717 

71-2 

74-2 
65-0 

57 -5 
47 -o 
44-8 



8-7 

II'O 

19-4 
20*8 

22*1 
172 
191 
174 
14-3 
12-2 
II-6 




147 
22*9 

28-8 
37-4 
37*9 
471 
429 

38-9 
30-0 
26-1 
201 



50-2 
|6-3 
65-5 

777 

846 
91-0 
786 

647 
59*2 
54-8 


7o 
90 

69 

67 

§ 

91 
91 


M 

47 
3-6 
SO 

B 

5*5 
43 
7 9 
6-6 


ins. 
2*01 
3-36 
051 
014 
1-65 
072 
3-o6 

2'IO 

I -08 
5-07 
289 
241 


24 

2 

8 

8 

22 

13 
II 

17 
19 

17 


Year..... 


50-2 


41-9 


585 


i6-6 


147 


91-0 


79 


5-9 


25-00 


170 



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TAXEK IS HEBTFOBBSBIBB IK 1893. 



47 



BENNINGTON. 

(Bennington Lodge.) 

Latitude : 51° 53' 45" N. Longitude : 0° 5' 20" W. Altitude : 

407 feet. 
Observer: i?w. J. 2>. Por^^, ZL.D,, F.R.MeLSoc. 



Months 


Temperature of the Air 


^ 




7 




Bain 


Means 


Eztremee 


? 


s- 




Mean 


Min. 


Max. 


Range 


Min. 


Max. 


m 


1 


^ 


G 




o 

















7o! 


ins. 


Jan. 


34*4 


301 


3«-6 


108 


17*5 


50-9 


93 81 


1-69 


21 


Feb 


397 


i 


45-1 


22-3 


57-1 


91 7*8 


291 


21 


March _ 


4.S-« 


55*9 


201 


253 


654 
78-6 


75 


5:1 


0-39 


7 


April 


510 


632 


245 


317 


66 


o-o8 


2 


May 


55« 


451 


66-6 


21-5 


39-8 


76-8 
87-1 


67 


6-2 


I -20 


9 


June 


6o-3 


491 


71-4 


22*3 


64 


6-8 


0-58 


8 


July 


622 


531 


71-4 


18-3 


457 


85-9 


67 


6-8 


274 


18 


Aug:urt.^ 


641 


54"4 


737 


193 


441 


909 


70 


6-5 


273 


'3 


Sept 


56-2 


47-8 


647 


16-9 


381 


?7*2 


?5 


6-4 


0-88 


10 


Oct. 


50-3 


43 4 


571 


137 


299 


64-8 


83 


i:? 


3-56 


^7 


Not. 


40-2 


34-6 


45*9 


11*3 


273 


58-5 


87 


2*53 


16 


Dec 


3»-9 


329 


449 


120 


21-4 


55*3 


90 


71 


225 


17 


Year_ 


499 


41-6 


582 


166 


17*5 


90-9 


77 


6-5 


21*54 


159 



NEW BARNET. 

(Gas Works.) 
Latitude : 51^ 39' 5" N. Longitude : 0^ lO' 15" W. Altitude : 

212 feet. 
Observer : T. H. Martin, C,E. 





Temperature 


) of the Air 1 




2 1 Rain | 










.J^ 


i 












Months 


Means 




Extremes 




-s 1 « 


1 


1 


Mean 


Min. 


Max. 


Range 


Min. 


Max. 



W 


1 <i 






















I 


ins. 


Jan 


34-5 


288 


40-2 


11-4 


12 'O 


530 


7*5 I 61 


14 


Feb. .... 


401 


33-4 


46-8 


13*4 


170 


57'^ 


90 


7*5 320 


19 


March...- 


44-0 


310 


569 


25-9 


170 


680 


76 


4*3 o'38 


4 


April ..„ 
May 


49*3 


33*9 


64-6 


307 


22 '0 


788 


Z? 


27 


004 


2 


557 


421 


693 


27 -2 


30'o 


79-0 


86 


5-3 


057 


7 


June 


6o*o 


457 


74-3 
738 


28-6 


290 


900 


81 


5*3 


0*64 


6 


July . 


62-5 


511 


227 


390 


87-8 


69 


5-6 


2-44 


15 


August..... 


§:? 


513 


76-5 


252 


35 -o 


94-5 


62 


4-5 


2-o8 


II 


Sept. 


44-6 


677 


i8-3 


33-8 


8o-5 


77 


57 


093 


9 


Oct 


508 


41*6 


59*9 


280 


68'o 


82 


4-6 


3-69 


IS 


Not 


40-8 


.1V8 


47*8 


140 


20-5 


61 -8 


84 


\i 


232 


II 


Dec. 


381 


309 


45-3 


14-4 


120 


57-1 


87 


252 


12 


Year_ 


, 49'6 


390 


6o'2 


21*2 


12 'O 


94-5 


79 


5-5 


20'42 


125 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



48 



J, HOPKIHSON ^^JLOCITOLOOICAL OBSEBTATIOITS. 



HERTFORDSHIRE. 

Means of Clitnatological Obseryations (with extremes of tempera- 
ture) in 1893, at Royston, Berkhamsted, St. Albans, Bennington, 
and New Bamet. 



Months 


Temperature of the Air 


i^ 



7 


Rain 


Means 


Extremes 


? 


1 




Mean 


Mm. 


Max. 


Range 


Min. 


Max. 


m 


1 


B 




o 

















7o 




ins. 




Jan — ^ 


34-4 


297 


39-0 


93 


I2*0 


53;o 




77 


I 80 


20 


Feb 


40-1 


34*3 


459 


11-6 


17*0 


1^ 


7-6 


3*21 


21 


March .„.. 


45 3 


34-3 


56-3 


22*0 


170 


68 -o 


4-5 


038 


5 


April .... 


51 1 


37-4 


647 


27-3 


22 'O 


82-9 


67 


3-5 


012 


2 


May. .... 


561 


44*5 


677 
74-8 


232 


30-0 


80-6 


72 


5-6 


108 


8 


Jnne 


60-5 


48-| 


24-5 


29 X> 


900 


70 


60 


072 


8 


July ^ 


626 


72-S 


197 


39-0 


903 


71 


H 


277 


18 


Angnst..... 


64-4 


m 


749 


2I-I 


35 -o 


945 


68 


2-35 


12 


Sept 


•>6i 


6§-4 


i8-6 


33'8 


8o-s 


75 


5-8 


I 00 


II 


Oct 


50-6 


42-8 


15-5 


26*4 


68-0 


84 


1*^ 
8-0 


3*93 


16 


Not..... 


405 


34*3 


12-5 


205 


61 -8 


88 


261 


15 


Dec 


389 


32-6 


45-1 


12-5 


120 


57-1 


90 


6-5 


231 


16 


Year... 


50*0 


41-0 


59-1 


181 


I2-0 


94-5 


78 


6-0 


22-28 


152 



Results op Climatolooical OBSERYAnoirs, 1887-92. 



Stations. 


Temperature of the Air 






1 


Rain 


Means i Extremes 


a 

a 

-< 


^ 

Q 


Mean 


Min. 


Max. 


Range | Min. 


Max. 


Royston 

Berkhamsted „.. 

St. Albans 

Bennington ..... 
New Bamet ^ 



481 
47 -o 
474 
47-1 
47-2 




40-1 

39-5 
404 
40 'O 
38-2 



56-0 
54*5 
54-4 




15-9 
150 
140 

180 




4*3 
ii-i 
ir8 
14*4 

7*5 


89-4 
850 
860 


82 
84 


6-3 

U 
7-4 
6-3 


ins. 

25-66 
26-30 
2478 
2379 


160 
182 
185 
192 
144 


County 


47*4 


397 


55-1 


15-4 


4*3 


89-4 


83 1 6-8 


2455 


173 



Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



VIII. 

NOTES ON BIRDS OBSERVED IN HERTFORDSHIRE DURING 

THE YEAR 1893. 

By HsvBY Lewis. 
Read at Watford, \1th ApHly 1894. 

When I last had the honour of presenting my annual report on 
the birds observed in Hertfordshire, I was enabled to increase our 
register by the addition of three species. On the present occasion 
I have two species to add, raising the number recorded for 
the county to 207. Several rare birds already on our register 
have also been observed during the year. I will at once proceed to 
refer to the two additional species. 

1. The Black Redstabt {Rutieilla titys). — This welcome ad- 
dition to my report I recently received in a letter from Mr. A. 
Sainsbury Verey, of Heronsgate, Herts, enclosing a cutting from 
the '"Watford Observer' of 1st April, 1893, which runs thus: — 
** Sir, — Watching for the wheatears in my field at an early hour 
this morning, the note of a redstart attracted my attention, and 
looking about I was immediately struck with the dark back of the 
bird as it sat perched on a wire fence not very far away. It per- 
mitted a near approach, and then, with obliging courtesy facing 
round, the very dark colour of the throat and body at once con- 
firmed my first impression, it being undoubtedly a specimen of the 
black redstart {RutieiUa tityi). I copy a brief account of the dis- 
tribution of the bird from the * List of British Birds,' compiled by 
the British Ornithologists' Union (p. 9) : * A winter visitant to 
the south-west of Great Britain; occasional elsewhere, and in 
Ireland; has been known to breed in Notts. Breeds all over 
Central and Southern Europe. Winters in North Africa.' — Yours, 
etc., A. Sainsbury Verey, Heronsgate, Herts." 

In his letter to me Mr. Verey states : ** The bird was observed 
on the 28th of March. It stayed with me two days, and was very 
tame, enabling me to determine clearly that it was really the black 
redstart, as I had many opportunities of seeing the grey throat and 
the dark sooty appearance of the whole of the front of the body." 

2. The Canada Goose (B&micla canadensiB). — When on a recent 
visit to Royston, Mr. W. Norman, naturalist, of that town, showed 
me a well-mounted and fine specimen of this rare bird, which 
was shot on the 6th of June, 1893, from a flock of about ten 
observed in a field on the estate of Mr. W. B. Green, Cockenack, 
near Barkway, early in the morning. The bird was found to 
weigh twelve pounds, and measured across the wings 5ft. Gins.', 
and from tip of tail to bill, 3ft. 3in8. 

This bird is the common wild goose of the United States. I 
quote the following from Gray's * Birds of the West of Scotland ' 
(p. 854). ** In writing of the vernal fiight of this species, Wilson, 
the American ornithologist, says ; — * It is highly probable that 
they extend their migration under the very pole itself, amid the 



VOL. VXn. — ^PAET n. 



Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



50 H. LEWIS— KOTES OK BIBD8 

nlent desolation of unknown countries, shut out . . . from the 
prying eye of man by everlasting and insuperable barriers of ice. 
That such places abound with their suitable food we cannot 
for a moment doubt, while the absence of their great destroyer, 
man, and the splendours of a perpetual day, may render such 
regions the most suitable for their purpose.' This restlessness of 
the species," Gray then remarks, ** becomes apparent in April, and 
continues until the middle of May, when the great body has passed 
northwards for the purposes of incubation. There can be no doubt 
that on their return southwards many birds are driven out of their 
reckoning, and find their way to the shores of Great Britain.'' 
According to the late Sir John Richardson this species occasionally 
breeds in trees on the banks of the Saskatchawan, taking posses- 
sion of and depositing its eggs in the deserted nests of ravens and 
eagles. A raven's nest is no doubt a bulky enough structure, but 
after having been sat upon by a fat goose during the period of 
incubation it must have greatly perplexed the original proprietor 
on visiting it the following spring when trying to identify its own 
property. Dr. Coues, in his * Birds of the North West ' (p. 554) 
reports that the Canada goose nests ''in trees, the old birds carrying 
their young when hatched down to the water in their bills." This 
habit of carrying their young is possessed by a number of other 
birds. The woodcock is a weU-known instance. In case of danger 
the bird will convey her young in her claws te a place of safety. 
Mr. John Watson, in * Sylvan Folk ' (p. 92), says : ** Not only do 
swans, coots, grebes, and moor-hens carry their young on their 
backs whilst swimming, but the same birds transport their young 
whilst flying." He also stetes that the mallard or wild duck has 
been known te convey its young from an elevation of at least thirty 
feet from the ground; and that "another duck, the golden- eye, 
which builds in trees, has been seen te transport its young te the 
water." ** Young guillemots," he says, "are carried by their 
parents to the water from the beetling sea-cliffs where they breed, 
though in what manner is not yet definitely known. The same set 
of facts apply to the herring-gull and other sea-birds which build 
on high rocky headlands." 

Mr. Arthur Lewis has given me an amusing instance of the 
nesting of a mallard or wild duck, in his possession, on his 
bee-house. The bird enticed her young to the edge of the roof, 
gave one a push with her beak, and over-toppled the youngster 
on to the grass; she flying down, the rest were precipitated 
pell-mell after her. 

. I will now refer to the occurrence during the past year of a few 
rare birds which are already on our register. 

The Waxwwq (Ampelis gamdus). — In January (1893) Mr. 
Seymour received for preservation a specimen of this beautiful bird 
which had been picked up dead on the side of the River Lea, 
near Hertford ; and Mr. Norman Thrale, of Enfield Lock, 
wrote to me to the following effect: '* Two waxwings were shot 
by Mr. E. Jackson, of Potter's Bar, at Northaw, Herts, on the 27th 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



OBSRRTED IK HXBTS IK 1893. 51 

of February. There were five of them feeding off the hips." This 
bird appears at uncertain intervals during the winter months, and 
although it has be^i recorded on several previous occasions, its 
erratic wanderings are always well wortiiy of notice in our 
* Transactions.' 

The Whooprr or Whistlikg Swak (Cy^nus musicua). — Last 
Christmas twelvemonth, Mr. Seymour, m company with many 
other persons, noticed about thirty of these magnificent birds 
flying over Hertford. He heard the noise made by their wings 
in cleaving the air. They stopped at Woodhall a short time, but 
as soon as one was shot by Mr. I^oble, jun., of Woodhall, Watton, 
they were off. Like the wild geese, these birds fly in the fashion 
of a wedge. (1 may add that the singular windpipe of this bird 
was sent to King's College, London, and that considerable credit 
is due to Mr. Seymour in the mounting of this specimen.) 

Mr. W. Warde Fowler, in his delightful book * A Year with the 
Birds,' remarks : " Swans are frequently mentioned by Virgil, 
as by other Latin and Greek poets. This splendid bird must have 
been much commoner then throughout Europe than it is now, 
and accordingly attracted much attention. It doubtless abounded 
in the swampy localities of the north of Italy, and at the mouths 
of the great rivers of Thrace and Asia Minor, as well as in the 
north of Europe, where it came to be woven into many a Teutonic 
fable. Homer has frequent and beautiful allusions to it ; and 
the town of Clazomenee, at the mouth of the river Hermus, has 
a swan stamped upon its coins. This swan of the old poets is 
without any doubt the whooper, whose voice and presence are 
still well known in Italy and Greece." 

The Smew {Mer^us Melius), — We are indebted to Mr. George 
Eooper, of Watfoid, for the following particulars respecting one 
of ttiese rare ducks (in a letter dated 7th October, 1893) : ** A 
young smew was caught the other day in a water-cress bed. 
Jly groom bought it. . . . The bird seems tame enough, and 
I think must have escaped from captivity. It feeds well on 
refuse fish." The smew has but rarely been reported in our 
'Transactions,' and no doubt Mr. Hooper is correct in regarding 
this young bird as being an escaped prisoner, the species being 
a winter visitor to our shores. 

The Littlb Auk {Mergulua alle), — One of these rare birds, 
Mr. W. Norman informs me, was picked up on the 22nd of 
November on the borders of HertfordBhire, between Koyston and 
Litlington, having evidently been knocked down by coming in 
contact with the telegraph wires, its breast-bone being broken. 
The little auk is only a winter visitor to the British Isles, and 
when observed inland it is generally supposed to have been blown 
from the sea in stormy weather. This bird has only on two 
previous occasions been reported in our * Transactions,' but the 
late Mr. Thrale, of No Man's Land, had in his collection (which 
I have seen) one which was obtained on the mill-head at Wheat- 
hampstead. This is the specimen mentioned by Yarrell in his 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



52 H. LEWIS — ^N0TE8 ON BIBDS 

* History of British Birds.'* He also mentions another as having 
been picked Up alive between Baldock and Royston.f 

The Puffin {Fratercrda arctica). — About the end of last year 
Mr. Seymour received a specimen of this sing:ularly comical-looking 
bird, shot by the keeper on Roxford Farm, Bayfordbury. 

This quaint bird has been recorded in our * Transactions ' on 
several occasions. On Lundy Island it is abundant, with other 
species of sea-birds, as I once had an opportunity of observing. 
Mr. Seebohm states: "There can be little doubt that the puffin 
is more or less a resident in the British seas, but it is less 
frequently observed in winter, when it is scattered over a large 
area, seldom approaching the land." He further informs us: 
"Notwithstanding its somewhat small and narrow wings, which 
seem almost incapable of bearing such a plump little body through 
the air, it is a bird of remarkably rapid and powerful flight. "J 
Possibly this may account in some way for its comparatively 
frequent occurrence in our county. 

Miscellaneous Notes. 

FiELDFAEB {Turdus pilaris). — On the 7th of January, 1893, Mr. 
Arthur Lewis observed continued flights of fieldfares coming from 
the north flying over his house, Sparrows wick, St. Albans. 

Keobbeast {Hrythacus ruhectUa). — Mr. J. Mills kindly presented 
me with a robin's nest (containing five white eggs), built last spring 
in an old tin pint mug. It was taken from the fork of a laurel, 
about five feet from the ground, close to Lord Grimthorpe's house, 
Batch wood, St. Albans. If the eggs are carefully examined, a very 
few faint red markings will be seen. The ground-colour of a red- 
breast's egg is shiny white, it is usually speckled, and streaked or 
blotched with light red. 

Wood- Ween {Phyllosoopus sihilatrix). — We were enabled last 
spring to identify the wood-wren's song in Verulam Woods, St. 
Albans, and again heard the same bird's song when on a pilgrimage 
to Selboume early last June. 

Teee-Cbeepee {Certhia familiarii). — Mr. Hopkinson observed a 
tree-creeper last spring at Bricket Wood. I also noticed a- pair, 
and heard the bird's loud and pleasing song. From its small size 
and sober colouring, and habit of ascending the trunk of a tree in a 
spiral fashion, suddenly stopping and then making a fresh start, it 
is often overlooked. 

Hawfinch {Coccothraustes vulgaris), and Teee-Spaerow (Passer 
montanus). — Mr. Spary has received specimens of these birds taken 
in Hertfordshire during the year. 

Chaffinch {Fringilla cceUhs). — On the 17th of May Mr. Arthur 
Dickinson informed me that he had noticed a chaffinch repeatedly 
carrying away barley-meal to feed its young ones. 

Snow-Bunting {Plectrophanes nivalis), — Mr. W. Norman reports 
having received two or three snow-buntings, one knocked down 

» Ist Ed., vol. i, p. 860. t lb. 
X * British Birds,' vol. iii, p. 365. 



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OBSEBYED m HEBTS IK 1893. 53 

in flying against the telegraph wires on Eoyston Heath on the 
6th of December ; one shot at Triplow, Cambridgeshire, as early 
as the 15th of September; and another shot in January last at 
Sandon, Herts, by Mr. Lees. 

Jackdaw ( Conms monedula), — A. keeper informed Mr. G. Gooch, 
of St. Albans, that last spring he lost a number of young pheasants, 
and it was some time before he became aware who the thief was. 
At last a jackdaw was caught in the act of killing one. I have 
but little doubt the species had to suffer on account of his good 
taste. Canon McLean informs me that he observed on several 
occasions at Caistor in Lincolnshire a jackdaw with legs feathered 
down to the toes. 

Rook {Carvus frugilegus), — Last spring both I and my son 
noticed the rooks breaking the small branches of the trees in 
the Abbey Orchard, to mend or construct their nests with. 

Nightjar {Caprimulgw europaus). — At the kind invitation of 
Mr. Charles Dickinson, I visited the wood where this bird last 
year safely reared its young, and found close to the same spot 
two young ones squatting on the ground. When I saw them they 
were always head and t^ together, the head of one bird situated 
against the tail of the other. I am not aware if this is their usual 
position or was merely accidental. 

WooDPECKEBS and Kingfisher. — Last March Mr. Arthur 
Dickinson observed a pair of the lesser-spotted woodpeckers in 
his wood near St. Albans. Mr. Seymour has received, amongst 
a number of other specimens, both the greater and lesser-spotted 
woodpeckers {Bendrocopm major and minor) , as weU as the green 
woodpecker ( Gecinus vtridis), and I am very sorry to add a large 
number of kingfishers {Alcedo ispida), Mr. Seymour also informs 
me that he has seen the kingfisher use its feet to remove the earth 
from its nest-hole. I mention this to corroborate a former state- 
ment to the same effect. 

LiTTi^ Owl {Athene noetua), — ^Mr. W. Norman mentions : ** On 
Monday, the 12th of March, I was delighted to have brought in 
a lovely specimen of that rare bird the little owl {Athene noetua), 
killed at Wimpole, Cambridgeshire, and sent to me by the Rev. E. 
L. Fellows." I mention this as it is somewhat singular that the 
only specimen I can find mentioned in the late Mr. J. E. Littleboy*s 
register is reported by Mr. W. Norman as having been obtained 
in May, 1877, at Ash well, near Royston. I regret that we cannot 
place this recent record on our register, the occurrence being 
outside the limits of our county. 

Pheasant and Pabtbidge. — Mr. Seymour has shown me several 
varieties of the pheasant {Phaeianus eokhicm) ; and last October 
Mr. Arthur Spary showed me a singularly marked (pied would 
perhaps be the right word to use) partridge {Perdix cinerea), killed 
by Mr. Lattimore on his farm near Wheathampstead. When 
walking one summer's evening in Gorhambury Park, a partridge 
suddenly arose at my feet. I was surprised to see her tumble and 
flutter along as if wounded just in front of me, but was very soon 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



54 



H. LEWIS — ^NOTES OIT BIBBS 



aware of her deception, as I saw her young ones dodging hither 
and thither to hide out of my Way. 

Snipes, etc. — During the past year Mr. Spary has received hoth 
the common snipe {Gdllinago calestis) and jack snipe {OaUinago 
gallinula\ taken in our county; and amongst other specimens 
a dunlin {Tringa alpina) shot at Eedboum, a sanderling {CaUdris 
arenaria) shot in December near St. Albans, and a green sandpiper 
{Totanua ochroputi). 

Common TiatN {SUma fluv%aUli%), — A common tern was brought 
to Mr. Norman on the 19th of October; it was taken alive, quite 
exhausted, within a stone's throw of Hertfordshire. 

Cbested Gbebe ( Podieept eristatus). — Mr. W. Norman also writes 
to say : ^* A beautiful specimen of the crested grebe was brought 
to me for preservation, and it proved to be a young male bird." 
Unfortunately it was killed at Orwell, Cambridgeshire, and there- 
fore its occurrence cannot appear on our register; but the bird 
breeds abundantly at Tring Park, the residence of the Hon. Walter 
Eothschild. 

Mimicking of Song. — I have before alluded to the mimicking 
by certain birds of the song of others. I have frequently heard 
the great tit in the spring utter the ** wink-wink " of the handsome 
chaffinch, and I once heard the chifP-chaff commence the willow- 
wren's song, but it instantly ceased as if aware of its mistake 
and commenced its chifP-chaff as merrily as ever. 

Albinism and Albino Spobts. — Miss Ada Selby last August 
informed me that Mr. Roffe, of Qarston Farm, wrote to her to 
say that he had seen a white sparrow on his premises. Mr. Spary 
has received two blackbirds witii white heads. Mr. Michael Ryder, 
of Watford, shot in his garden a black and white rook ; and two 
albino sparrows were seen near White Hall Farm, Bishop's 
Stortford ; one was captured and lived but a short time, the other 
was shot by Mr. Cutler soon afterwards. Mr. W. Norman received 
an albino skylark for preservation; also a hen chaffinch with a 
mixture of white and grey, and sparrow-colour markings. 

I now give the usual list of dates on which the arrival and 
departure of our summer and winter visitants have been reported, 
with the names of the observers. Undoubtedly the lovely spring 
favoured the exceptionally early arrival of many of our summer 
migrants in this country. 



Spboibs. 



Sono-Thru8h 
{Turdu* 



Redstart ^^„»^^. 

{Ruticilla phwnieurut) 

NiOHTIN OALB^ 

(Lauliat luteinia) 



StTMMXB MlGBANTS. 

LOCALITT. DatB. 



Watford 

Berkhamsted .. 

St. Albans 

St. Albans 



St. Albans ^ 
Bricket Wood 

Sandridge 

Hitohin ............. 



Obsbrver. 
Jan. 24..... Mn. Bishop. 

„ 29_ Mrs. E. Mawley. 

„ 29..... H. L. 
April 6..... Arthur Lewis. 

„ 9^ Arthur Sparj. 

„ 12_ H. Sexton. 

„ 14..... Miss Chorler. 

,, 14._ J. E. litUe. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



OBSBRTED DT HBBIS DT 1893. 



55 



Spbcibs. 

KlOHTIKOALB ^ 

{Dauliat luaeima) 



"WniTlTHaOAT 



LOCALITT. 

, Watford .^^...^ 

St. Albans 

Odsey -—. — 

Newoerries, Radlett 
Harpenden .^..-..^ 

Broxbourne >-^ 

Berkbamsted ^„ 

St. Albans 



St. Albans ..... 

St. Albans 

Yenilam Woods, St. 
Albans ~.„-......«..«. 

St. Albans 



{Siflvia einerea) 
Blackcap 

(Syhia atrieapiUdf 
Chiff-Chafp -«.. 

{PhyUo8eopu» firfut) 
Willow- Warblbe 

(PhyUoteopu9 troohilui) 
Sxdob-Wakblbb 

{Aeroetphalut phraymitul) 
Okasshoppbb-Wa&blbb Harpenden Common 

(LoetuteUa »<9vt«) 
Tbllow Wagtail «.«...«. 

(MotaeiUa Maii) 
Tbbb-Pipit 

{AtUhut trUfuUit) 
Spottbd Fltoatchbb 

(Muteieapti gritoia) 



Datb. 
April 16.. 
„ 16.. 
M 16. 

18. 

18.. 
„ 18« 
„ 19^ 
„ 16... 

„ 16- 

Mar. 16.. 

„ 81.. 
April 20. 



Obsbrybb. 
Mrs. Bishop. 
H. L. 

H. G. Fordham. 
H. J. Lubbock. 
J. J. Willis. 
Lady F. Bushby. 
Mis. £. Mawley. 
H.L. 

H. L. 

H.L. 



H. L. 
H.L. 



27--. H. L. 



Near Batch Wood, 

St. Albans^ -.- 

, Oaklands, St. Albans 



Swallow «... 

{Hirundo rmtiea) 



(Last seen) 



Housb-BIabtin ^..„^^ 

(Cheltdon wHcd) 

(Last seen) -. 
SwiPT ^^ ^^.^^^ 

(Cypteltu apus) 
NlOHTJAB ..«..»....««... «. 

{CaprimulyuB europaus) 
WErNBCB -«.-«.... 

{lynx torquilla) 

Cuckoo ^ --..«««— 



Newberries. Badlett 
Berkbamsted .»..--.--. 

Odsey ^ 

St. Albans 

. Newberries,. Radlett 
Beaumont's Farm, 

St. Albans 

Hitchin -«..«« 

Watford 

St. Albans 

Odsey 

Monden Park, St. 

Albans «....- ...- 

Watford 

Berkbamsted - 

Harpenden .--. 

St. Albans 

Odsey -.--.—..--. 

Heruord —....—...» 
Hemel Hempstead..-. 

Redboum 

St. Albans 

St. Albans 

St. Albans 



{Cueulut eanorut) 



, Harpenden -.-..-..-..... 

Bricket Wood .— 

Venilam Woods, St. 
Albans ................ 

Harpenden ....... - 

Childwick, St. Albans 

Watford 

Oaklands, St. Albans 
Watford 

• And H. L. 



19.. 
14.. 

May 7.. 
„ lU 
„ 16^ 
„ 28.. 

April 8... 

» 8~ 

„ 8- 

•• IC 

„ IC 

„ 10--. 

» 12- 

„ 15- 

» 1«- 

M 18-. 

Oct. IC 

,. 12-, 

„ 19. 

April 15. 

., 18-, 

Oct. 10. 

May 6... 

.. 8. 



, Arthur Dickinson. 
, H.L. 

H. J. Lubbock. 
, Mrs. £. Mawley. 
, H. G. Fordham. 

Arthur Dickinson. 

H. J. Lubbock. 

John Boyes, Jun. 
J. £. LitUe. 
Daniel Hill. 
A rthurDickinson* 
H. G. Fordbam. 

.Hon.A.H.Hibbert. 
. Mrs. Bishop. 
. Mrs. £. Mawley. 
. J. J. Willis. 
. ArthurDickinson* 
. H. G. Fordham. 
. W. Graveson. 
. T. Hope. 
. A. £. Gibbs. 
. H. Allenbv. 
. ArthurDicldnson* 
. H.L. 



J. Dickinson. 
April 3-. A. £. Gibbs. 



7« 
9. 

14. 

14. 

17. 



John Lewis. 
J. J. Willis. 
R.H.Weatherley. 
Mrs. Bishop. 
H.L. 
John WealL 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



56 



H. LEWIS — BIBD8 OBSEBYED IN 1893. 



Spboibs. 



Cuckoo . 



{CueuUu eanorus) 

TURTLE-DOVB ; ^^ 

( Turtur communis) 
Corncrake or Landrail. 

{Crex pratentii) 
Sandpiper 



Locality. 

Broxboume 

Hitchin 



Date. 
April 18.. 



Berkhamsted 

Smallfoid, St. Albans 

St. Albans 

St. Albans 



May 



19... 
22... 
23^ 
26.. 
2.. 



Obsbrter. 
Lady F. Busbby. 
J. E. Little. 
Mrs. £. Mawley. 
Arthur Smith. 
H. L. 
H. L. 



{Totanus hypoUuem) 



Species. 
Redwing ..«.., 

( Turdu* iliacui) 
Okey Wagtail 

(MoiaeiUa melanope) 



Redbonm Bnry, St. 
Albans .......... April 



8-.„ E. W. Aniold. 



WiiniEB Visitants. 



Locality. 
St. Albans 

St. Albans ................ 



Date. 
Sept. 24.. 



Obsertbb. 
Arthur DickiiisoD. 



Oct. 1..... H. L. 



Mr. Warde Fowler, in his book * A Tear with the Birds,' so 
aptly expresses my views and feelings with regard to our feathered 
songsters that I cannot do better than quote his words. He says 
(page 44) : ** Nothing but a personal acquaintance — a friendship as 
I must call it in my own case— with these little birds, as they live 
their every-day life among us, will suffice to fix the individuality 
of each species in the mind : not even the best plates iu a book, or 
the faded and lifeless figures in a museum. You may shoot and 
dissect them, and study them as you would study and label a set of 
fossils : but a bird is a living thing, and you will never really know 
him till you fully understand how he lives." And I may add that 
the more we thus become acquainted with nature so much the 
more must our minds expand. Mr. Thomas Edison, the greatest 
of modem inventors, has spoken thus : " I tell you that no person 
can be brought into close contact with the mysteries of nature, 
. . . without being convinced that behind it all there is a supreme 
intelligence." 

I cannot conclude without thanking those ladies and gentlemen, 
especially Mr. T. Hope, who have so kindly assisted me with 
extracts, information, and records, without which it would have 
been impossible for me to have written this report. 



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IX. 

METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS TAKEN AT THE GRANGE, 
ST. ALBANS, DURING THE YEAR 1893. 

By John Hopkinson, F.L.8., F.G.S., F.R.Met.Soc. 

Bead iU Watford, llth April, 1894. 

Longitude of Station, 0^ 20' 7" W. ; Latitude, 51° 45' 9" N. 
CHstem of barometer 388 feet, ground-level at thermometer-screen 
380 feet, and at rain-gauge 379 feet, above Ordnance Datum. 
Thermometers (in Stevenson screen) 4 feet, and top of rain-gauge 
1 foot, above the ground. Observations taken at 9 a.m. 

The accompanying tables (pp. 58, 59) give the monthly means,' 
etc., of the daily observations in 1893, and the following is the 
usual summary for the seasons : — 

MsAKS FOB THB Seisons fboh Deg. 1892 TO Nov. 1893. 



Seasons, 
1892-93. 


Pressure. 


Temperature. 


Humi- 
dity. 


Cloud, 
0-10. 


Force 

of 
Wind. 


Rainfall. 


Mean. 


Daily 
Range. 


Total. 


Days. 


Winter _ 
Spring _ 
Summer..... 
Autumn..... 


ins. 
29932 

30137 
29-991 
29940 




363 
509 
628 
48-9 




lO'O 

219 

19-5 
14*6 


7o 
90 

85 


7-1 
5 9 


0-13 

1-8 
1-6 
1-6 
21 


ins. 
687 

MI 

904 


61 
16 
43 
47 



In the next table the chief results, monthly and annual, are 
compared with the means for the ten years 1877-86 at Watford. 

DiFFERBNCE m 1893 PROM Msiirs OP 1877-86 at Watford. 



Months. 


Pressure. 


Temperature. 




/>i^~j 


Force 


Rainfall. 


Mean. 


Daily 
Range. 


Humi-; "'"7' of 
dity. 1 ^-^^- 1 Wind. 


Total. 


Days. 


January „.. 
February 
March _ 

June .. 

July 

August .... 
September 
October.... 
November 
December 


in. 
+•050 
—•259 
+•171 
- --314 
+ 109 

+•053 
-•051 
+•119 
—•082 
—•005 
--•097 
--•062 




—2*2 

-o*3 
+3 9 

--2'I 



— 0-5 

+07 
+4-6 
+9*2 
4-27 
+4'o 

-)-2-8 

+0-8 

-I-0-2 

+1-5 


To 
+ 1 

— 3 

— 7 

— 2 

— 6 

— 5 
— II 

— 5 

— I 
+ 2 
-|- I 


4^1 

— 1-6 
—2-9 
-1-4 

-09 

— 2-2 

+1-4 
-07 


0-13 
H-o-2 

+05 
-0-3 
-0-5 
-03 

— O'l 

-j-o-i 
-fo'i 
-foi 
-fo-8 
+0-4 


ins. 
-058 

+077 
-115 

—2-24 
—076 
--2-I4 

+053 
-052 

-1-53 

-|-2'01 

-0-I3 

— 0*22 


^1 

— 13 

+ 7 

— I 

— 2 


Tear_ 


+•049 


+1-3 


.f2-2 


— 3 


-08 +01 


-5-96 


—14 



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58 



J. HOPKIKSOK — ^HETEOBOLOCrlCAL 0BSERYATI0K8 



Oi 
00 



5 

s 

g 

o 

EH 



I 

o 

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Pi 



< 

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Rela. 
tive 
Humi- 
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R 


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H 


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to 


M 

a 
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14 


* « R §. i 3- i S; i S5 S R s 


CO 


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1 




9 


i 


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III 


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^s 


^tnp y%f«^>p r r ?* y^sp 


i, 


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si 


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Mi 




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11 i 1 6- S A- 111 1 1 


i 

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Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



TAKBK AT 8T. ALBANS DT 1893. 



59 



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00 



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o 

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n 
H 

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voso »^fO<**^»o»^»^»n»o 


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«n « 00 


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fO « 


« t^ * 


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Si 


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ro M M t^ t^ M 


fO 


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»i« »^ M 


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lis 


p^ t^ K^ ^P sp Y\ 

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y> 


€h op 


OS so p 
•-• N « 


t 


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o «o »^ 


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J^ O ts. ^ p p 




so in 


fO OS so 
V »-. SO 




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t^ OS t^ 


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1 



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60 J. H0PKINS017 — ^XETEOBOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The year 1898 was remarkably warm, especially during the 
spring. The mean daily range of temperature was large ; the 
absolute range also was great, the rather low minimum of 14°*7 
occurring in January, and the high maximum of 91^*0 in August. 
The temperature was above the average in every one of the six 
months of spring and summer (March to August) ; as much as 4^^ 
above it in the spring, and 2^^ above it in the summer. The only 
months with a temperature appreciably below the average were 
January and November. The change from summer to autumn 
was marked, September being 9° colder than August. The mean 
pressure of the atmosphere was considerably above the average of 
that of the ten years 1877-86 at Watford. The lowest pressure 
recorded at 9 a.m. was 28*753 ins. on 21st February, and the 
highest was 30*750 ins. on 30th December, giving a range of 
1*997 in.* The rainfall was much below the average of that of the 
ten years 1877-86, and considerably below a long-period average. 
The number of wet days also was small. March, April, June, and 
September were very dry months; October was very wet. The 
air was dry and the sky bright. The prevailing direction of the 
wind was south-west and west. 

In the winter of 1892-93 (Dec. to Feb.) the mean pressure of the 
atmosphere was rather low, the mean temperature was rather low, 
with an average mean daily range, and the humidity, cloud, and 
rainfall were about the average, but rain fell on an unusually large 
number of days. There was a month of very cold weather (22nd 
Dec. to 13th Jan.), and on the other hand there were fifteen days 
in succession in February (8th to 22nd) without a single night on 
which the temperature of the air fell below freezing-point. 

In the spring (March to May) the. mean pressure of the 
atmosphere was very high, the mean temperature was excessively 
high, with a very great mean daily range, the air was very dry, 
the sky very bright, and the ramfall excessively small, on an 
unusually small number of days. This spring wi\l for long be 
memorable for its warmth, brightness, and dryness, being probably 
the warmest, brightest, and driest since the year 1840, or for 
more than half a century. While, however, the days were 
abnormally warm, the nights were rather colder than usual. We 
had only, at 9 a.m., two-thirds the average amount of cloud. The 
rainfall was only about one-third the average for this part of 
Hertfordshire for the last half-century, and tiie number of rainy 
days was even smaller in proportion than the amount of rain. 

In the summer (June to August) the mean pressure of the 
atmosphere was rather high, the mean temperature was a little 
above the average, with a large mean daily range, the air was 
very dry, the sky rather bright, and the rainMl very small, 
but on an average number of days. The nights were considerably 
colder than usual, the excess of temperature being entirely due, 
to the warmth of the days. 

* The preeeure at 3 p.m. on 2l8t February was 28*689 ine., increaung the 
range for the year to 2*061 ins. 



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TAXEir AT ST. ALBAK8 DT 1893. 



61 



In the autumn (Sept. to Oct.) the mean presBure of the 
atmosphere was about tiie average, the temperature was just the 
average, with a considerable mean daily range, the air was rather 
diy, the sky rather bright, and the rainfall was about the average 
and on an average number of days. As in spring and summer, 
the nights were, on the whole, colder than usual. 

The difference between these seasons and the means of the 
seasons for 1877-86 at Watford is shown in the following table : — 

DiFFEBEircE TV 1892-93 PBOK Means OF 1877-86 AT Watvobd. 



Seasons, 
1891-92. 


Presfore. 


Temperature. 


Hnmi- 
dity. 


Cloud, 
0-10. 


Force 

of 
Wind. 


Rainfall. 


Mean. 


Daily 
Range. 


Total. 


Days. 


Winter ^ 
Spring _ 
Summer..... 
Antiinui_ 


ins. 
-052 

+ 198 
+•050 
—•044 



-1-6 
+45 
+2-5 




-B-5 
+2-3 
-H07 


— I 


-0-3 

— 2*0 


0-12 

+0-I 
-04 

4^-3 


ins. 
— 094 
-4-iS 

+0-35 


+'2 
—26 

— I 



K0TS8 OK thb Months. 

Jaitpakt. — Cold, with a small daily range of temperature, an 
atmosphere of average humidity and rather high pressure, a rather 
cloudy sky, and' about an average rainfall on an unusually large 
number oi days. Coldest day 2nd, mean 23°-0 ; warmest day 31st, 
mean 46°-4. Min. below 32° on 16 days, below 22° on 6 (1st to 6th) ; 
max. above 42° on 11 days (below 32° on 4). The first five days 
were very cold, having a mean temperature of 24°*9 (9 a.m. 24°-9, 
min. 18°-0, max. 32°'0). Rain, or snow, fell every day from 
1 Ith to 19th (9 days), and from 25th to 3rd February (10 days), 
snow falling on 3rd, 6th, 6th, and 12th to 18th. 

Febeuabt. — Rather warm, with about an average daily range 
of temperature, an atmosphere of average humidity and very low 
pressure, a cloudy sky, and a very heavy rainfall on an unusually 
large number of days. Coldest day 6th, mean 31°"4 ; warmest day 
19th, mean 49°-7. Min. below 32° on 8 days; max. above 42° 
on 20 days, above 62° on 2 (18th and 19th). Rain (occasionally 
snow) feU every day for the 11 days 8th to 18th, and, with 
the exception of 9th and 24th, every day from 8th February to 
4th March, snow falling on 12th, 2l8t to 23rd, and 27th. There 
was a gale of wind on 10th, and on 21st barometric pressure 
was iinusually low, being 28*763 ins. at 9 a.m., 28*702 ius. at 
noon, and 28-689 ins. at 3 p.m. At 9 a.m. on the following day 
it had only risen to 28*979 ins. 

Mabch. — ^Warm, with a large daily range of temperature, a dry 
atmosphere of considerable pressure, a bright sky, and a very small 
rainfall on very few days. Coldest day 19th, mean 36° *2; warmest 
day 31st, mean 62°*7. Min. below 32° on 7 days; max. above 62° 
on 23 days, above 62° on 6 (24th to 26th, and 29th to 31st). There 



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62 J. HOPinrsoir — ^meteobolooical obsesyations 

was one rather cold week, 17th to 23rd, with a mean temperature 
of 39°-7 (9 a.m. 37°-6, min. 30^-6, max. 61°0). Kain feU only on 
the first four days, and (chiefly as snow, with some hail) on 16th 
and 17th. There was thus a period of eleven dajrs without rain in 
the first half of the month, and of fourteen days m the second half. 

April. — Exceptionally warm, with an excessively lai^ daily 
range of temperature, an exceedingly dry atmosphere of very high 
pressure, a hright sky, and scarcely any rain. Coldest day 13th, 
mean 41°'6; warmest day 20th, mean 61°-4. Min. helow 42° on 
21 days, below 32° on 2 (13th and 14th); max. above 62° every 
day but 3 (11th to 13th), above 62° on 17 days, above 72° on 6 
(19th to 2l8t, and 23rd to 25th). The warmed period was from 
19th to 26th, the mean temperature during these eight days being 
69°-0 (9 a.m. 57°-7, min. 45°-3, max. 74°-0), about an average 
summer temperature. Kain fell only on 16th and 29th (0*06 in. ), 
an absolute drought of 29 days ending on the 15th. 

May. — ^Very warm, with a large daily range of temperature, a 
dry atmosphere of high pressure, a bright sl^, and a very small 
rainfall on very few days. Coldest day 31st, mean 48°* 1 ; warmest 
day 15th, mean 66°*5. Min. below 42° on 6 days (above 52° on 
20th) ; max. above 52° every day, above 62° on 26 days, above 72° 
on 5 (5th, and 12th to 15th). The warmest period was from 9th 
to 16th, the mean temperature during these eight days being 59°*2 
(9 a.m. 59°-2, min. 45°-9, max. 72°-5), thus only a little warmer 
than the warmest eight days in April. Rain fell 6nly on Ist, 15th 
to 20th, and 29th. A partial drought of 75 days, with an 
aggregate rainfall of only 0*45 in., ended on the 15th. During 
a thunderstorm on 17th nearly an inch fell (0*93 in.), being 
considerably more than half the rainfall of the month. The fall 
on 29th was also due to a thiinderstorm. 

June. — Warm, with a large daily range of temperature, a very 
dry atmosphere of rather high pressure, a sky of average brightness, 
and an exceedingly small rainfall on very few days. Coldest day 
1st, mean 51°*2 , warmest day 17th, mean 72°*5. Min. below 52° 
on 21 days, below 42° on 3 (Ist to 3rd); max. above 62° every day 
but two (Ist and 11th), above 72° on 10 days, above 82° on 5 (15th 
to 19th). The mean temperature of the six days 14th to 19th was 
7l°*8 (9 a.m. 71°*5, min. 56°*8, max. 87°*2), being at least 12° 
above the average for the time of the year. Kain feU only on 4th, 
6th, 2 Ist to '24th, 26th, and 27th. A partial drought of 32 days, 
with an aggregate rainfall of 0*27 in., ended on the 21st. 

July. — ^Very warm, with an average daily range of temperature, 
a very dry atmosphere of average pressure, a bright sky, and a 
considerable rainfall on a large number of days. Coldest day 15th, 
mean 55°-3 ; warmest day 8th, mean 74°*3. Min. below 52° on 
4 days; max. above 62° every day but one (1 3th), above 72° 
on 8 days (Ist to 8th), above 82° on 4 (2nd, 6th, 7th, and 8th^. 
The first eight days were the warmest, having a mean temperature 
of 67°*7 (9 a.m. 68°*2, min. 54°*5, max. 80°-4). Most of the rain 
fell between 8th and 26th, only three days out of these nineteen 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



TAXB5 AT ST. ALBANS DT 1893, 68 

being without rain. On several days daring this period there 
were thunderstorms (on 8th, 9th, 12th, and 26th). 

August. — Excessively warm, with a large daily range of tem- 
perature, a very dry atmosphere of rather high pressure, a rather 
bright sky, and a rather small rainfall on an average number 
of days. The eleven days 8th to 18th were the warmest, having 
a mean temperature of 72°*0 (9 a.m. 72°*8, min. 59°-8, max. 
83^*4), being about 12® above the average for the time of the 
year. Coldest day 29th, mean 64°*9; warmest day 18th, mean 
79°*6. Min. below 62° on 9 days; max. above 62° every day 
but one (27th), above 72° on 17 days, above 82° on 6 (9th, 10th, 
and 15th to 18th). No rain fell during the eight days 1 2th to 
19th, and only 0*03 in. on one day during the 7 days 24th to 30th, 
but one inch fell on the 4 days 20th to 23rd, being nearly half 
the fall in the month. There were thunderstorms on 4tili and 
10th. 

Sbptkmbeb. — Of average temperature, with a rather large daily 
range of temperature, a dry atmosphere of average pressure, a 
bright sky, and a very small rainfall on about the average number 
of days. C!oldest day 21st, mean 45°*8; warmest day 7th, mean 
65° '5. Min. below 42° on 6 days; max. above 62® on 20 days, 
above 72° on 4 (5th, 6th, 14th, and 15th). The first haH of 
the month, during which only 0'20 in. of rain fell in two days, 
was exactly 5° warmer than the second half, which had 0*88 in. 
of rain on nine days, the mean temperature for the first 15 days 
being 58°-6 (9 a.m. 58°'3, min. 49°-0, max. 68°-6), and for the last 
15 days being 53°-6 (9 a.m. 53°-2, min. 46°-l, max. 61°-5). Thus, 
while the weather from the first to the 15th was warm and dry, 
from the 16th to the 30th it was cold, with nearly an average 
rainfall. In fact our very warm, bright, and dry summer may 
be said to have come to a close in the middle of September. 
There was a thunderstorm on the 8th. 

OcTOBEB. — Bather warm, with a considerable daily range of 
temperature, an atmosphere of average humidity and pressure, a 
very bright sky, and a very heavy rainfall, but on about the 
average number of days. Coldest day 31st, mean 36°'8 ; warmest 
day 15th, mean 60°-8. Min. below 42° on 10 days, below 32° 
on 1 (31st); max. above 62° on 27, above 62° on 6 (1st, 14th, 
16th, 16th, and 21st). The temperature was very variable, and 
the weather became cold towards the end of the month, especially 
on the last two days (mean temp. 38°'9). Most of the rain fell 
during the first half of the month, the fall after the 14th being less 
than an inch, and the excess in the rainfall was almost entirely due 
to the fall of 2*02 ins. on the 9th. There was a violent thunder- 
storm on the 7th, at its height here between 6-86 and 6*48 p.m., 
during which time the rain came down in torrents, nearly half 
an inch falling in the thirteen minutes; the lightning appeared 
like balls of fire falling every minute or two, and for part of 
the time the thunder was heard whilst the lightning was still 
visible. The prevailing colour of the lightning-baUs was blue, 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



B4 J. HOPKIKSOK — ^ICEIEOBOLOOICAL 0BSERTATI0N8. 

Bometimes with a rather reddish tinge. A gale of wind blew, and 
uprooted several trees in the neighbourhood. 

NoTEMBEB. — Rather cold, with an average daily range of 
temperature, a rather humid atmosphere of considerable pressure, 
a cloudy sky, and an average rainfall on about the usual number 
of days. Coldest day 23rd, mean 32°*3 ; warmest day 4th, mean 
69°-9. Min. below 42° on 26 days, below 32° on 13; max. above 
62° on 5 (3rd, 4th, 16th, 17th, and 28th). The temperature was 
very variable. Rain or snow fell every day from 13th to 19th, the 
total for these seven days being over an inch and a half, or more 
than half the total for the month. Snow fell on 1st, 18th, 19thy 
and 30th. Barometric pressure was very low on 17th (3 p.m. 
29*022 ins.), on the same day there was a gale, on 18th a very 
heavy snowstorm, on 19th a severe gale with snow, and snow also 
fell on 30th. 

Decembeb. — ^Warm, with a considerable daily range of tempera- 
ture, an atmosphere of average humidity and pressure, a rather 
bright sky, and about an average rainfall on the usual number of 
days. Coldest day 2nd, mean 27°*2; warmest day 13th, mean 
48°-3. Min. below 32 on 10 days, below 22° on 3 (2nd, 3rd, and 
81st); max. above 42° on 23 days, above 62° on 1 day (1 3th). 
The first three and the last two days only were cold. Rain fell 
every day from 6th to 13th, the total for these eight days being 
1*40 in., and every day but one from 19th to 25th, the total for 
these seven days being 0*89 in., thus leaving only 0*10 in. for the 
rest of the month. Snow fell on 1st, and there was a gale of wind 
on 20th, on which day barometric pressure was very low, being 
28-986 ins. at 9 a.m. On 30th, when a very cold period com- 
menced, it was the highest in the year, 30*750 ins. 



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Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



TrariJt. Herts Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. VIII, Plate IV. 



Mycetozoa 

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X. 

FTJETHER NOTES ON THE MYCETOZOA, WITH A LIST OF 
SPECIES FROM HERTS, BEDS, AND BUCKS. 

By James Sattivdebs. 

A Zectur$ dilwered at Waifbrdy X^th D^eemher, 1803. 

PLATES IV AND V. 

Thebe is not a woodland, bosky dell, or more extended forest 
bnt teems with life. Prom the leafy canopy overhead, with its 
winged denizens, away down the rough stems of oak and ash, 
with their lichens and liverworts, to the spreading moss-covered 
roots, exists a multitude of living beings; and this not only in 
one spot, for such scenes might be multiplied indefinitely. 

In any part of the world — ^from Canada to Ceylon, from England 
to New Zealand — would be found in such circumstances innumerable 
forms of life. These all agree in certain fundamental points. 
They start from a living cell, they are built up of cells, and every 
cell, when in activity, contains protoplasm. Do not these facts 
suggest that they form part of one organic whole? — that con- 
siequently there is no sharp line of demarcation between the animal 
and vegetable world? — ^that there are points at which these two 
kingdoms coalesce, and that all creatures have descended from a 
few primordial types, or possibly from but one ? 

On the border-land between the two realms of the natural world 
may be placed the creatures now under consideration. In what 
may be taken as the initial stage of their life, they exist as minute 
spores, many of which float in the air, and are distributed by 
llie wind. When these fall on favourable situations, such as rotten 
wood or decayed leaves, the covering of the spore becomes 
moistened, and the protoplasm within bursts its way through. 
These amoebiform bodies are usually elongated or pear-shaped, with 
a minute cilium at the narrow end, and are known as *' swarm 
cells." They have the power of locomotion, and, like the Amoebse, 
frequently assume various shapes, their changes and movements 
being presumably effected in the search for food. They have been 
seen by careful observers, notably by Mr. A. Lister, to feed on 
Bacteria, which they surround by a digestive vacuole, these 
microbes being gradually absorbed until no trace of them can be 
seen. It is probable that the office of the Mycetozoa in the 
economy of nature is similar to that of the white blood-corpuscles 
of the human body, in that they destroy germs of disease. 

After a brief period of independent existence they lose their cilia 
and unite to form what is known as plasmodium, which has the 
power of creeping, when favourably circumstanced, and exercises 
this power to obtain sustenance. During this stage there is con- 
siderable increase in size; the plasmodium grows upon what it 
absorbs, be this decayed vegetation or minute forms of life. During 
the mobile stage of existence, different genera and species exhibit 



VOL. VUI. — PABT ni. 



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66 J. SAUXBERS — NOTES ON THB MTCETOZOA. 

diverse habits. Some pass their time in the interior of rotten 
wood, and apparently do not come to the surface until ready for 
the fruiting stage. Others, on the contrary, affect the exterior of 
decayed branches and logs, and are hence the most easily found. 

The following observations, made in the South Midlands, will 
give some idea of the phenomena attending the plasmodium stage. 

On one occasion, the writer was examining a decayed tree-root 
quite a foot in diameter, in a wood near Harpenden. In the very 
centre the woody fibres were saturated with plasmodium, which, 
when matured, proved to be that of Hemiarcyria clavata. Some 
of the Badhamias prefer the outside of rotten logs and branches. 
In a wood in Plamstead parish the plasmodium of Badhamia 
utricularis has been seen spread out on the upper side of a fallen 
tree, but this was in a very wet autumn. Quite recently, in the 
same place, this species was found creeping between the bark and 
the wood, but the season was much drier. During the year 1893 
Mr. C. Crouch, of Kitchen End, near Luton, had two masses of 
Plasmodium of B. utriculariSy which were attached to an old log 
under some shrubs in his garden. These were under observation 
during the spring, summer, and early autumn. They repeatedly 
moved their position, and eventually, after seven or eight months 
existence in this condition, formed their sporangia. 

Badhamia nitens is usually found, in the rare localities in which 
it occurs, on the under side of decayed branches, especially those 
of oak. It has the curious habit of concealing itself from view 
a day or two before its final emergence for fruiting, at least it 
has done so when it has been under our observation, and it 
repeated the habit when some of it was sent to Mr. A. 
Lister. The following extracts from his letters will illustrate 
this statement. "The plasmodium has, I fear, died." — 12th 
Feb. 1893. ** The plasmodium died and came to nothing." — 15th 
Feb. 1893. "I am delighted to say that I was quite wrong in 
thinking that the last batch of plasmodium which you sent was 
dead ; it had crept off and hidden itself for a day or two, leaving 
a good deal of refuse matter behind it. Yesterday we saw that 
it was turning into fruit, so exactly the usual shape of B. utricularis 
that we feared it was nothing but that species, but this morning 
the mature condition and yellow colour have been obtained, and it 
forms the most magnificent example of B, niUns which we have 
ever seen." — 19th Feb. 1893. Subsequently to this some plas- 
medium of the same species was sent to Mr. H. Groves, of London, 
who, under date 11th Jan. 1894, writes: "Thank you very 
much for the plasmodium which you so kindly sent to me. It 
showed [circulation] beautifully with half -inch obiect-glass and 
dark-groiind illumination, and it is really a most curious thing. I 
have put it in a fern-case, but I do not know where to look for 
it again." My impression is that as it is a winter-fruiting species, 
it had crept out of sight preparatory to assuming that stage. The 
two local stations for this species are Caddington, Beds, and 
Zouches Farm, near Kensworth, Herts, in both of which places the 



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J. SAUNDERS — ^irOTBS OV THE MTCBTOZOA. 67 

creeping stage has been observed on several occasions. These are 
the first British localities for which the plasmodium of this species 
has been recorded. 

Some Plasmodium of £, nttens was collected in a wood on 
Zonches Farm at Christmas, 1892. It was attached to a fungus 
(Irpex) that was on a decayed branch of oak. The whole thing — 
wood, fungus, and mycetozoon — was frozen hard when obtained. 
It rapidly thawed after reaching home, and exhibited movements 
for several days. A portion of it was given to a gentleman at 
Luton who took a casual interest in the subject. A short time 
afterwards he allowed the plasmodium to dry up into the condition 
of sclerotium. In this state it existed, looking like a piece of 
sealing-wax, until the early spring of 1894. It was then placed 
one evening in tepid water, which was kept warm, and during the 
succeeding night it exhibited iinusual activity. It continued in a 
more or less mobile state for several weeks, when it matured and 
formed its fruit. 

Whilst the foregoing species are usually found on decayed wood, 
as oak and fir, others most frequently occur on dead leaves. 
Craterium vufgare affects such situations, and may be seen throw- 
ing out its fan-shaped processes formed of a dense network of 
veins, but creeping from leaf to leaf, or insinuating itself between 
the compacted layers of dead damp foliage. Its dull greenish- 
yellow hue renders it inconspicuous and somewhat difficult to 
detect. Nor is it so satisfactory for microscopic work as are the 
Badhamias, for its circulation is obscured by its partial opacity. 
It would seem that it ingests particles of the dead leaves amongst 
which it lives, as under a two -inch object-glass it appears to be 
crowded with particles of them. Under cultivation we find that it 
loses some of its green colour and becomes yellower, more like a 
Badhamia. This is confirmed by Mr. C. Crouch, who states that 
he has " developed Craterium vulgare from very ochreaceous 
Plasmodium, so that there seems to be no limit to variation of 
plasmodium-colour in the species." 

In Stemonitis fu»ca, which is a wood-haunting species, we have 
never succeeded in finding the plasmodium except just prior to 
fruiting. It then appears as a white frothy substance, which 
rapidly assumes a densely-packed, columnar structure. When 
mature it appears like a miniature forest of pines, with dark stems 
and intricate branching. Stemonitis ferruginea is of similar habit, 
and is distinguished by lemon-yellow plasmodium. 

The genus Retieularia is also a wood-haunting group, and so far 
as our experience goes is invisible till maturity is approaching. 
The largest specimen that has come under our notice was one of 
R, lyooperdon, which was attached to a decayed root on the north-east 
side of Lilley Hoo. It measured more than four inches long and 
three wide. It was intended to secure it for the Museum of this 
Society, but it proved to be infested with beetles, which ruined it 
as a specimen. 

Another species of similar habit is Lycogala epidendrum. Its 



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68 J. SAUNDERS — N0TK8 ON THE MTCETOZOA. 

Plasmodium is sometimes found to have stained crimson the wood 
on which it grows. Quite recently Mr. C. Crouch observed in Silsoe 
Park, Beds, a mass of it, several inches square, which was visible 
more than fifty yards away. The sporangia are compacted into 
masses which vary in size £rom that of a pea to that of a hazel-nut, 
and they may often be seen in groups on fallen logs in early spring. 
The species is not uncommon in such places as Sherrards Wood, 
near Welwyn, and in the valley of the Ver, near Redboum. 

A rare species, which has a deep crimson plasmodium, is Clathro- 
ptychium rugulosum. This is less reserved in its habits than is 
Lycogala epidendrum, and it creeps about on the surface of decayed 
willow logs which are shaded by vegetation. 

Brefeldia maxima should be sought for in moist hollows near 
streams and springs where decayed logs are to be found. The Plas- 
modium is opaque white, and about the thickness of cream. It creeps 
about in the decayed vegetation near a rotten log for some time, 
and then spreads itself over the wood in a beautiful creamy-looking 
mass. When matured the aggregated sporangia (sethalium) become 
of a purplish black colour. 

Crihraria a/rgillacea has plasmodium of a duU leaden hue when 
rising to maturity, and is usually found on decayed conifers. 

IHdymium squamulosum is a very abundant species, grovring in 
such places as damp ditches where leaves have accumulated, and in 
boggy spots under the shade of trees. Its plasmodium is of a dirty 
white colour, and in creeping over dead foliage it leaves a number 
of vein-like tracks behind. One is enabled sometimes to assume 
its proximity from the traces it has left. It is plentiful in the 
valley of the Ver, near Redboum. IHdymium farinaceum occurs 
amongst dead leaves and twigs which have accumulated in moist 
situations. The plasmodium is grey, its dusky hue being probably 
partly due to the ingested particles of decayed foliage on which it 
feeds. At least we find that some species with a similar habit, 
such as Craterium vtdgare^ have this peculiarity, and also have the 
power of cleansing themselves from the refuse material, becoming 
lighter and clearer in colour just prior to the fruiting stage. 

Most of the Physareee have a greyish-white or dirty grey 
Plasmodium. That of Physarum leucophaum is with difficulty 
distinguished when attached to the bark of oak. That of 
P. leucopus is dirty grey in a natural state, but under cultivation 
it becomes lighter, and sometimes shows a beautiful network of 
veins, appearing almost white when on a dark background. The 
Plasmodia of Physarum, Craterium, and Badhamia agree in the 
habit of progressing by throwing out fan-shaped processes or veins, 
often of the most intricate patterns. (See Plate V.) If they do 
not find food, or if their surroundings are not favourable to further 
progress, they have the power of retracting and condensing them- 
selves into a small compass, thus assuming a resting stage until the 
recurrence of congenial conditions. 

Fhysarum citrinum^ a handsome species very rarely found in 
Britain, has recently been detected in considerable quantity in a 



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Trfifift. Herts Nat, Ilist, Soc, Vol. VIII, Plate V, 



Plasmodium op Badhamia utricularis. 



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I, 8AUNDEBS — NOTBS ON THE MTCETOZOA. 69 

shady dell near "Welwyn. There were three patches of it on a 
decayed root and the adjoining soil. One portion had mature 
sporangia, the second was forming them, and tiie third consisted of 
yellow Plasmodium, still in its creeping stage, but which attained 
maturity in a day or two. The gathering exhibited many forms of 
sporangia, ranging from those with a fully-developed stalk to 
others which consisted of a sessile plasmodiocarp. 

One of the handsomest and also one of the most frequent of the 
Mycetozoa is Arcyria punicea. The plasmodium stage is passed in 
rotten wood, and so far as our experience extends it is only 
observable when rising to form sporangia. When immature these 
are milky white, and in ripening they become a rich crimson. In 
the progressive stages the upper part of the sporangium wall is 
thrown off, the capillitium extends to several times its former size, 
and the spores disperse. Eventually all the contents of the peridia 
may be blown away, leaving the cup-shaped base of its wcJl sup- 
ported by its short stalk. 

The Trichias usually conceal themselves till near the fruiting 
time, and are therefore but rarely seen in the creeping stage. The 
only occasion on which we have observed the plasmodium of this 
genus was once in Luton Hoo Park. A number of white veins were 
noticed creeping among the interstices of some bark, over a surface 
of several square inches, but even in this instance it was near 
maturity, as some portion of the mass was already forming its 
sporangia. The white veins and immature peridia showing so 
well on the dark background of bark, a photograph of the group 
was taken. The species proved to be Trichia varia, which agrees 
with most of this genus in that it has white plasmodium, a notable 
exception being T. fallaxy in which it may be either white or red. 
IHchia Jackii when fruiting generally leaves a quantity of slimy 
refuse, which the beginner might easily m'istake for plasmodium. 
The sporangia appear as a mass of closely-compacted small white 
beads, which, on maturing, assume a rusty brown colour. Another 
species with a gregarious habit is Trichia scabray which can readily 
be distinguished from the preceding by the slight metallic lustre of 
the walls of the sporangia. Trichia affinis is somewhat uncommon^ 
and may be recognized in the field by its bright yellow hue. 

Before leaving this interesting group, it will be well to observe 
that in maturing the sporangia great care should be taken not to 
dry them too quickly, as interesting gatherings may be spoilt in 
this way. 

The mcident that has had the most interest for those to whom it 
befel — my son and myself — was the discovery of Crihraria violacea. 
"We had one day travelled a long distance over parts of Beds and 
Herts, and then traversed an extensive wood on Ivinghoe Hills, 
near the borders of Bucks. When nearing the edge of the wood, 
which had proved almost barren for our special objects of search, we 
noticed some very old logs of beech which looked promising. We 
separated, each intent on the portion under examination. Presently 
my juvenile companion called my attention to a group of immature 



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70 J. SAUKDEHS — NOTBB ON TIDS MTCETOZOA. 

sporangia which he did not understand. Examination with a lens 
diowed that we had undoubtedly before us the sporangia of a 
Mycetozoon, appearing as minute white heads on black stalks. A 
good supply was secured, and allowed to mature tinder the best 
possible conditions. As no species with similar sporangia appeared 
to be described in our text-book, specimens were forwj^ed to Mr. 
A. Lister for identification. His reply was to the effect that it 
was a species that had been found before only in the United States, 
in the primeval forests of several mountain-ranges, and was there- 
fore a new European record. A few weeks afterwards we revisited 
the spot, and again found the sporangia in fair quantity in a fully- 
matured condition. It was certainly an interesting discovery, 
forming as it does another connecting-link between the life-forms 
of the two hemispheres. There can be no suspicion either that it 
had been imported by human agency, for it is one of those obscure 
forms that can only be detected by persistent search. 

Anyone who might take up this subject for investigation would 
find himself traversing a comparatively unexplored territory, where 
there is abundant room for original research. It would lead him 
into the very arcana of nature's mysteries, and at times it would 
seem as though the secret of organic life was to be unfolded to him. 
Yet, like a ** Will o* the Wisp," it evades his grasp, and he finds 
himself still on the threshold of, and not within, the great ** Temple 
of Truth." Baffled truly, but not discouraged ! 

[At the close of the lecture several lantern-slides were shown, 
illustrating the structure of the organisms under consideration. 
One of these was a preparation of the living plasmodium, or 
creeping stage. It was mounted in a moistened glass cell of the 
usual size for exhibition by a lantern, and it had been kept on the 
person of the lecturer, in the hope that the warmth of the body would 
cause the contents to develop movements, which fortunately was 
the case. When placed in the lantern, and its shadow projected 
upon the screen, it was seen to have thrown out a fan-shaped, 
intricate network of veins, showing also the rich yellow colour 
of the genus {Badhamia) to which it belongs. Whilst a brief 
description of it was being given, the audience and the lecturer 
alike were surprised to observe that the creature was receding 
towards the piece of decayed wood from which it had crept. " It 
moves," was the comment of the lecturer; ** evidently the intense 
light and heat are too much for it." And to the gratified surprise 
of all present, the organism gradualh^ receded towards the fragment 
of wood in which it had been found. The object was then put on 
one side until the other slides had been duly examined. After an 
interval of about ten minutes it was replac^ in the lantern, when 
no trace of the plasmodium could be discerned, it having coUected 
itself into a compact mass under the shade of the piece of wood. 
Subsequent observation showed that it took three or four days of 
careful treatment to enable it to partially recover from the ^ock 
it had received, but it never regained its full vigour, and gradually 
dwindled away.] 



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j. 8aundeb8 — n0te8 on thb mtcetozoa, 71 

Mtoetozoa of Herts, Beds, akd Bucks. 

The species included in the following lists have all been found 
by myself or my son Edgar, except those marked C, C, which were 
collected by Mr. C. Crouch. An asterisk is prefixed to the species 
now first recorded for Hertfordshire and Bedfordshire * All the 
species from Buckinghamshire were coUectod in Ivinghoe Woods, 
and all are new county records. They include one species new to 
Europe — Crihraria violacea — ^which is figured on Plate IV. 

Hebtfoedshiee. 

^Physarum sinuosum (Bull) Eost. Colne. — Caddington, 
♦P. citrinum^ Schum. L^. — Welwyn. 

P. compresmmy A. & S. Lea. — Knebworth ; C. C. 

Craterium vulgare, Ditm. Colke. — Eedboum. 

ZeocarptM fragilxB (Dicks.) Rost. Lea. — Sherrards Wood, Welwyn. 
*Fuligo septica (Link) Gmel. Colne. — Kensworth. Lea. — 
Sherrards Wood, Welwyn. 

Badhamia panicea (Fr.) Rost. Colne. — Kensworth. 

Didymium sqimmtdosum (A. & S.) Fr. Colne. — ^Eedboum. 
*D. clavus (A. & S.) Rost. Lea.— Welwyn. 

Chondrioderma difforme (Pers.) Rost. Colne. — Zouches Farm, 
near Kensworth. Gibraltar, near Redboum. 

Comairicha Friesiana (De Bary) Rost. Colne. — Pepperstock. 
♦C pulehella (Bab.) Rost. Colne. — Ashridge. 
*Spumar%a dha (Bull) DC. Lea. — Near the Fulling Mills, 
Welwyn (on nettles). 

Stemonitis fuica. Roth., *forma rufeseens. Colne. — Redboum. 

Unerthenema papillatum (Pers.) Rost. Colne. — Caddington. 
*Reticularia lycoperdoUy Bull. Ouse. — Lilley Hoo. 

Trickia fragilis (Sow.) Rost. Colne. — Bricket Wood. 

T. variay Pers. Lea. — Sherrards Wood, Welwyn. 

T, contorta (Ditm.) Rost, var. inconsptetta, Colne. — Ashridge. 

T. affintBy De Bary. Lea. — Wheathampstead. Sherrards Wood. 

T, Jackti, Rost. Colne. — Flamstead. 

Hemiareyria clavata (Pers.) Rost. Lea. — Sherrards Wood. 

Arcyria einerea (Bull) Schum. Colne. — Caddington. Lea. — 
Sherrards Wood, Welwyn. 

A, ineamatay Pers. Lea. — Sherrards Wood. Ashridge. 
*Zyeoyala epidendrum (Buxb.) Fr. Lea. — Sherrards Wood. 

Bedfobdshiee. 

*Pi^y«arwi» «»^tfwj» (Batsch) Pers. — Kitchen End; C. C. Flitwick. 
P. vtride, Pers. {^Tilmadoche mutabilii, Rost). — ^Mead Hook; 
C. C. Limbury. Luton Hoo. 
*P. eontextumy Pers. — Flitwick; C, C, 
*P, sinuosum (Bull) Rost. — ^Flitwick. Caddington. 
*P. eitrinumy Schum. — Caddington. 

* For preTious lists for these counties see 'Trans. Herts Nat. Hist. Soc.,' Vol. 
VII, pp. 144-146. 



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72 J. SAUNDBES — ^NOTBS ON THE MTCETOZOA. 

PhyBorum eompressum, A. & S. — Kitchen End ; C. C. 
*Crater%um aureum (Schum.J Rost. — ^Flitwick. 
*Badhamia macrocarpa (Ces.) Rost. — ^Kitchen End ; C. C. 
* Chondrioderma reticutatum^ Rost. — ^Flitwick. (From milky-wliite 
Plasmodium.) 

C. radiatum (Linn.) Rost.— Clophill ; C. (7. Flitwick. (From 

milky-white Plasmodium.) 
Lidymium microcarpum (Fr.) Rost. Kitchen End; C. C. (Sept. 

1892). Luton Hoo. Forma pertusum. — Mead Hook 

Wood; a C. 
*B. serpula, Fr.— Flitwick ; C. C. 
*D. elavus (A. & S.) Rost.— Flitwick ; C. C. 

D, farinac&um, Schrad. — Kitchen ihid; C. C. ♦Yar. minus. — 

Luton Hoo. 
*I>iachaa Uucopoda (Bull) Rost. — ^Flitwick. 

Fnerth&Mma papillatum (Pers.) Rost. — Silsoe ; C. C. (Sept. 1892). 
^SUmonitis miorospora^ Lister (=iS. Smithii^ Macbride). — Luton 

Hoo. 
*Comatr%cha pulchella (Bull) Rost. — ^Flitwick. 
*(7. ruhens, Lister. — Flitwick. 

*Lamproderma physaroides (A. & S.) Rost. — ^Flitwick. 
♦Z. violacmm (Fr.) Rost. — Luton Hoo. 

Triohia scahra^ Rost. — Streatley. Luton Hoo. 

Frototrichiaflagellifer (B. & Br.) Rost.— Flitwick ; C, C. 

F&richana depressa. Lib. — ^Upbury ; C, C. 
♦P. cortiealts (Batsch) Rost. — Luton Hoo ; C. C. 

BUCEINOHAMSHIEB. 

(lyinghoe "Woods.) 

Physarwn leueophaum, Fr. 

P. leucopus (Link) Rost. (From white Plasmodium.) 

Craterium vulgare^ Ditm. 

C Uucocephalum (Pers.) Rost. 

Fuligo septica (Link) Gmel. 

Badhamia panicea (Fr.) Rost, 

B. utrtcularis (Bull) Berk. 

B. hyalina (Pers.) Berk. 
IHdymium aquamulomm (A. and S.) Fr. 
Spumaria atba (Bull) DC. 
Stemanitis fusca. Roth. 

S. microsporay Lister (=5. Smithii^ Macbride). 
S. ferruginea^ Ehrh. 
Comatricha IVimana, De Bary. 

C. typkina (Roth) Rost. 
TuhuUna cylindrica (Bull) DC. 
Clathroptyehium rttyiUosum (Wallr.) Rost. 
Dictydium cemuum (Pers.) Nees. 
Crtbraria vidacea, Rex. 

C argillaoeay Pers. 



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J, 8AT7KDERS— NOTES ON THE MTCSTOZOA. 73 



.Retictdaria lyeoperdon, Bull. 

Triehia fallax^ Pers. 

T. varia^ Pers. 

T. sedbray Rost. 

T, affinis, De Bary. 

T. Jackii, Rost. 

Semiaroyria clavata (Pers.) Rost. 

JSr. ruhifarmis (Pers.) Rost. 

Aroyria puniceay Pers. 

A. cinerea (Bull) Schum. 

A, ineamata, Pers. 

A, nutans (Bull) Grev. 

Lyoogala epidendrum, Buxb. 



EXPLANATION OF IKE PLATES. 

PLATE IV. 
(Photographed from drawings in colour by Miss Lister.) 
Fio. 

1. Badhamia nitent. Group of snorangia ; one showing capillitium. x 9. 

2. ,, ,, Cluster of five spores and portion of capillitium. x 150. 

3. ,, „ Cluster of five spores and one spore separated, x 300. 

4. Fhyaarum citrinum. Group of sporangia, x 9. 

6. jDidymiumfarinaceum. Group of sporangia, x 10. 

6. ,, „ Capillitium, crystals, and spores, x 140. 

7. SUfnonitia ferruginea. Group of immature sporangia, x 5. 
** Group of mature sporangia, x 6. 

Columella and capillitium after dispersion of spores, x 1 2. 
Capillitium and spores, x 300. 

Group of sporangia, x 6. 
Sporangia, x 80. 
Immature sporangium, x 7. 
Sporangium more advanced, x 7. 
Mature sporansnum ; outer wall fallen off. x 7. 
Capillitium and spores, x 140. 
Group of sporangia, x 8. 
Capillitium and spores, x 140. 

PLATE V. 

Plasmodium of Badhamia utricularU. x2. (Photographed from nature.) 
The whole of the network of yeins here shown was form^ in one night between 
11 p.m. and 7 a.m. It was developed from a small mass of Plasmodium about 
hall an inch in diameter which occupied a position a little to the right of the 
bulb at the base of the illustration. The material was placed in a moistened 
cell, when, in its search for food, it rapidly developed pseudopodia connected by 
anastomofline veins. It formed two centres of development of the branch systems, 
which united at the points of contact, as seen in the illustration. The transverse 
cracks in the principal veins are due to shrinkage from the effects of alcohol, 
with which the organism was killed. 



8. 


*t » 


9. 


ti ft 


10. 


99 >> 


11. 


Cfrihraria violaeea. 


12. 


99 l> 


13. 


Aroyria panieea. 


14. 


If f» 


15. 


» >> 


16. 


>> M 


17. 


Trichia varia. Gi 


18. 


>> >> 



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XI. 

NOTES ON LEPIDOPTERA OBSERVED IN HERTFORDSHIRE 
DURING THE YEAR 1893. 

By A. E. GiBBS, F.L.S., F.E.S. 

Bead at Watford, llth ApHl, 1894. 

The unusual meteorological conditions prevailing during 1893 
had, as might have heen expected, considerable influence on insect 
life, the dry warm spring causing many species to emerge a full 
month before their usual time. 

I did not find that the sallows in March and April were very 
prolific, repeated visits to Bricket Wood for sallow-beating 
yielding only the common TaeniocampsB and a few hybemated 
moths. A female twin-spot quaker {Taniocampa munda), however, 
taken at sallow, gave me some eggs from which I reai^ a good 
series of that moth. Sugaring during the summer was a failure, 
a fact which is emphasized by several of my correspondents. I 
spread the tempting bait in more than one locality near St. Albans, 
but it did not attract any of the rarer Lepidoptera. Mr. C. F. 
Pilbrow, of Colney Heath, writes : "I scarcely missed sugaring for 
a single evening, though the area was generally very limited — 
about half-a-dozen apple trees and plum trees of good size in my 
garden. The results were unusually unsatisfactory/' Mr. R. W. 
Bowyer, of Haileybury, says : ** Sugaring and light were almost 
failures in the summer. In the autumn I did better. I took at 
sugar five Nocttui rhomhoidea, an insect which I consider rare in 
this neighbourhood." These opinions as to the failure of sugar 
in the spring and summer are confirmed by the statements in 
the entomological magazines of observers in various parts of the 
country. Mr. R. Dymond, of Femey House, East Bamet, how- 
ever, appears to have been more fortunate. He says : " So far as 
I am concerned the season has been very good, for at sugar in the 
garden here insects have been very plentiful." Mr. Bowyer's 
experience as to the failure of light as an attraction for insects is 
not shared by Mr. Pilbrow, for with regard to the Colney Heath 
district he writes: "Light, speaking generally, proved die most 
productive source of attraction this year." The same gentleman 
reports that " old sacks, boxes, etc., placed about the garden proved 
fertile traps, several good things being taken by these means." 
Larvse-beating had unusually prolific results, at least in the 
number, if not in the rarity, of the insects taken, while for pupae- 
digging the season is generally pronounced to have been a most 
unproductive one. 

The great abundance of larvae in the early months of 1893 is a 
matter of common repute. Those of us who took part in the field 
meeting at Symond's Hyde, in May, will remember the enormous 
quantity of caterpillars, mostly "loopers," which were feeding on 
the hazel and hornbeam. I could have collected thousands of the 
commoner sorts in a few hours. I think I never saw the oaks at 



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LEPIBOPTERA OBSERVED IN 1893. 75 

Brickct Wood present such an appearance of devastation as they 
did in June, the larvae of that destructive little green moth, Tortrix 
viridana, literally eating up every green leaf on some of the trees. 
A shake hrought down quite a shower of hoth larvae and pupae of 
this species. Mr. Arthur Lewis and I took a considerahle number 
of larvae of the feathered thorn moth {Himera pennaria), and also of 
the curious-looking larvae of the purple hairstreak {Theela quercua). 
In Juno Mr. W. H. Shaw, who was then living in Clifton Street, 
St. Albans, brought me a number of small larvae, which turned out 
to be those of Cerostoma xylosUllay one of the Tineae. It was a 
pale yellowish-green creature, with a broad brownish-red stripe all 
along the back ; it fed on honeysuckle, and proved a great pest. 
It crept into the house to pupate, seeking such convenient places 
as the hollows in the mouldings of the doors and window -frames 
wherein to spin its boat shaped cocoon. The moth is a pretty ooe. 
On May 15th I found the larva of the large emerald moth feeding 
on birch at Bricket Wood. Unfortunately the moth emerged a 
hopeless cripple. Mr. Arthur Lewis obtained the larvae of 
PteroBtoma palpina on a sallow in his garden. A curious instance 
of the power which certain species have to change their colour 
in order to adapt themselves to their surroundings, came under 
my notice. A number of larvae of the peppered moth {Amphidasys 
hettdaria) were reared from the egg, separated into two lots, and 
placed in large-mouthed glass bottles. One lot was fed on birch, 
which has a brown shining stem, and the other on the false acacia 
{Rohtnia pseudo-acacia), which has green petioles. Those which 
fed on birch became of a dark shining brown colour, while the 
others were a bright green, the larvae assuming in each case the 
tint of the stem or leaf -stalk of the plant on which they were feeding. 

I am pleased to be able to report that I have received communi- 
cations from several fresh correspondents this year. Lists of 
captures in their several localities have been sent by Colonel 
Gillum, East Barnet ; Mr. S. H. Spencer, jun., Gladstone Road, 
Watford; and Mr. Noel Heaton, Sans Souci, Watford. 

Mr. S. H. Spencer's list of captures includes Notodonta dictaa 
(larva), Asteroscopus sphinx, Basychira pudibunda, Selenia iUuatraria 
{tetraiunaria), Pseudoterpna pruinata, Fhorodesma pustulata, Ligdia 
adustata, Cheimatohia boreata, JEmmelesia affinitata, Uupethecia 
minutatay Phibalapteryx tersata, F, vitalbata, Scotosia rhamnata, 
Cidaria silaceata, Acronycta rumicis, Calamia lutosa, Cerigo matura, 
Luperina cespitts, Apamea opMogramma, Agrotis puta, Bianthcecia 
carpophaga, Hadena dissimilis, H, genista, and Habrostola triplasia, 
Nyssia hispidaria he took several specimens of, on oak trees in 
Cassiobury Park, but unfortunately it was not found again this 
year, at least Mr. Cutts and I searched for it in vain, and Mr. 
Spencer tells me that ho was equally unsuccessful. Several rare 
moths were taken by Mr. Spencer at the electric light at Messrs. 
Andre and Sleigh's Works at Bushey, and also on the street lamps. 
He has reared Lophopteryx eamelina from ova from Bricket Wood, 
Bicranura bifida from ova found on aspen, Leuooma salieiB from 



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76 A. E. GIBBS — NOTES ON LEFIDOPTERA 

larvsB from poplars, and of Acronycta leporina he found twelve larvae 
on birch. Altogether Mr. Spencer has been very successfol, and 
his list includes five species which so far as our record goes are 
new to the coanty. They are, Agrotis puta, Hadena dimmilis, 
Selmia illustraria (tetralunaria), Cheimatohia hareata^ and JSuphi- 
theeia minutata, Mr. Spencer is to be congratulated on this result 
of his labours. 

In Mr. Heaton's list, which includes many species taken by Mr. 
Wiggs, I find Dicranura furctday L, hifda, Notodonta ziczae, Peclura 
tnonachay Demos eorylx, Aeronyeta aeerisj A. megac^hala, Apamea 
ophiogrammay Agrotis saueiay Panolis piniperday Nyssia htspidaria, 
and Geametra paptlionaria. His list contains 252 species. 

Last year I briefly reported the capture of the beautiful footman 
moth (beiopeia puiehella) at East Bamet. Being a rare insect 
and a species new to Hertfordshire, I took an opportunity of 
going to East Bamet to see it. The moth is in the small 
collection belonging to the Boys' Farm Home, and it was very 
courteously shown to me by Mr. John Bowden, the master. It 
is undoubtedly a specimen of Beiopeia pulchella, but is unfortu- 
nately rather badly set. Mr. Riihl, the schoolmaster, captured it, 
in 1892, on the railway-bank near Oakleigh Park Station, and just 
within the county boundary. Although a search has been made, 
no other specimens have been seen. My visit to East Bamet 
enabled me to inspect two small but interesting collections, one at 
the Home above referred to, and the other in the possession of 
Colonel Gillum, of Church Hill House. Through the kindness of 
Colonel Gillum I have been able to make a list of his insects, 
captured at East Bamet, and shall enter them in our Record Book. 
They include specimens of Zycana argioluSy Bomhyx eastrensisy 
Miopia prosapiaria {fascia/ria) taken by Colonel Gillum in one of 
the hedges on Church Farm, Choeroeampa porcellus, Spilosomafuli' 
ginosay Aretia villicay Chesias spartiata, and other rare insects. The 
collection at the Boys* Farm Home also contains some uncommon 
species, such as Psilvra monachay bred from larvae taken locally, 
Sphinx convoknUiy and Notodonta dictaoides. Many of the insects 
were captured by the boys, who are wisely encouraged to spend 
their leisure in pursuits of this kind. 

BUTTERFLIES. 

The species of butterflies generally reputed to be natives of 
Britain number 65, of which no less than 46 have been recorded by 
different observers as occurring in Hertfordshire. The remaining 
19 are extinct, rare, or local species, the majority of which, it may 
safely be predicted, will never be seen flying within our borders, 
though there are one or two species which we may hope will some 
day be entered in our Coimty list. Twenty-six species have been 
taken by Colonel Gillum, at East Bamet ; by Mr. S. H. Spencer, 
jun., at Watford ; by Mr. N. Heaton in the same neighbourhood ; 
and by your Recorder ; but though the number happens to be the 
same m each case, the lists of species are not exactly identical. 



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OBSEBYED IN HSBTFORDSHIBB HT 1893. 77 

The early summer months of last year were marked by an 
abundance of butterfly life. Mr. J. J. Willis, of Harpenden, 
writes: '*The large white cabbage-butterfly {PierU hrasBtoa) and 
the small white cabbage-butterfly {Pieris rapa) were exceedingly 
numerous throughout the season, although in this neighbourhood 
the damage done by their caterpillars appeared to be much less 
than usual. This was also the fact with regard to the magpie- 
moth {Abraxas ffrossulariata)^ which, although most abundant, pro- 
duced fewer larvae than in some former years. Was this due to 
their destruction by birds?" On the other hand, Mr. Pilbrow, of 
Colney Heath, points out that with regard to the YanessidsB, a 
diametrically opposite state of things occurred. ** Almost every 
bunch of nettles, " he says, ** contained larvse of Vanessa to, 
V, atalantaf or F. urticuSy yet only the second of the trio was at 
all common in the perfect state." 

Among the butterflies there are some very early appearances to 
record. The pretty little grizzled skipper {SyricMhus maka) was 
taken by me on the Harpenden Road, St. Albans, near the Rifle 
Butts, on April 9th, or about a month before it usually appears. It 
is a very bold and familiar insect. It likes to bask on the sunny 
road, and when disturbed returns to the same spot time after 
time, like some of the Yanessidse. Having no net with me I tried 
to capture this one with my hat, which I succeeded in placing 
over it four or five times before I could fairly bag my game. 
Another rather early record is Mr. Bymond's note of the capture 
of the pearl-bordered fritillary {Argynnis euphrosyne) on April 26th. 

It will be remembered tiiat one of the great entomological 
features of the year 1892 was the remarkable abundance of the 
beautiful clouded-yellow butterfly {Colias edusa), 1 referred to 
this at some length in my last annual report. I have only one 
record of its re-appearance in Hertfordshire in 1893, and that is 
by Mr. J. J. Willis, who says that a few specimens were seen at 
Harpenden. Mr. N. Heaton, of Sans Souci, Watford, records the 
captnire of one specimen of this insect on August 29th, 1889. Mr. 
Heaton says: ''I should be glad of an explanation of the state- 
ment, found in all the text-books I have seen, that C. edusa haunts 
clover-fields. I was at Deal in 1892, when this species was 
abundant, and never caught a single specimen in a clover-field, but 
found them in plenty around such plants as dandelion, ragwort, or 
whatever yellow flowers were then out ; situations where I should 
have expected to find it had it not been for the statement in the 
text-books. C, hyale I noticed was partial to corn-fields." That 
C. edma does haunt clover-fields is a fact to which most entomolo- 
gists can testify, but I have noticed that it is very partial to 
railway-banks and waste ground. It must not be forgotten that 
the larva is a clover-feeder. 

The orange-tip butterfly appeared to be more plentiful than 
usual, a fact which was also noticed by Mr. Willis. Messrs. 
Latchmore and Gatward, of Hitchin, who have sent me a joint 
report^ speak of it as coming out unusually early and flying in 



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78 A. E. GIBBS — NOTES ON LEPIDOPTERA 

clouds. Mr. Heaton tells me that the specimens he took last year 
were all of a small size, one of them only measuring 1^ inches 
across the wings. 

An insect which appears to be getting scarcer with us is the 
large tortoise-shell butterfly ( Vanessa polycMoros). Some years ago 
I used to take this plentifully near St. Albans, and it even used to 
venture into the garden at The Hollies, but of late it seems to have 
almost entirely disappeared. Mr. F. Latchmore, of Hitchin, writing 
on this subject, says: "Formerly this insect was common at 
Ickleford. The chrysalises were to be seen hanging from the 
coping of the walls near the church opposite some lime-trees. I 
have not seen a pupa-case at that spot for some years." Mr. 
Spencer records the capture of one specimen at Bricket Wood in 
1892, and he saw another in Cassiobury Park in 1893. It is 
several years since I saw this insect on the wing. 

In speaking of the Fritillaries, reference need only be made to 
two insects. The pearl-bordered fritillary {Argynnis euphrosyne) 
was unusually common. Mr. Dymond mentions its occurrence at 
Ayot on April 26th, and when the Society visited that place on 
May 13th it was still to be seen sporting over the green outside the 
gates of Brocket Hall Park. Messrs. Latchmore and Gatward, of 
Hitchin, inform me that at Hitch Wood it was taken in some 
numbers. The same recorders mention the fact that later on the 
high brown fritillary {A, adippe) appeared in the same locality. 
A careful examination of the plants of the dog-violet round the 
outside of the wood did not lead to the discovery of the larvse. 

Last year the capture at Broxboume of a single specimen of the 
chalk-hiU blue {LyoBna corydon) was placed on record, and I then 
expressed the opinion that though this insect had not hitherto been 
recorded for Hertfordshire, it ought to occur on the hills in the 
north and west of the county. I am glad to be able to mention 
that Messrs. Latchmore and Gatward state that it abounds at Lilley 
Hoo. The same two careful observers report that in the cutting 
of the Cambridge and Hitchin line they saw some specimens of the 
little blue {Lycana minima) at rest on some rushes in a wet spot 
on the bank side. This insect has appeared before in our county 
lists. 

At a recent meeting of the Entomological Society, some interest- 
ing varieties of the small copper butterfly {Polyommatus phlceas) 
captured in Middlesex were shown. This pretty little insect was 
observed in unusual quantities everywhere, and my Hitchin corre- 
spondents especially call attention to its abundance. I should be 
glad to learn if any aberrations in markings were noticed in this 
butterfly in our own county. Mr. A. Lewis and I again took a 
fair number of larvee of the purple hairstreak, both at Bricket 
Wood and at Symonds Hyde. They are oak-feeders and not 
difficult to rear. Mr. Heaton reports the capture of the white- 
letter hairstreak at Bricket Wood in August, 1891, and tells mo 
that Mr. T. M. Goadby caught three specimens in Cassiobury Park 
in the same year. 



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0B8EBVED IN HEBTFOKDSHIRE IN 1893. 79 



HAWK-MOTHS. 

I have pleasure in recording the capture in St. Albans of two 
full-grown larvsB of the death's-head moth (Ach&rontia atropoa). 
On July 12th Mrs. Ashdown kindly sent me a larva which had 
been found in the grounds of Mr. A. Mcll wraith, at Ctimpbellfield. 
It was a well-marked dark vaiiety, and went to earth almost 
immediately. At about the same date one of Mr. Arthur Lewis's 
gardeners rescued another caterpillar of this moth from the tender 
mercies of a small boy. It was crawling across the road in Grange 
Street, St. Albans, evidently seeking a convenient spot for pupa- 
tion, when it attracted the attention of an urchin, who was on 
the point of smashing it with a large stone. Both these specimens 
went through the pupa state successfully, and the perfect insects 
emerged at the end of September or the beginning of October, 
but as I was from home I cannot give the exact dates. 

Mr. Latchmore sends me an interesting note about the death's- 
head moth. He tells me that an old Bedfordshire farmer has been 
interested in his men finding a lot of the larvee in potato-digging. 
^* He put a number in a pot and placed them in his garden, 
thinking to hatch them naturally, a^ he said. One of his men 
put seven or eight into a jar filled with earth, and the result 
was that the farmer's, which were out of doors, were all mouldy 
and dead in the spring, whilst the labourer's, which were in 
the warm chimney comer, all came out and flew about the 
cottage." Mr. Latchmore says that no specimens of either this 
moth or Sphinx eonvohtUi were taken last year at Hitchin, though 
nearly all the hawk-moths noticed last season have been equally 
common again. 

Miss Ormerod informs me that a fuU-grown larva of the eyed 
hawk-moth (Smerinthm ocellatus) was found at Torrington House, 
St. Albans, about the middle of August. Mr. Arthur Lewis has 
in his collection an interesting moth which appears to bo a hybrid 
between the poplar hawk-moth {8. populi) and the eyed hawk- 
moth {S, oeeliatus). Mr. Cutts took the larvae of the latter moth 
off his apple-trees again last year, and those of S. populi at the 
end of Nascot Wood Eoad. Mr. Charles Rothschild figures and 
describes a very curious aberrant form of the lime hawk-moth 
(iS. alia) in the * Entomologist ' for February. 

Mr. C. F. Pilbrow, of Colney Heath, reports that the larvae 
of the elephant hawk-moth ( ChoBroeampa elpmwr) were very scarce. 
He only took five, all being, strange to say, green. In other years 
he has taken dozens, but had only found about two per cent, green. 
Mr. Pilbrow had formed the theory that the unusually bright 
weather had affected the colour, but this was upset by finding 
another batch in Hampshire, all of which were very dark. They 
were full fed quite a month earlier than usual. Of the five 
green specimens four were perceptibly " stung," and Mr. Pilbrow 
suggests that this may possibly affect the colour. These larvee 
are to be looked for along the streams, feeding on water-betony and 



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80 A. E. GIBBS — K0TB8 ON LBPIDOPTEBA 

other plants. Mr. Heaton has several times found the larysB of 
this species on the banks of the canal, feeding on Impatiens fuka^ 
but he says that he has not succeeded in rearing them, as he could 
not get the food home without withering, and they would not eat 
a substitute. 

One of the most remarkable features of the past season has been 
the great abundance of the humming-bird hawk-moth {Maerofflosia 
stellatarum). One bright day, I think in July, I noticeid a number 
of people assembled in front of Mr. F. Beal*s office in St. Peter's 
Street, St. Albans, and I found that their attention had been 
attracted by these insects flying about the jasmine in front of the 
house. Mr. Beal's clerk told me that he had seen a great many of 
them hovering round the flowers. Mr. Henry Lewis had a re- 
markable experience with this insect. He was standing in 
Sparrowswick Wood, wearing some honeysuckle in his coat, when 
one of these moths hovered before it and extracted the honey. It 
flew away, but with remarkable persistency came back again to 
suck the sweet nectar from the flower. This was in September. 
Mr. Pilbrow says that at the harvest festival held in the Church at 
Colney Heath, dozens of these insects were attracted by the floral 
decorations, and their humming was very noticeable. Mr. Latch- 
more reports that this moth "has been seen everywhere right 
through the summer until the cold weather." He took several at 
the windows inside his house, and ** observed them in numbers in 
the garden in the hot sunshine, resting on a brick wall or wooden 
fence." Miss Ormerod noticed the moth flying at Torrington 
House up to October 14th. In the autumn Mr. Dymond observed 
single specimens of this insect flying swiftly over the geranium 
beds in his garden at Femey House, East Bamet. Mr. Bowyer 
writes from Haileybury: ** Macro ffldssa stellatarum was common,' 
though not strikingly so. I have never seen the larv© here. On 
the cliffs near Dover it occurs on both Galium verum and G. moUugo, 
preferring the former." Mr. E. Hartert, curator of the Zoological 
Museum, Tring, says that M. stellatarum was not rare in that 
district. Several were taken on the flowers in the yard behind 
the Museum, and he saw a few in his own garden. Mr. Hartert 
informs me that in Germany it is nowhere rare, although never 
common. Mr. Heaton reports the capture of several specimens 
this year, and also in 1888. 

Mr. Pilbrow netted a flne specimen of the hornet clear-wing 
moth {Trochilium apifarme) at Colney Heath. Messrs. Latchmore 
and Gatward inform me that this moth is common at Hitehin, but 
exceedingly difficult to capture in the larva state. They noticed 
on some aspen-trees perforated by this larva places where some 
birds (probably nuthatches) had dug several pupsB out of the bark. 
The clu*ysalis may be found in the spring near the outside of its 
burrow. 

OTHEB MOTHS. 

Messrs. Latchmore and Gatward record the occurrence of the 
green forester {Ino statices) at Lilley Hoo. Mr. Heaton failed 



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0B6BBYED IN HEBTFORDSHI&S IN 1893. 81 

to find it in a field near Rouse Bam Lane, Watford, where it 
is generally plentiful. Mr. Spencer had a somewhat similar 
experience. I have taken it flying with the common bumet-moth 
in a field between Green Street and Theobald Street, near Elstree. 

In the summer Mr. Cutts found the larvte of the cinnabar- moth 
{JSuchelia jacobaa) in great abundance near his house. He sent 
some to Mr. A. Lewis, which were nearly all ** stung," but those 
I got from the same place are now in the chrysalis state and 
appear to be free from this infestation. Mr. Heaton says that he 
finds the moth in only one field of small area, and has only taken 
one specimen elsewhere. I do not find this species to be very 
common at St. Albans, but I heard of several specimens being seen 
last year. 

In my last year's report I alluded to the discovery of a large 
number of the larvae of the goat-moth (Cossus ligniperda) at 
Hitchin by Mr. Latchmore. He was good enough to send me 
some of them, which duly pupated, and, in June last, emerged. 

A larva of A$ronycta alni was taken by Mr. Pilbrow, of Colney 
Heath, upon * * acacia ' * on the lawn at Oaklands in July. Ho searched 
very closely, but failed to find another. Being unable to find the 
proper food for it, it died. Mr. Bowyer, of Haileybury, reports with 
reference to this moth : ** A larva of A, alni was brought to me 
and at once entered a thistle stem. On looking at it to-day 
(7th Feb., 1894) I find that it died without pupating. This 
was new to our Haileybury list." I was last year able to report 
two other records of the occurrence iu Hertfordshire of this rare 
moth. Mr. Bowyer was also fortunate in securing another rarity 
in the great prominent {Nbtodonta trepida)^ which has only been 
recorded for one other Hertfordshire locality, viz. Sandridge, where 
it was taken by Mr. A. F. Griffith. Mr. Bowyer says : "I bred 
from the egg a fine series of N. trepida. The female was caught 
in one of our dormitories in 1892." 

Mr. Pilbrow tells me that though he has not found the puss-moth 
{JDicranura vinula) at Colney Heath, he has seen traces of it. I get 
it occasionally at St. Albans. Mr. Cutts, of Silverdell, Nascot 
Wood Eoad, Watford, says : ** Judging from the way in which 
the foliage was eaten, 2). vinula must have been fairly common 
on my poplars. I did not notice them until just upon full-fed, 
but 1 have three pupae from the larvae I took, and have since 
found two others in the garden." Messrs. Latchmore and Gatward 
tell me that the larvae were found on some weeping-willow trees 
at the Hitchin Town Cemetery. The same recorders also report 
that several prominents were taken last season on the same trees. 
In hunting for kitten cocoons on the bark of wiUows and poplars 
Mr. Latchmore met with no success until February 8th of this 
year, when after infinite labour he dug out two specimens, which, 
he says, **may after all be ichneumoned," and he continues : ** You 
disturb some queer creatures in tearing off the bark of these trees 
with a * jemmy.' The other day I exposed beetles in great numbers 
and of brilliant colours, ladybirds, a queen wasp, and some luminous 



VOL. Tin. — PART HI. 



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82 A. 13. GIBBS— KOTES ON LEPIDOPTERA 

centipedes, which I at once recognized as the little creature I 
have often taken on a footpath on a humid evening in summer." 

Mr. Pilbrow has failed to take the centre-barred sallow ( Cirrhoedia 
xerampelina) this year. The specimens he has secured hitherto 
were taken on or near ash-trees, and had not long emerged. He 
finds that the best time to look for them is between noon and early 
evening. The fact that they were taken on ash-trees seems to 
indicate that the larva might be worth searching for. It is an 
ash-feeder. This is not a common insect with ns, though I have 
taken it at light at St. Albans, and Mr. Griffith records it from 
Sandridge. 

The shark-moth {CucuUia umhratica) is recorded from East 
Barnet by Colonel Gillum, and Mr. Pilbrow reports its capture 
on a fence at Colney Heath in the bright sunshine. 

A specimen of the emperor-moth {Satttmia pavonia) was also 
taken in daylight on a fence by Mr. Pilbrow, it apparently having 
just emerged, and he has taken Acronycta ligustri (?), Cossus ligni- 
perda, and Smeranthm tilia in the same way. S^ pavonia is one 
of the moths of which the males may be taken by what is known 
as ** assembling." The female should be put in a musUn-covered 
box, and if there are any males in the neighbourhood they are 
attracted to the spot. Mr. Lewis took a moth in that way last 
spring. 

Mr. A. Sainsbury Verey, of Heronsgate, Kickmansworth, writes 
that he took a specimen of the bird's- wing moth {Dipt^rygia 
scahrimcula) at that place. He has favoured me with the following 
notes with regard to the larvae of this moth : ** Some years ago, 
when residing at Barnes, I was one day in August collecting the 
caterpillars of Chmrocampa porcellus, when I found some brownish 
larvse, with somewhat darker and also white stripes running along 
their bodies, feeding upon a species of coarse rank grass, which 
was growing with the Galium saxatile, npon which, together with 
G. veruniy C. parcellus feeds. These I took home, when they 
quickly span-up in loose cocoons under some dead leaves on the 
surface of the earth in the rearing- cage, and, emerging in the 
following June, proved to be the Bipterygia pinastri of Newman. 
I see that Newman gives * various species of docks ' as the food- 
plants, but all the caterpillars I found were on the coarse grass, 
although, as they so very soon changed to pupae, I cannot actually 
say that they were feeding upon it." 

Among the insects in Colonel Gillum's collection may be mentioned 
the lappet-moth {Zasiocampa quercifolta), which was taken at East 
Barnet. It was caught by one of the boys in the Farm Home 
and given to Colonel Gillum. There are four other Hertfordshire 
records for this moth. A full account of Z. qitercifolia and its 
habits, together with life-like figures of the larva and perfect insect, 
appear in Miss Ormerod's * Beport of Observations of Injurious 
Insects for 1893.' 

Mr. Cutts reports that Leucania comma and L. pallens were 
plentiful in the autumn, but he did not see any earlier in the 



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OBSBBTBD IK HEBTFOBDSHIBE IK 1893. 83 

year, when sugar was a complete failure. There was a very fine 
second brood of Agrotia segetum in the autumn, when he secured 
a nice series, and also took one specimen of A, saucia, Noctua 
C-nigrum was plentiful, and of that also he took a good series. 
He also captured specimens of Anchoeelis Uturay but A, lunosa he did 
not see at all. Cerastis vaccinii and Scopelosoma 8<Uellitia were very 
abundant, the latter being especially plentiful and fine. He took 
a long series of Xanthia fulvago (cerago) and several specimens 
of the variety flavescem. He also secured X. flavago {silago) and 
a few specimens of X, gihago. Ffdogophora meticulo%a has been 
fairly common, and he was so fortunate as to take one specimen 
of Colocampa vettista. A friend of Mr. Cutts also took Euclidia mi 
and Heliaca tenehrata near by. My correspondent has done very 
little with the geometers. Himera pennaria was common in the 
larval form, and Mr. Cutts took manj caterpillars of Hyhemia 
defoliaria, which did not succeed with him. He let them go down 
into peat-moss, which was probably too dry for them. From 
some self-sown mullein plants in the garden Mr. Catts took a good 
many larv© of Cuctdlia verhasciy which are now emerging. 

Mr. Bymond reports the chimney-sweeper moth {Atrata ehixro- 
phyUata) to be conmion at East Bamet, and that last year it was 
unusually abundant. Of this insect Mr. Dymond finds it difficult 
to capture specimens which are in any degree perfect, for after 
it has been flying about for a day or two it loses the sooty blackness 
of its wings. Mr. Pilbrow takes this moth annually, but only 
finds it in one comer of a large field, which comer, about two 
acres, is laid down with permanent grass. 

Mr. Dymond found the larvas of the figure-of-eight moth 
{Bilopa earuleocephala) to be particularly abundant in the early 
part of the year, but did not observe a corresponding increase 
in the number of images in the autumn. He attributes this to 
the fact that a large number of the larva) were " stung " by 
ichneumons, for out of about fifty larvae which he took for breeding, 
only about thirty resulted in images, the rest being the prey of 
the parasite. Mr. Filbrow also comments on the large number 
of the larvae both of this insect and of JSriogaater lanestrisy the 
hedges in many places being nearly ruined by them. 

On April 23ixi I took a number of larvae of Xanthia oitrago 
at Gorhambury. They were concealed in rolled or united leaves 
of lime. They emerged in August, and proved to be rather light- 
coloured varieties. Mr. Dymond took a few specimens of this moth 
at sugar, and also about two dozen specimens of X. flavago. This 
appears to have been a flavago year, that moth being commoner 
than usual in most localities. Mr. Cutts also reports taking 
X. flavago J and Mr. Bowyer writes : ** Flavago was common 
both last year and the year before : we do not as a rule take many 
here." Mr. Dymond captured about a dozen specimens of Calgmnia 
diffinis at sugar, and found C. affinis to be common. Other insects 
which Mr, Dymond reports to be commoner than usual last year 
are : JEuolidia mi, Agrotis Begeium^ Noctua augwy Anchocelis litura, 



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84 LEPIDOPTEKA. OBSEBYED IN 1893. 

Xanthia etrcellarisy Cdlymnia trapezina, Hadena protea, and Miana 
strigilis. 

Miss Selby, of Battler's Green, Aldenham, tells me that her bee- 
hives are a great deal infested by the wax-moths. In December 
she sent me a number of specimens of Galleria mellonella, which 
were flying about the kitchen. Some old wax from the hives had 
been brought into the house, and the warmth caused the moths to 
emerge from their chrysalises at this unusual date. I have some- 
times found the smaller wax- moth (Achrc^a grisella) very trouble- 
some in my hives. These insects are wax-feeders, the larvae 
eating their way through the honey- comb, and sometimes causing a 
great deal of damage. Mr. T. B. Blow, of Welwyn, thinks that if 
the bees are kept strong they will turn the grubs of the wax-moth 
out of the hives. He says that he rarely hears of a case of really 
serious injury caused by them. 

In conclusion, I must thank my correspondents who have 
rendered such valuable help. I would like to again emphasize 
the necessity of our county entomologists keeping a record of the 
appearances of rare insects, and informing me of the same. During 
the year several friends have sent me moths which they have 
found, and although in some cases they were only very common 
insects, occasionally a rare one came to hand, and I welcome all 
help of this kind. As a rule a moth will travel safely if sent 
alive in a pill-box, packed inside a tin to keep it from being 
smashed in the post. Moths sent in this way often deposit eggs 
and enable one to study the insect from the ova to the imago. 



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XII. 
ANNIVERSARY ADDRESS. 

A WONBEEFTJL ANIMAL. 

By the President, Aethue SxRADLroG, M.E.C.S., F.Z.S. 

Delivered at the Annual Meeting^ 27th Fehruaryy 1894, at Watford. 
Ladies and Gentlemen", — 

I purpose to take as my text to-night the dictum that the 
** proper study of mankind is man," hut in a literal and more 
prosaic sense than that intended hy the poet. Indeed, the line 
which I shall pursue is the very converse of that implied hy the 
quotation ; for, with the higher attrihutes of man — ^mental, moral, 
intellectual, or spiritual — I shall, of course, not attempt to deal. 
I am going to say a few words ahout man the animal, in relation 
to, and in comparison and contrast with, the rest of the animal 
world; and I have presumed to select this subject on the grounds 
that, in the first place, my past life in the wilds has afforded me 
exceptionally advantageous opportunities of studying this noble 
animal in his natural and noblest condition, so far as bodily cha- 
racteristics go ; and secondly, because it is my lot to follow as 
a profession that branch of N'atural History — ^for it is nothing else 
— ^known as medicine. 

Let me say at the outset that, although I am going to speak, 
and to speak with intense admiration, of man viewed as an animal 
and nothing more, I am not taking the materialistic platform too 
commonly adopted in science nowadays, that man is an animal 
and nothing more. It is true that the gulf between him and 
beast is not to be found in structure, but is an intellectual one 
only — and that not one of character but of degree, utterly value- 
less for the purposes of classification. Nevertheless, that gulf 
remains so wide, so immeasurably profound, that man must 
always occupy a place apart in creation. But of course it is 
patent to aU that we are built up on the same general plan and 
design as the creatures which come immediately below us in the 
scale of life; we have similar eyes, ears, tongues, similar senses 
and corresponding likes and dislikes arising out of the exercise of 
those senses, pleasures of appetite, susceptibility to pain, and so 
forth. And therefore it is perfectly justifiable, as it seems to me, 
for us, as a Society avowedly devoted to the investigation of the 
whole phenomena of Nature, to take man and study him for the 
time being on precisely the same principle that we might a cat 
or frog ; and indeed he is well worth it, for no more wonderful 



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86 A. 8TRADLING ANNIVER8AHT ADDRESS I 

animal has ever trodden this earth. And I venture here to enter 
a protest against the tendency to underrate this remarkahle animal 
which appears to prevail at the present day. In popular accep- 
tation the proper study of mankind seems now to be any other 
animal, from a microbe to a mammoth, rather than our own 
species. So far is this really the case, that the British Associa- 
tion has recently sent round memoranda, begging societies of this 
sort not to neglect among their observations to record facts relating 
to ethnology and other topics pertaining to humanity. We have in 
consequence just added that word to our schedule of subjects for 
consideration. Then, again, we constantly hear injurious comparisons 
instituted between ourselves and the lower animals. Probably we 
have all suffered much in our youth from those hateful insects, 
the industrious ant and the busy bee ; but even now we frequently 
get the exclamation, "Ah, which of us could do that?" from 
people of cheap, second-hand, philosophical proclivities, when they 
see anything on the part of an animal which strikes them as clever 
or ingenious, — the very people who, as a rule, scornfully repudiate 
the idea that we are of one flesh and blood with the rest of 
creation. No one can delight in the marvels of animated nature 
more than I do, for I have lived in close and constant companion- 
ship with animals of various species all my life ; but I confess that 
it does make me indignant when I hear them lauded at the expense 
of that crown and miracle of evolution, myself. For, as I shall 
hope to point out presently, man is far and away the best aU* 
round animal, even from a purely physical aspect. 

Now, where shall we put man in the zoological scale? Man, 
to whom the question is necessarily addressed, usually replies : At 
the top, as high up as possible ; not like the little boy at school, 
who, on being asked which was the highest animal, answered that 
it was a giraffe ! It is very doubtful, though, whether there are 
any structural grounds sufficiently valid to justify this position^ 
If we agree with one of the schools of systematists of the present 
day, that specialization of structure should be taken as the criterion 
of altitude of type, then man, though undoubtedly ranking very 
high in this respect, must yield precedence to the bat and the 
whale, both of whom have become more modified than he in adap- 
tation to their environment. On the other hand, if we throw in 
our lot with another school who hold that specialization should 
be regarded rather as evidence of degradation, as evincing de- 
parture from perfection of type, then, although not quite at the 
bottom, man would have to t^e a very low seat indeed. I have 
attempted to demonstrate in a pre\'iou8 lecture that there is no 



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A WOin>£aFUL ANIMAL. 87 

absolute zoological specialty which serves to distinguish man from 
the rest of the animal world. He is lord of creation by virtue of 
his intellectual supremacy alone; and though it is impossible to 
deny that the intellectual quality is shared in some degree by the 
brutes — for in many of them we see evidence, not only of cere- 
bration, but of ideation, of classification and judgment, with a very 
obvious and definite concept of the ego — yet this supremacy is so 
great as to leave it little matter for wonder that in time past man 
should have semi-deified his mind as the immortal part of him, and 
regarded it as synonymous with the soul. Later knowledge has 
shown this to be untenable, since the mind may be destroyed at 
will by a simple surgical operation, and is in fact not seldom so 
destroyed by accident, while it is subject to decay and death from 
disease quite independently of the body. Mind is merely the 
function of a tissue, the secretion of the brain-substance ; but the 
utter disproportion between the increase of this tissue and its 
developed action is perhaps the most marvellous and least ex- 
plicable of all human phenomena. Our brain is only about three 
times as large as that of a gorilla or chimpanzee, and very little 
more elaborate in its elemental complexity; yet no one would 
dream of stating its resultant function, the mind, as equivalent 
to thrice or three hundred times that of the ape. And then look 
at the enormous progression that goes on, century after century. 
Everywhere outside man we find psychical fixity; but if the 
increment of mind during no more than the last fifty years could 
receive material expression in anatomical factors, bone, muscle, and 
artery, it would yield basis enough to found a new species. For 
this stupendous evolution, practically unaccompanied by corre- 
sponding structural development, there is, so far as I know, only 
one parallel throughout nature; but there w a parallel, in the 
yenom-gland of a poisonous serpent. This gland is to all appear- 
ance simply a common parotid, the exact analogue of those which 
swell up so uncomfortably and ridiculously when we have mumps. 
All snakes have them ; but how or why the secretion, an oixiinary 
saliva, should acquire so remarkable a property in the lethal species 
is a mystery as little to be solved as the origin of the human mind. 
Not only in our anatomy and physiology, but, as it seems to 
me, in our acts and deeds, if we analyse them, do we present 
as much theme for wonder as any creature outside the genus 
Momo, May I give an illustration of what I mean ? We are 
lost in admiration, and with good reason too, at the exquisite 
instinctive nicety and calculation of distance displayed by the 
squirrel or gibbon in leaping from one slender bough to another, 



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88 A. STKADLDTG AXJnTEBSAXI ADDRESS: 

Bpringing without hesitation and alighting with unfailing accuracy 
on the desired point, the impetus employed being no fraction 
more or less than that demanded by the exact requirements of 
the interval. Very beautiful is this to contemplate, but to my 
mind not half so marvellous as the spot stroke at billiards, as 
played by an expert — the precision, the almost microscopic 
delicacy, the judgment, the correct apportioning of force; above 
all, the command of nerve involved to make stroke after stroke 
with so unerring an aim. Still further, we have to reflect that 
this aptitude, which has become well-nigh an instinct with the 
player, has been acquired by him during a portion only of one 
life-time — heredity is no factor in the case ; while with the 
squirrel the faculty has been gained by the accumulated experience 
of thousands and tens of thousands of generations. So, too, when 
we catch a ball thrown up in the air, we calculate the trajectory 
and place our hand almost intuitively in the line of its descent. 
"Witness also the dexterity attained by jugglers after a few 
years' practice, enabling them to toss about and manipulate 
half-a-dozen different objects while reading aloud from a book 
or paper, or to throw a ball high above them whilst blindfolded, 
and to so adjust the impulse and the distance which it shall 
traverse that it shall fall into their outstretched hand. I doubt, 
moreover, whether the whole creation of animals, living or extinct, 
has ever produced such a marvel of semi-instinctive performance 
as that offered by the musician who executes a rapid movement 
on an instrument like the piano, where thousands of muscular 
actions, each distinct, independent, co-ordinate, and purposeful, 
take place within a minute ; and the marvel is multiplied ten-fold 
when to this is superadded the process of reading and translating 
each note coincidently. So again with the subtlety, neatness, 
and delicacy of manipulation acquired in many trades and 
industries, instances of which might be adduced by the hundred ; 
but what I would rather lay stress on is the fact that equal 
theme for astonishment may be found in coimtless acts of our 
every-day life, complex movements which we perform almost 
unconsciously (certainly without conscious thought), very little 
to be distinguished in their results from what we call instinct, 
yet all learnt and accumulated by obvious methods of attainment ; 
such acts as running up stairs, balancing the body, the umbrella, 
or the hat against a high wind, putting on a pair of gloves, 
shortening our steps mechanically in crossing a road so that the 
foot is exactly timed to reach the edge of the pavement, and 
the numberless examples of instinctive memory and localization. 



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A. WONDERFUL ANIMAL. 89 

The last is seen no doubt in its highest development amongst 
savages — it is said that the aboriginal inhabitants of the West 
Indies, now nearly extinct, could foretell the advent of a hurricane 
a week or more in advance, which the most delicate meteorological 
instruments fail to do. One may point out here, as somewhat 
remarkable, that although the principles of almost all man's great 
mechanical inventions have been anticipated by the lower animals, 
he does not seem to have copied directly from Nature in this 
respect in any instance, but to have evolved his discoveries inde- 
pendently. And although he does not possess the power of scent 
of the chamois, the hearing of the bat, the sight of a hawk, the 
muscular strength of the tiger, or speed of the cheetah, in the 
aggregate the sum total of his senses and faculties far exceeds 
that of any, whUe in endurance and adaptability he is second 
to none — ^this wonderful creature, whom Bremser has declared to 
occupy a sad middle state between the animal and the angel. 

Take, for instance, his sense of sight. Very few creatures 
can compare with us in acuteness or comprehensiveness of vision 
— some few birds, perhaps, such as the hawk and the guU. The 
compliment ** lynx-eyed" is a very doubtful one, since neither 
the lynx nor any other cat is gifted with sight equal to that of 
man. In fact, the excellence of this faculty is quite extraordinary 
in comparison with its condition in the rest of the animal world ; 
snakes see nothing distinctly at a distance equivalent to twice 
their own length, while even the possessors of multiple eyes — 
insects and spiders — cannot boast a power of perception even 
relatively as good. A spider with its eight eyes may be observed 
to feel along the threads of its web in order to discover the 
precise whereabouts of a captured fly. It is very doubtful 
whether any animal but man sees the stars. 

And, speaking of seeing the stars, it is curious how little we 
know what we do see. All our senses befool us to some extent, 
but none so much as that of sight — seeing is not believing. How 
big does the moon appear to us ? A thousand persons, of all 
ages, were tested with this question, and invited to draw on a 
black-board the image of the moon of the actual size which it 
presented to the mind of each. The result was a series of circles 
ranging in diameter from that of a shilling to that of a soup- 
plate ; so great was the diversity that it was impossible to arrive 
at any trustworthy average amongst them. In respect of the 
moon, too, occurs the singular sense-deception that we see it 
apparently larger on the horizon than when we view it directly 
overhead. We know, of course, that it is the same body; but 

VOL. VUI. — PABT V. 7 



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90 A. STBADLIlfO — ANKITEBSABT ADDBE9S : 

our reason revolts at the assertion that the image and present- 
ment which fall upon the retina are of precisely the same 
dimensions whether the satellite he at the zenith or upon the 
horizon. Nevertheless, this may he demonstrated to be the case 
by placing a disc of cardboard the size of a billing at the 
extremity of a straight stick, forty inches long, at which 
distance such a disc will exactly extinguish that of the moon, 
whatever its situation may be. The explanation of the anomaly 
lies in the circumstance that we can never get rid of the im- 
pression that the vault of the heavens assumes the form of a 
flattened dome, that the horizon is farther away from us than 
the vertex, and that consequently a body ought to appear smaller 
to us at the greater distance; we therefore intuitively magnify 
the moon*s image in our receptivity to compensate for tte dis- 
crepancy of its equality of diameter in both positions. In a 
somewhat similar manner, the gas-lamps in the street, which we 
know to be close at hand, convey when looming through a fog 
an irresistible impression of distance to our easily-deluded ocular 
appreciation. In fact, the eye can never be depended upon to 
give a correct perception of distance unless there be something 
to mark the interval; a light in the air may be an expiring 
candle a few feet oft, or a planet at millions of miles. A curious 
illusion of a small character affects myself in connection with 
the constant use of spectacles. (If I quote myself and the 
phenomena of my own life-history from time to time in the course 
of the evening, please do not set it down to inordinate vanity on 
my part, or misjudge me as offering myself as a remarkably fine 
example of the Wondei-ful Animal we have under consideration. 
I do so simply because I happen to be the specimen which comes 
most immediately within the sphere of my personal observation. 
If I were lecturing on cats or dogs or serpents, you would 
naturally expect that I should select for illustration those in my 
own collection as most familiar to me, and it is on precisely the 
same principle that I allude to myself in the present instance. 
However, other people wear spectacles, and may perhaps have 
noticed a similar deception.) For me of course the world is 
framed in a somewhat narrow oval; I don't employ the whole 
capacity of my extent of vision, that being bounded by the rim 
of my glasses. The result is that pictures of landscapes always 
seem unnatural to me — they all have too much sky, more, that 
is to say, than I am accustomed to see in proportion to the 
amount of ground. This shows that it does not do to accept 
everything as viewed through one's own spectacles. 



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A WONDEBFUL AlQlfAL. 91 

No other animal probably depends so much on the sense of sight 
as we do, yet the eye is remarkably defective, not only in respect 
of distance, but in its power of quantitative estimate. If we are 
accustomed to take sugar in our tea or coffee, our sense of taste 
will inform us at once whether our cup has been sweetened with 
one, two, or three lumps. So, when the conductor of an omnibus 
gives us change out of sixpence, we can guess pretty correctly 
without looking whether he has made a mistake of a penny 
(especially if it should be a penny short), simply by the weight 
of the coppers. Yet it is exceedingly difficult to say whether a 
room is lighted by one, two, or three candles, if the candles them- 
selves be not seen ; moreover, the illumination of twenty candles 
is scarcely to be differentiated from that of ten, when they are 
hidden from view, and even the sudden addition of ten candles 
to a like number already lighted fails to produce an impression 
of the increase of more than two or three. It would be quite 
possible to lower the lights in this room to one half of the volume 
which they are now yielding without any perceptible alteration 
to the majority of those present, provided the diminution were 
effected gradually. Even the tactile perception is more delicate 
and acute than this: in selecting one from a number of instru- 
ments of the same shape but of different sizes (different in calibre, 
that is to say), I find that my sense of touch is a much more 
trustworthy guide than is the eye where the gradations are very 
fine. The sight of savages, about which so much nonsense 
has been talked, is by no means exceptionally acute, though 
specialized in certain directions by habitude ; they may pick out, 
for instance, a motionless animal which is invisible to the un- 
practised eye, but my fellows in Nicaragua had the greatest 
difficulty in seeing any distinction between an n and an m printed 
in small type, and even between a full stop and a comma, things 
that strike us like a blow when one is misplaced for the other. 
A child's vision appears to be deficient in comprehension rather 
than intensity, though whether this is due to immaturity of the 
organs involved or to defective receptivity of the centrum I am 
unable to say. I was much impressed with this fact on one 
occasion some few years ago, in taking a child of five and his 
nurse — specimens again from my own vivarium — ^to the Crystal 
Palace. Neither of them had been there before; and when we 
emerged from the Low Level Station into the grounds, the nurse, 
a girl of eighteen or twenty, was rapt in amazement at the 
panorama which suddenly burst upon her, the enormous gardens, 
the fountains, the wide terraces, and, behind all, the huge building 



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92 A. STBADLroO AKNIVEBSABT ADDEE88 : 

and towers. The child, on the other hand, saw nothing and heeded 
nothing but the flowers and shrubs in the immediate vicinity — 
he was capable of perceiving all the rest when his attention was 
especially directed to it, and it aroused equal wonder in him, but 
he at once reverted to neighbouring objects when left to himself. 

The first colour which a child recognizes is invariably red, and 
children are singularly attracted by anything of a golden hue 
or sheen; babies just able to crawl will stretch out their hands 
towards gilt balls in the midst of other objects equally bright, 
and will pick out gold coins from amongst silver or any others — 
a predilection which certainly persists into later life with the 
majority of our species. At the age of ten the colour of the eyes 
is fixed; and it is said that blue-eyed people are never colour- 
blind. We probably see more colours than the rest of the higher 
animals ; at any rate, apes seem to be colour-blind. 

That human sight is deteriorating, our children afford most 
melancholy proof. I have been told on very competent authority 
that the reason why the stereoscope has fallen so much into disuse 
is because few people now can see with both eyes alike. Never- 
theless, it is pleasant to know that total blindness is steadily 
diminishing. In the year 1871, the proportion of blind folks per 
million of the whole population of England and Wales was 951 ; 
in 1881 it was 879 ; and ten years later still, it had fallen to 809. 
This decrease is no doubt largely due to the improvement in 
remedial appliances and operations which have been devised by 
oculists in the last quarter of a century; I think those medical 
men who are present will agree with me when I say that the 
progress of ophthalmic surgery during recent years offers the most 
satisfactory aspect of our profession. There is one little operation 
known as iridectomy, the object of which is to restore the pupil 
when it has been obliterated by inflammation, concerning which 
it is said that it has actually exercised an appreciable effect on 
the poor-rates of every civilized country in the world ! Young 
and able-bodied people who had become blind from inflammation 
of the iris were formerly regarded as incurably so, and had in 
consequence to be maintained by the state, the parish, or charity 
for the remainder of their natural lives, or had to take up occupa- 
tions for which the power of sight can be dispensed with, such 
as basket-making. Now, by a snip of the scissors the blessing 
of sight can be restored to many, enabling them to set to work and 
earn their bread. The number of the totally blind in England 
and Wales was returned at the last general census, that of 1891, 
at 23,467. Amongst these the male sex predominated greatly up 



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A WONDERFUL AKIKAL. 93 

to the age of 65, but blind old women far outnumbered the blind 
old men. The occupation of the majority of these blind persons 
was basket-making, but music was the vocation of many of them, 
either teaching or actually performing. Six blind doctors appear 
in the list, and two blind veterinary surgeons ; three blind dentists 
are gruesomely suggestive of new horrors added to a terrible craft ; 
and, most extraordinary of all, there are two sightless photo- 
graphers. The blind pianoforte-tuners, who are very numerous, 
appear to have been included in the census returns under the head 
of musicians. 

As an example of the wonderful perfection of functional speciali- 
zation to which the eye can attain, I may state that it is credibly 
affirmed that signalmen in their cabins on the railway are able 
to detect and recognize the inspectors for whom they watch as 
they pass in the trains at full speed. But, indeed, the most casual 
phenomena of the vision are altogether marvellous when we think 
of the tiny pinhole, the pupil, through which we look out and 
survey the world, through which our sense not only embraces 
many miles of landscape, but perceives such trifles as the minute 
deflection of the globe of another person's eye in ** meeting 
a glance." 

It is very difficult to deceive the eye, though the eye may 
deceive us ; of this striking instances might be given. 

It is possible that sight is somewhat complementary to hearing, 
as smell is to taste, for, when we are listening, we turn our eyes, 
although the face is averted to bring the ear round. We also have 
some power of hearing through the open mouth. 

But hearing does not present so many curiosities as does the 
sense of sight. Our external ears are not of much use; people 
get on very well without them. 

The dullest and most neglected sense is that of smell ; we prac- 
tically make scarcely any use of it. It is the only sense that does 
not sleep, and it is said to be more acute when we are asleep than 
when we are awake, odours then being very distinctly perceived 
by the olfactory nerves. 

In no animal is the sense of taste so much developed by education 
as it is in man. People experienced in tasting wine can recognize 
different vintages without any hesitation. Many animals can taste 
their food very little, if at all. Birds with their homy tongues, 
and reptiles which swallow their prey whole, can have no palatal 
refinement, and yet they are discriminative to a great extent. 

The sense of taste is shared by the tongue with the rest of the 
mouth, but the tongue is also a tactile organ. Mr. Herbert 



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94 A. STEADLDTG ^AHVIYEBSAIIT ADDKBS8 : 

Wailes, in his recent lecture on " Crystals and Precious Stones," 
told U3 how the tongue was applied to test diamonds. The way 
in which the food is balanced by means of the muscles is very 
wonderful, and so also is the way in which we detect a grain 
of sand in the food and steady it against the teeth; while the 
whistling of the chromatic scale by a boy is an achievement pro- 
bably unsurpassed in the animal world. On the other hand, the 
movement involved in putting out the tongue is probably the easiest 
of all bodily actions. 

"With regard to speech, we are told on the authority of Mr. 
Edison that very few persons recognize their own voices, but 
probably they would not recognize themselves if they could meet. 
It is said that stammering is not known amongst savages, but is 
a product of civilization. No savage makes the noise of clearing 
the throat, and it is very doubtful whether a savage ever laughs 
aloud. But savages soon learn to do so, as the wild dog learns 
to bark on hearing the bark of the domestic dog. Gesture-language 
is pretty much the same amongst savages as amongst the rest of 
mankiud; although it may seem remarkable at first, it is descriptive 
and imitative in its origin. Language will have to be modified 
very much in that toothless future of which dentists give us the 
prediction. Cooked food has probably very much to do with the 
lo38 of teeth, but the great expanse of the brain may take up so 
much of the skull that there is not sufficient space for powerful 
muscles to work a heavy jaw. 

The average weight of the brain of males is 49 J ounces; that 
of females is said to be about 6 ounces less, which shows what 
capital stuff it must be made of, the smaller quantity doing so 
much. These are, of course, the absolute weights ; if we take the 
relative weight to the weight of the body, we shall probably find 
that the female brain is proportionately equal in weight to the 
male brain. Some very clever and intelligent men had very large 
brains. Thackeray's brain weighed 68i ounces ; a celebrated 
French surgeon's 62^ ounces; Abercrombie's an ounce heavier; 
and Cuvier's, the heaviest on record, 64 ounces. Napoleon's was 
a very heavy brain. But there is no rule : the brain of some very 
intelligent people is not much above the average; the brain of John 
Stuart Mill was a very small one indeed. Only two animals in the 
world have a brain heavier than that of man, the elephant and 
the whale, both intensely stupid creatures; in fact, no animal comes 
near to man in intellect in comparison with weight of brain. 
Some of the giant brutes of bygone days were remarkably scanty 
in this respect, some allied to the rhinoceros having smaller brains 



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A WONBEEFUL AKIMAL. 95 

than that of the cat. The hrain of some of the extinct reptiles 
would scarcely fill a wine-glass. But the intelligence of an animal 
generally hears some relation to the complexity, if not to the size, 
of its hrain. There has heen an effort lately made to associate 
hoth crime and genius with insanity, hut with regard to genius 
I think it would be very remarkable if perversion of tissue 
were correlated with the highest development of the function 
thereof. 

Turning from the consideration of the brain to that of the limbs, 
it is scarcely necessary to say that the primary object of locomotion 
is to enable the organism to seek food over a larger area than was 
possible with a fixed position. It has been reserved for man alone 
to differentiate his limbs and use his legs and feet, and not his arms 
and hands, for locomotion, and in this respect he is higher in the 
scale of creation, in his purely animal nature, than any of the 
other animals. It is thought that the erect position preceded 
the development of mind. The hand, also, plays an important 
part in the superiority of man over the other animals. 

Man the animal, irrespective of his mind, progresses ; the lower 
animals do not progress ; but he, even in his animal characteristics 
alone, is always going forward. We see this fact brought out in 
nothing more clearly than in the way in which records are broken 
in athletics and sports every year. Bicycling statistics prove this 
as much as anything. But the limits of human performance are 
very narrow without the aid of machinery, and are probably nearly 
reached now. That we shall never fly is certain ; for it has been 
mathematically calculated that our muscles can never be employed 
to lift our weight from the ground. 

I regret that I have not time enough to speak of the develop- 
ment of races, but there is one point in connection with descent 
which is sufficiently remarkable to notice. We find a great many 
instances of survival and reversion, especially in watching the 
habits of our children; all their games are mimic war, and they 
like **bluggy** stories. There is also amongst us one direct graft 
from barbarism, and that is the practice of smoking. 

There are several other points involving curiosities of human 
life-phenomena to which I had intended to allude, but I find that 
I have miscalculated my time at the outset in dwelling on the 
nerves of special sense. Now, is it allowable to speculate for a 
few minutes, by way of conclusion, as to the future of this 
wonderful animal? 

That our race is no longer in the heyday of its youth, that 
it is in fact long past its prime, admits of no dispute whatever. 



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96 A. 8TBADLI17G ANNITEBSABr ADDRESS: 

There are many points of positive evidence of this, too technically- 
anatomical to be brought forward here ; but one may say briefly 
that races present their signs of growth, maturity, senility, and 
decay, just as do individuals. Indeed, an American statistician 
has recently published a computation that, at the present ratio of 
increase, the extreme limit of population of the globe will bo 
reached in the year 2072 — no more than 178 years hence — by 
which time the earth's inhabitants will number 5994 millions, 
more than which it will not hold or support. I believe that the 
average proportion, taking the world over, so far as can be ascer- 
tained, is seventeen births for sixteen deaths, but this proportion 
varies greatly in different lands ; in France, for instance, according 
to the census recently issued, there were in 1892 more than 20,000 
deaths in excess of the number of births. It is extremely unlikely, 
however, that man will persist to the limits of possible population 
of the earth — which is not by any means the same thing as saying 
that he will become extinct before the suggested 178 years have 
elapsed, but rather the reverse, as no doubt unknown and at 
present nnknowable factors of determination will arise in the 
meantime. We must not forget that there are tracts of land, 
even in Canada and the United States, Alaska and Labrador, which 
are less known at this period than equal areas in the moon ; and 
that the future colonization of air and water may not be altogether 
chimerical. We must remember, too, in connection with this part 
of the question, that man, though encompassed by an infinitely 
greater variety and complexity of conditions than any other 
animal, has infinitely greater control over those conditions, by his 
employment of engines, his choice of food and clothing, and other 
modifications of his environment at will. As to his antiquity, we 
have but uncertain data, so far as years are concerned. We know 
of course that he is a very baby amongst the Mammalia, quite 
their latest product, just as the serpent is amongst reptiles ; that 
in fact he did not appear until long after the wane of mammalian 
life had set in ; and that he can be but a very transient phenomenon 
on the face of the globe, even though his existence be reckoned by 
thousands of centuries, when we compare him with such creat'iros 
as the catfish of the Missouri, which has persisted in its present 
form unchanged since the SUurian epoch. Sir Charles Lyell predi- 
cates the presence of man in the valley of the Mississippi for at 
least 100,000 years, and the traces upon which this estimate is 
founded would demand a period quite three times as long to 
admit of his perfect evolution and differentiation into races. But 
extinction is vastly quicker in its operation in all cases than 



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A WONDEBFITL ANIMAL. 97 

evolution, and it is certain that we shall not see another 300,000 
years, or anything like it. 

The fatal disease to which we shall owe our extermination is 
civilization — that civilization which is as recent a feature in our 
racial history as any event of yesterday in the lifetime of the 
individual ; and by civilization I do not mean the missionary 
process of clapping a naked savage into a top hat and frock coat 
and making him a member of a County Council — imposed civiliza- 
tion of that sort kills at once, witness the sudden extinction of 
the aboriginal Tasmanians. It is that gradual and self-evolved 
civilization, which comes inevitably to every nation sooner or later, 
and which is no less surely destructive, though immeasurably slower 
than the other. The Apahuai Indians, with whom I sojourned 
in Central America, offer an excellent illustration of this con- 
temporaneously. Their tribes, nomadic by nature and habit from 
time immemorial, are now just beginning to split up into sections, 
whereof one goes on wandering through the forests and prairies, 
while the other settles down into pueblos or villages and evinces 
a tendency to form agricultural communities ; and every year these 
communities receive an accession from the nomads— the first step 
on the downward path ! And this deadly symptom, civilization, 
is of course the direct product and outcome of man's fatal ad- 
vantage, his aggrandization of brain — ^that which has made him 
is wreaking his undoing. It is curious to note the frequency with 
which this fatality of advantage occurs in the animal world. The 
development of the hood of the cobra must at the outset have been 
of use to it in the struggle for existence, yet its weight and 
expanse now prove often a positive bane, and cause it to fall a 
prey to creatures from which it might otherwise escape ; and 
the enormous dimensions to which the tusks of some of the 
old mammoths attained must certainly have conduced ultimately 
to their extinction. The sabre-toothed tiger, again, the most 
specialized carnivore that ever existed, could not at last close its 
mouth on the teeth to which it owed its initial superiority over 
the rest of its kind. So, too, one might adduce as parallel instances 
the brilliancy of certain birds, the plumes of the bird of paradise, 
the neck of the giraffe, and many other examples of the disad- 
vantageous exaggeration of a development originally and within 
moderate limits of the greatest utUity to the possessor. And so 
it will be with that awful and ever-increasing high pressure and 
tension under which we live, owing to the ceaseless and insatiable 
goading of this hypertrophied brain of ours. That the pace at 
which we now live kills is simply a truism and requires no 



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98 A. STEAPLDrO AJXIflYEBSABY ADDRESS : 

demonstratioD ; but perhaps no more conclusive proof of the inci'ease 
of pressure could be given than the fact that it is not so very long 
ago that watches were made with the hour hand only ; old writings 
do not speak of minutes — ^there was no 9.47 train to catch then, or 
anything of that sort — ^they allude comfortably to noon, midnight, 
and so on as a rule. Minor divisions of time, in relation to daily 
life, are sequent upon the requirements of this terrible civilization. 
And look at the awful results to the race which spring from the 
education that it entails. Look at our children, cramped in body 
and mind through the best years of their existence — what a 
lamentable contrast is theirs to the grand young savages brought 
up in the school of Nature ! Children — there are no children 
nowadays ; the young playful human animal is a thing of the past ; 
they are like the kangaroos which have been kept in captivity 
generation after generation — they are beginning to walk, not hop 
or jump — ^the saddest spectacle to my mind which civilization 
affords. Read what our learned and valued member, Dr. Shelly, 
said on this head in his lecture to the National Health Society last 
week. There is no need to multiply instances ; the demand for 
rational dress shows that the pinch on vitality is making itself felt, 
and there is no clearer evidence of our decay than the constant and 
increasing quest of peptomised and other foods which shall lighten 
the labour of digestion. The very existence of a medical profession 
shows that there must be something wrong — a race of undeteriorated 
animals would not want doctors. And that leads me to remark 
that doctors are after all the greatest and chiefest enemies of the 
human race. It is not too much to say that nine-tenths of 
the effort of medical science is directed towards the extinction 
of the race, by preservation of the unfit. It is a law of nature 
that, under ordinary conditions, not one per cent, of the animals 
of any species bom shall survive— not one in a thousand, not one 
in ten thousand of some species. Mysterious as it seems. Nature 
is always taking repressive measures to keep the pot from boiling 
over, to neutralize the exuberance of vitality ; if it were not so, 
the world would not support any single species for a single year. 
Man in a state of nature offers no exception to this rule, and even 
under civilization it is said that two-thirds of the race perish in 
infancy ; but this is not enough for its conservation. Now, medical 
science, and especially sanitary science, prevents that beneficial 
waste of immature and weakly life in explicit defiance of this 
law ; and in using the word ** beneficial " I of course adopt the 
seeming paradox — ^no paradox at all, however — that that which 
is beneficial to the individual is commonly, though not necessarily 



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A WO^CDSBFUL ANIMAL. 99 

or invariably, prejudicial to the race, and vice vend. The passive 
survival of the fittest can only be compassed by the destruction 
of the less fit by independent forces ; though I do not suppose 
that any new Herod is likely to arise, to prescribe euthanasia or 
compulsory infanticide in lieu of our perniciously-preservative 
vaccination. 

Then, again, man has scarcely any enemies amongst other 
animals — ^the tiger, the shark, and the venomous serpent are all 
inconsiderable; and although it may seem like another paradox 
to speak of this as an element of disfavour in his racial prospects, 
yet it is a fact that the presence of enemies, beasts of prey and 
such like, within certain limits, does conduce to the well-being of 
a race, by weeding out the weaklings and superfluous young, 
keeping up the food-supply, and stimulating speed, alertness, and 
other qualities serviceable in the battle of life among the rest. 
Man, moreover, is unquestionably the terminal twig of his branch. 
He will leave no descendants, and there is no ancestral ape-like 
form from which more will be evolved. In a very short time man 
will be gone — New Guinea and Central Africa are the last homes 
of the savage in his furious state, uninfluenced by contact with 
white civilization; and we, the posterity of such, already hope- 
lessly on the road to extermination, will be all that are left. And 
what shall we leave behind us ? Practically nothing. It is very 
humiliating to think of, but if a future race of intelligent beings 
should inhabit the earth, they will find the only evidence of 
that development of brain and its results, which we consider so 
wonderful as to ascribe it peculiarly God -gifted to ourselves, in the 
vestiges of a mere constructive power, exactly comparable in kind 
or degree to that of the bee, the nest-building bird, or the beaver. 
In another hundred thousand years there will probably be more 
evidence of the past existence of the ichthyosaurus than of that 
of man. 

What will the last man be like ? It is possible to predict, with 
a tolerable approach to ceitainty. A creature with a big head, big 
hands, and shrunken legs; with a thin wesik jaw and thickened 
upper lip ; bald, purblind, and with few or no teeth ; a creature 
with swollen projecting ribs, flat hips, and smaU ill-developed feet ; 
deficient in the power of locomotion, yet still procuring food and 
preserving vitality by his marvellous mastery over the forces of 
nature through the resourcefulness of science. But the stage will 
be reached at length when the enfeebled stomach can no longer 
minister to the unbounded exigency of the horrible, parasitic, all- 
devouring demon of a brain; the secretion of intellect will fail 



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100 ▲. STRADLDTO AmTVEMSAXI ABDB£BS. 

from inanition; and man most snccnmb, wholesale and rapidly, 
in the precise order and precedence of his boasted civilization. 
Science, which has prolonged his existence far and remarkably 
beyond the span of any other creatnre, can do no more for him ; 
science will speak the last word uttered upon earth, and that 
word will be one of sheer negation and despair. Many centuries, 
however, have yet to elapse before that word shall be spoken, and 
it may be that man is destined to spend the declining years of his 
racial career under happier physical conditions than those which 
have hitherto obtained. Already signs are apparent of what is 
probably an impending universal migration towards those regions 
where, and where only, the delight and majesty of life can be 
fully developed and appreciated, the tropics. Probably the same 
thought has occurred to everyone who has lived in those regions 
which was expressed by the late H. W. Bates, though it may not 
be given to all to clothe it with such grace of diction as he 
does when he says that *^ although humanity can reach an 
advanced degree of culture in high latitudes by battling with 
the inclemencies of Nature, it is under the equator alone that the 
race of the future will attain to complete fruition of man's glorious 
and beautiful heritage, the earth.'' 



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XIII. 

THE RELATIVE ADVANTAGES OF HARD AND SOFT WATER, 
WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE SUPPLY OF WATFORD. 

By John Hopkinson, F.L.S., F.G.S., F.R.Met.Soc. 
Mead at Watford, 29th January, 1895. 

The question of the relative advantages of hard and soft water 
is a very wide one. Considered in an economic light it cannot be 
denied that the advantages are decidedly in favour of soft water ; 
considered from a sanitary point of view it must first be resolved 
into two distinct questions, — the one as to the external application 
of water (for ablution) ; the other as to its internal use (for 
imbibition). That soft water has great sanitary advantages over 
hard water in our ablutions is no more likely to be disputed than 
that it is decidedly more economical in domestic use, — for weishing 
ourselves as well as for washing our clothes and cooking our food, 
— and the only sanitary question which is really open to debate is 
whether soft water or hard water is best for us to drink. But this 
should not be the only point discussed, for the amount of water 
which we drink is but a very small portion of that which we use 
in other ways. It is therefore to the purpose to show that if hard 
water and soft water were equally beneficial in this respect, the 
advantages on the whole would be greatly in favour of soft water ; 
and of this I think there cannot be the slightest doubt. 

The hardness of water may be expressed in two different ways, 
in parts per 100,000 by weight, and in grains per gallon. In 
general analyses of water the former scale is usually adopted, for 
the sake of uniformity, the amount of organic and mineral in- 
gredients in water being most clearly and advantageously expressed 
on this scale ; but the latter, which is known as Clark's scale, is 
more familiar to us, and I will here adopt it. A grain of carbonate 
of lime being the 1-70, 000 th part by weight of a gallon of water, 
parts per 100,000 can be converted into grains per gallon by 
multiplying by seven and dividing by ten, and vice versd. 

The water with which Watford is supplied derives its hardness 
mainly from the presence of bicarbonate of lime ; not from that of 
sulphates or chlorides which are much more difficult to deal with. 
It is usually about 20 degrees of hardness, about 16° of which 
are temporary, that is can be removed by boiling, and 4° are 
permanent, that is cannot be so removed. The mean of two 
analyses of water from the weU at the Watford Waterworks made 
in 1870 and 1873 for the Rivers Pollution Commission, gave 20°*0, 
16°-3 being temporary and 3°'7 being permanent. Several other 
analyses of water from wells in the neighbourhood of Watford, 
made about the same time (1870 to 1873), gave from 18® 
to 22° ; and the mean of 16 analyses of water from wells and 
springs in Hertfordshire, made from 1868 to 1874, gave a total 



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102 J. Hopsnrsoir — belatite ADTAirrAGSS 

hardness of 19®*2, 15°-6 being temporary and 3° -6 being permanent. 
(See Table I, p. 113.) The hardness of the water supplied to 
London throughout the year 1873, by the seven Companies drawing 
a portion or the whole of their supply from rivers, averaged nearly 
15*^. In the year 1892 it averaged 15°-3, ranging from 13° in the 
autumn to 18° in the winter. (See Table II, p. 114.) The 
slightly-increased hardness of the London water in recent years 
is due to the supply derived from deep wells in the Chalk having 
increased to a greater proportionate extent than that derived from 
rivers. There is no reason to believe that the degree of hardness 
of the Watford water, or the proportion of temporary and permanent 
hardness, has materially altered since the analyses were made for 
the Kivers Pollution Commission, and we may Eiccept it as a fact 
that the Watford water is about 5° harder than the London water. 
This difference is due to the greater part of the London water being 
derived from rivers, while the whole of the Watford water comes 
from the Chalk. In the classification of hardness the water 
supplied to Watford would be considered to be between ** hard " 
and ** very hard," and that supplied to London between "mode- 
rately hard " and ** hard," and it is important to bear this 
distinction in mind, for, whatever objection may be urged against 
the London water on account of its hardness, applies with greater 
force to the Watford water. 

Hard water, as already stated, may be partially softened by 
boiling, and is so softened in steam-boilers and to a less extent 
in our kitchen boilers, to their great detriment and that of any 
iron pipes through which the water flows, for a deposit called 
** scale" or "fur" is formed on the iron, uniting with it and 
caking over it. This, being a bad conductor of heat, renders an 
increased consumption of fuel necessary to raise the temperature 
of the water in the boiler; the "scale" has occasionally to be 
removed at considerable expense ; and as it cannot be chipped off 
without bringing with it some of the iron, boilers wear out much 
faster when supplied with hard water than they do with a soft- 
water supply. The "scale" also gradually chokes up the iron 
pipes thix)ugh which the water flows, sometimes with disastrous 
results. The water must boil for at least half-an-hour to be 
materially softened. The so-called bicarbonate of lime (calcium- 
bicarbonate) is then decomposed, half of its carbonic acid (carbon- 
dioxide) being driven off as gas, leaving it a monocarbonate 
(calcium-carbonate), which falls to the bottom of the water as a 
fine powder, and cakes on the iron. There can be no question, 
therefore, as to the great economical advantage of soft water over 
hard water for any purpose for which it has to be boiled. 

The difference between hard water and soft water is most 
pertinently perceived by us in washing. Soap, in hard water, 
does not at first cleanse ; some of it must be wasted in decomposing 
the bicarbonate of lime in the water before it can act as a deter- 
gent ; in fact, the water must first be softened to a considerable 
extent at the expense of the soap. In soft water there is no such 



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OP HABD AND SOFT WATKE. 103 

waste. In washing there is, therefore, a very decided economical 
advantage in using soft water. 

But this is by no means the only advantage. However much 
soap we may use with hard water, the pores of the skin cannot be 
thoroughly cleansed and thus left open as they are with soft 
water. The lather which is obtained with either, after much 
waste of soap in hard water, with no such waste in soft water, 
should be removed from the skin in order to leave the cuticle in a 
healthy state. Rinsing with soft water at once removes it and 
leaves the skin soft and with open pores, in the most healthy state 
possible ; rinsing with hard water clogs the pores of the skin with 
insoluble, greasy, curdy matter, the combination of the lime in the 
water with the fatty acids in the soap, and leaves the skin in an 
unhealthy and uncomfortable state. Moreover, to habitually wash 
the face with hard water ruins the complexion, and the excessive 
use of soap which hard water renders necessary is also bad for it, 
facts of which most ladies are probably well aware. In our 
personal ablutions soft water has, therefore, a sanitary and aesthetic 
as well as an economical advantage over hard water. 

In washing clothes with hard water it is necessary to soften the 
water before the soap can have the requisite detergent effect. 
Soap is too expensive to be used as the softening agent in this 
operation. Carbonate of soda (the so-called ** washing soda") 
answers the purpose well, and is not only much less expensive 
than soap, but a smaller quantity is required to produce the same 
effect. It is therefore generally used. Its action is to combine 
with a portion of the carbonic acid gas in the Soluble bicarbonate 
of lime, to the presence of which the hardness of the water is due, 
converting this bicarbonate of lime into the insoluble monocarbonate 
of lime, and also producing a bicarbonate of soda, which remains 
in solution, adding to the detergent effect of the soltened water. 
This action may be thus expressed : — calcium- bicarbonate -\- 
sodium- carbonate « calcium-carbonate + sodium-bicarbonate. In 
using soft water for washing clothes, not only is the expense of the 
carbonate of soda saved, but the wear and tear on the linen is also 
greatly reduced. 

Soft water is far more economical than hard water in cooking 
our food. There is considerable waste with hard water, for not 
only is it longer in producing the required effect, whether upon 
meat or vegetables, but the calcareous hardening matter damages 
the quality of the food. The saving effected in making tea with 
soft water is almost too well known to require mentioning. 

The great economical advantage of soft water over hard water 
is not, it must be admitted, a question open to dispute. 

The amount of soap which water can destroy is the test of its 
degree of hardness, which is measured by shaking up a standard 
soap-solution in a given quantity of water. The soap-solution is 
added to the water until on shaking it a permanent lather (one 
which will remain for about five minutes) is obtained. Thus 
a water is said to possess one degree of hardness when its 



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104 J. H0PKIN80K — EELATIVE ADYANTjLGES 

soap-destroying power is equal to that exerted by one grain of 
carbonate of lime (existing as bicarbonate) in one imperial gallon 
of water (weighing 70,000 grains). 

It is well known that lime is made by driving off from chalk, 
by means of heat, the carbonic acid which it contains. Chalk, or 
calcium-carbonate, is thus converted into lime, or calcium- oxide, 
and carbonic acid gas, or carbon-dioxide, which escapes into the 
air. The lime has then a great affinity for its former partner, 
carbonic acid gas, and it is in virtue of this affinity that slaked 
lime softens water which is hai-d owing to the presence of 
bicarbonate of lime, or calcium-bicarbonate, for it combines with 
half its carbonic acid gas, thus forming chalk, and by this 
deprivation the rest of the bicarbonate is also left as chalk. The 
bicarbonate is soluble in water, but the carbonate (chalk) is not, 
or is only so to a very slight extent ; and therefore the chalk thus 
formed is deposited as a fine powder, or may be removed from the 
water by filtration, thus rendering it soft. 

The hardening of water by bicarbonate of lime and its softening 
by lime may be thus expressed quantitatively. A gallon of rain- 
water charged with 7 grains of carbonic acid gas, which it may 
take up from the air or from decaying vegetable matter, passing 
through chalk, will carry with it in solution about 17i grains 
of the chalk, of which 16 grains will be in chemical combination 
with the carbonic acid gas, forming 23 grains of bicarbonate of 
lime, and the water will be said to be of 1 7i degrees of hardness. 
If now 9 grains of lime be added, they will combine with the 23 
grains of bicarbonate of lime and form 32 grains of chalk, for 
7 grains of carbonic acid gas will have abandoned the bicarbonate 
of lime, and have formed, with the 9 grains of liiue, 16 grains 
of chalk. The whole of these 32 grains of chalk can now be 
removed from the water by settlement or filtration, leaving it with 
only a grain and a half of chalk dissolved in it, and thus reducing 
it from 17i° of hardness to U°. 

This is the reaction which takes place in the now well-known 
and extensively- adopted method of softening water called Clark^s 
process, though it is by no means a complete explanation of the 
process. For instance, in practice the lime is added in the form 
of lime-water in the proportion of about one gallon of lime-water 
to every ten gallons of hard water to be softened. In Clark's 
original process, as adopted at the Colne Valley Waterworks, the 
chalk is allowed to subside to the bottom of a settling- tank ; 
in the modification of it known as the Porter-Clark process, as 
adopted at the Southampton Waterworks (and many oliiers), it is 
mechanically filtered away. 

We cannot boil hard water, wash in it, wash our clothes in it, 
or cook our food in it, without softening it, and at considerable 
expense ; we boil it in a closed boiler, such as is used for heating 
water for baths, at the risk of an explosion from a choked-up 
pipe ; we cannot effectually cleanse our skin with it ; and our 
clothes are sometimes rather washed away than cleansed by its use. 



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OF HABD AKD SOFT WATER. 105 

For every purpose but drinking, washing our streets and flushing 
our drains, and perhaps for a few manufacturing processes, such as 
paper-making and brewing pale ale, hard water must be softened, 
and we are therefore naturally led to consider in what way it can 
be most economically softened. 

The Kivers Pollution Commission of 1868 stated the relative 
cost of softening water by lime, soda, and soap, to be as follows : — 

£ 3, d, 
1 cwt. of quick-lime . . . « ,008 
4icwt. of carbonate of soda at 128. 2d. • 2 17 9 

20t cwt. of hard yeUow soap at £2 6*. 6d. , 47 1 8 

The cost of the coal required to soften the same quantity of water 
by boiling in an ordinary kitchen boiler they estimated to be at the 
rate of 7*. 6d. for every 9*. expended in soap, or £39 4«. Sd. (See 
* Keport of the Commission,' pp. 204, 205.) 

These figures do not, however, quite tally with some other 
statements in the Commissioners' Eeport, and the cost of coal, 
soda, and soap is now much less than it was at the time this 
enquiry was being made. A fairer estimate, for the present time, 
of the quantities and cost of these different materials required to 
reduce 100,000 gallons of water from 20° of hardness to 6°, or by 
14°, which is the extent of softening which would probably be 
deemed adequate for the Watford water, would be as follows : — 

li cwt. of quick-lime at Sd. per cwt. • 
5 cwt. of carbonate of soda at 3*. Sd, per cwt. 
2li cwt. of soap at 21*. per cwt. • 
25 tons of coal at 16«. per ton 

Even at these much-reduced prices of soda, soap, and coal (the 
Commissioners estimated the cost of coal at Is. 6d. per cwt. or 30«. 
per ton), it will be seen that the cost of softening water by car- 
bonate of soda is 18 times that by lime, that the cost of softening 
it by boiling is 400 times that by lime, and that the cost of 
softening it by soap is 450 times that by lime. 

Lime, therefore, completely puts out of court the other three 
agents by which water is usually softened. 

There is yet another, and a very effectual, method of softening 
water to be mentioned, and that is by distillation, but this is a very 
expensive process, distilled water requiring for its production the 
consumption of about one-tenth its weight of coal. This is equiva- 
lent to the consumption of a pound of coal for every gallon of 
softened water. Distilled water is the softest that can be obtained, 
and if aerated is perfectly wholesome and pleasant to the taste. 

While soft water is undoubtedly the best for every purpose we 
have yet considered, whether soft water or hard water is best for 
drinking is not easily determined. Statistics of the death-rate in 
towns have frequently been brought forward as bearing upon this 
point, and the result is almost invariably that the rate is a little 



£ 


s. 


d. 





1 








18 


4 


22 


11 


6 


20 









VOL. Vni.— PART V. 



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1.06 J. HOPxnrsoN — belatite adtaktages 

higher in towns supplied with soft water than it is in towns 
supplied with hard water. For instance, in his evidence before 
the recent Royal Commission on the Metropolitan Water Supply, 
Mr. Thomas Hawksley put in a table showing a death-rate for the 
ten years 1882-91 nearly 3 °/q higher in thirteen towns supplied 
with soft water than in fifteen towns supplied with hard water; 
but no one would consider that the death-rate of Preston (27*3 per 
1000) and of Manchester (27*2) is higher than that of Derby (17*9) 
and of Brighton (17*7) because the former towns are supplied with 
soft water and the latter with hurd water. On the other hand, 
Newcastle, with a death-rate of 24-1 per 1000, is supplied with 
hard water; Bradford, with a death-rate of only 19*5, with soft 
water. It is just as reasonable to infer that the higher death-rate 
of Newcastle is due to the hard water with which it is supplied. 
(See Table III, p. 114.) Again, in the 'Sixth Report of the 
Rivers Pollution Commission' (pp. 196-199) are tables which show 
that the average death-rate in a number of seaport towns and 
inland non-manufacturing towns supplied with moderately hard 
water is higher than it is in such towns supplied with either hard 
water or soft water. Surely this is a reductio ad ahsurdum^ for if 
the death-rate in these towns depends upon the water with which 
they are supplied, we should drink either very soft or very hard 
water, and carefully avoid a water which is only moderately hard ! 

It is possible that there may be an indirect connection between 
the death-rate of a town and its water-supply in this way. Other 
things being equal, the healthiest towns will be those which are 
situated on permeable formations, such as Watford and St. Albans, 
owing to the dry subsoil and good drainage resulting from their 
location. Not only is the ground drier on such formations than it 
is on impermeable formations, but the air is also, which is of even 
more importance for health, for it tends to a comparative absence 
of fogs, and therefore to a clearer and more healthy atmosphere. 
But it is just such towns which are supplied with hard water, for 
it is accessible underground, and if obtained from neighbouring 
rivers it is almost equally hard, for they, on such formations, 
are chiefly fed from springs. Towns on impervious formations 
must get their water from rivers near, and they are fed from 
surface-waters which usually are soft; or they must procure it 
from a long distance, and in that case the water is always soft, 
for no town has ever yet sought or obtained a hard-water supply 
from a long distance. A soft- water supply, again, encourages 
manufactures by which the air is polluted. 

Experiments have recently been made which tend to prove that 
the death-rate in our towns is directly dependent upon the degree 
of purity of the air ; that the purity of the air and the amount 
of light are directly interdependent; and that by merely deter- 
mining the amount of sulphur-compounds in the air we may form 
a very good idea of its purity, of the amount of light which passes 
through it, and of the healthiness of a town or of different parts 
of a large city, such as London or Manchester. These and other 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



OF HABB AHB SOFT WATSB. 107 

considerations seem to show that it is air, not water, which mainly 
determines the death rate of a town ; that so long as a water suffi- 
ciently tree from organic impurities is provided, it makes very little 
difference whether the water he hard or soft. (See * Report Brit. 
Assoc, for 1894,' p. 37.) 

It is generally admitted that when a change has heen made in 
any town from a hard-water to a soft-water supply, heneficial 
results have followed, and it has heen argued that this proves that 
soft water is the most wholesome ; but this does not necessarily follow. 
In the first place the soft water is usually more plentiful, and 
purer irrespective of hardness, than the water previously supplied, 
the change not as a rule being made merely to obtain soft water, but 
owing also to the scarcity or contamination of the old supply ; and 
in the second place with an improved or increased supply of water 
other sanitary improvements have usually been introduced. One 
of these is the substitution of a constant for an intermittent 
supply of water, a change which is always conducive to health, 
.and which, if properly carried out, by lessening the waste, reduces 
the consumption. To be wasteful with almost anything is bad for 
our health as well as for our morals ; and there can be no doubt but 
that a plentiful and constant supply of water, whether hard or 
soft, with provisions for using it to the best advantage generally 
understood and appreciated, largely conduces to health of body and 
morality of mind. 

The general opinion of experts appears to be in favour of soft 
water for drinking purposes. Of thirty witnesses who gave 
evidence before the Duke of Richmond's Commission on Water 
Supply, twenty-eight expressed an opinion in favour of soft water, 
some of them very strongly, one was decidedly in favour of hard 
water, and one expressed a qualified opinion in favour of it. The 
question was also fully discussed before the Rivers Pollution 
Commission, and the Commissioners state that the general result 
of the attention given to it by the highest medical and chemical 
authorities is that ** whilst, on the one hand, opinions have 
differed considerably as to the wholesomeness of hard water, on 
the other there has been, and now is, an almost complete unanimity 
as to the wholesomeness of soft water." (* Report,' p. 184.) A 
still more decided opinion in favour of soft water was expressed 
by the Metropolitan Sanitary Commission of 1850. **0n the 
whole," the Commissioners say, ** we cannot doubt that the 
presence of lime and other mineral matter deteriorates the 
wholesomeness and value of water for the purposes of drinking." 
(* Report of the General Board of Health on the Water Supply 
of the Metropolis,' pp. 59, 60.) 

The statement of the Duke of Richmond's Commission, that there 
is *' a great want of exact evidence on the subject of the dietetic 
value of soft and hard waters," is still true ; we know very little 
of their physiological action upon the human system. Even so 
recently as the year 1892, Mr. Hawksley, who appears to be 
(dmost alone in his advocacy of hard water, in his evidence before 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



108 J. HOPKDTSOir — ^BELATIYE ABTAITTAOES 

the Royal Commission on the Water Supply of the Metropolis, said 
that the hard-water towns showing a lower death-rate than that 
of the soft- water towns ** is very much in accordance with reason ; 
hecause hard water contains a certain quantity of lime, and lime 
is very heneficial to the human system, hoth as an ant-acid and 
as forming the base of aU our hones." ('Minutes of Evidence,' 
p. 263.) 

We all know the value of bicarbonate of soda as an ant-acid, but 
I think we should with as much reason put bicarbonate of lime 
into our teapot to soften the water as we shoidd take it medicinally 
to correct acidity ; and it is well known that it is phosphate of 
lime, and not carbonate or bicarbonate, that enters largely into the 
composition of our bones. 

The fallacy of such reasoning as Mr. Hawksley's has been shown, 
moreover, long ago. The Right Hon. Lyon Playfair (now Lord 
Playfair), when giving evidence before the Duke of Richmond's 
Commission, was asked: '^Do not some medical men consider 
that the presence of carbonate of lime in drinking-water is rather 
desirable than otherwise for health ?" And he replied : ** I have 
seen evidence given in cases of water-supply, not only that it was 
desirable for health, but that it was absolutely necessary for the 
formation of the bones. But that showed a lamentable want of 
chemical knowledge, because the lime required in food does not 
come from the water, but from the solid articles of food taken, and 
I do not think that the lime taken in water has any influence on 
the processes of bodily nutrition." This opinion he supported by 
referring to the men of Westmoreland and Cumberland, and of the 
Highlands of Scotland, who drink soft water from the hills. '* Our 
Highlanders," he said, ** are not generally supposed to be deficient 
in bone or muscle." Such a fact as this, which is incontestable, 
is worth much theory, even though it might be suggested that the 
Highlanders sometimes pollute the pure water from their hills 
with whisky ! 

Hard water has been credited with causing rheumatism, calculus, 
and dyspepsia. Calculous complaints have certainly been traced 
to its use, but it appears that it is water rendered hard by the 
presence of sulphates of lime and magnesia, rather than carbonates, 
which has been found to have caused such diseases. The Metro- 
politan Sanitary Commission of 1850 investigated this question, and 
came to the conclusion that although ** stone " was more often 
caused by errors in solid than in liquid diet, it was ** undoubted 
that the number of calculous complaints in the hospitals, as at 
Paisley, has greatly diminished, and that in the same ratio as the 
consumption of soft water has increased. At Bolton, also," the 
Commissioners add, **the most experienced practitionere inde- 
pendently attest the fact of the diminution of calculous complaints 
since soft water was introduced." (* Report,* p. 57.) Evidence jn 
the same direction has been furnished by the introduction of a 
soft-water supply to Glasgow, and the following important state-* 
ment as to the Gorbals soft water has been made by Dr. Leach, 



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OF HABD AND SOFT WATEB. 109 

of Glasgow : " The comparative value of the new soft supply over 
the old hard supply has been a matter of discussion at the Glasgow 
Medical Society, of which I was President for two years. It was 
the unanimous opinion of the medical profession that great benefits 
of a sanitary kind had followed in the substitution of the soft 
water on the principle of constant supply. It has been observed 
that since this change urinary diseases have become less frequent, 
especially those attended by the deposition of gravel. So far 
as [my] experience has gone, my own opinion is that dyspeptic 
complaints have diminished in number.*' The Medical Society 
also attributed diminution in the number of fever cases and 
comparative immunity from cholera, in the one district of Glasgow 
which was then supplied with soft water, to the same cause — the 
substitution of a soft-water for a hard-water supply. This was 
before the introduction of the Loch Katrine water to the whole of 
Glasgow. (See the above * Report,' p. 55.) 

To quote another instance. The hard water formerly supplied to 
Liverpool has been credited with having the tendency to produce 
visceral obstructions; and Dr. Sutherland, a physician of that 
city, found that such complaints vanished on his patients leaving 
Liverpool, and reappeared immediately on their returning to it, but 
the water which did the mischief there was a hard selenitic water 
from the New Red Sandstone. 

"While the presence of bicarbonate of lime in water cannot, 
I think, be proved to be a cause of such complaints as these, 
dyspepsia can undoubtedly be traced to it, and I know persons who 
cannot drink the hard water supplied to Watford without it having 
a bad effect upon their digestive organs. It is my own impression 
that, although I do not suffer in this way from drinking the hard 
chalk water of St. Albans, some of the beneficial effects which I 
and others experience from a visit to a mountainous country such 
£18 North Wales, are due to our drinking the soft water from the 
hills, which I do largely and with much greater relish than the 
hard water to which 1 am accustomed. We should not, however, 
be too ready to rely upon our own tastes and feelings ; we are very 
much the creatures of prejudice as weU as of habit. The lower 
animals are less so, and we cannot credit them with having un- 
justifiable prejudices with regard to the water they drink. It is 
well known that hard water is injurious to horses, making their 
coats rough and rendering them liable to gripes, and they seem to 
know it as well as we do, for they will not drink it if they can get 
soft water. Dogs, also, will rather drink rain-water from a rut in 
the road, even if slightly muddy, than the clearest hard water 
which may be provided for them ; at least, this is a trait of my 
own dog, and I have noticed it in others, I have been informed 
that the same is the case with birds, and that fancy pigeons should 
always have soft water provided for them. 

This part of my subject has already extended to too great a 
length, and I will only add, in view of the possible objection 
that I have not been quoting recent authorities, that the view 



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110 J. HOFKIKSOH — ^RELATIYX ADVAHTAOES 

maintained more than a quarter of a century ago by Lord Playfair 
and other authorities, thiat water of the same degree of hardness 
88 that of Watford (about 20*^) is too hard for drmking purposes, 
has much more recently been expressed by the following foreign 
authorities : — Fischer, who places the limit of hardness of a water 
suitable for drinking at 12 degrees; Reichardt, who places it at 
12^ degrees; and Wibel, and Eubel and Tiemann, who place it 
at from 12i to 14 degrees. I have altered their expression, which 
is in parts per 100,000, to grains per gallon, (See Prof. W. R- 
Kichols' ' Water Supply,' New York, 1883.) 

Although it may not admit of proof, in the present state of our 
knowledge, that water of 20 degrees of hardness due to the presence 
of bicarbonate of lime, as supplied to Watford, is unsuitable for 
dietetic purposes, that such water is so is the opinion of the highest 
medical and chemical authorities in this country and abroad, and it 
is an undoubted fact, uniyersally admitted, that it is much too hard 
for all other domestic purposes, both on economical and sanitary 
grounds. The real question at issue, therefore, seems to be whether 
it is worth while to go to the expense of softening the Watford 
water. Before this question can be answered it is necessary to 
consider what the expense of softening it would probably be. The 
lime -process is the only one which is practically available for 
this purpose, whether the original Clark process, the Porter-Clark, 
or any other modification, need not here be considered. 

The expense of this process, and the suitability for any particular 
place of one or other modification of it, depend upon various cir- 
cumstances — the cost of lime, labour, machinery, site, etc., and, 
perhaps chiefly, upon the hardness of the water to be softened and 
the degree to which this is required to be done. At' the Otter- 
bourne Waterworks at Southampton the expense of the process 
employed is under a farthing — really about one-fifth of a penny — 
per thousand gallons, with a farthing per thousand gallons for 
interest and depreciation of plant. The water is there reduced 
from 18 to 6 degrees of hardness. At Henley-on-Thames, with 
water oi 2H degrees of hardness, the cost of softening is one-third 
of a penny per thousand gallons; and at Wellingborough, with 
water of 37 degrees of hardness, the cost of softening is four-fifths 
of a penny per thousand gallons, but this hardness is exceptional. 
The Porter-Clark process is the one employed at these places, the 
water after its admixture with lime-water being mechanically 
filtered through cloth, instead of being run into settling-tanks, as 
in the original Clark process employed at the Colne Valley Water- 
works, where the cost is about the same as at the Southampton 
Waterworks. It has been calculated that if settling-tanks had 
been constructed at Southampton, the first cost of the plant would 
have been £3,000 more than it was with mechanical filters, ex- 
clusive of the cost of the extra land required for tanks. Against 
this, however, must be placed the increased cost of working witii the 
filters. The cost of these processes is therefore much about the same, 
but at the Watford Waterworks the Porter-Clark process would 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



OF HABD AND SOFT WATEB. 11 f 

Jnrobably have to be employed owing to the small extent of space 
available, unless the waterworks were removed from their present 
situation. 

We may fairly presume that in such a town as Watford, where 
no appreciable quantity of water is required for manufacturing 
purposes (except by brewers, who have their own wells), 30 gallons 
per head per diem, with a constant supply, which it ought to be 
made compulsory for all towns to be provided with, woidd be ample. 
This is about 11,000 gallons per head per annum, the cost of 
softening which, at id. per 1,000 gallons, including materials, 
labour, depreciation of plant, and interest on outlay, would be 5id., 
or we may say» in order to leave a margin for contingencies, 6d. 
It is a difficult matter to estimate the saving which the use of 
the softened water would occc^ion. The estimated saving at the 
Darenth Asylum and Schools, due to the introduction, in 1887, 
of softening-plant, is stated to have been, up to December, 1892, 
at the rate of nearly 10«. per head per annum, the number of 
inmates being about 1,800. Interest on plant does not, however, 
appear to have been allowed for. In his Report to the Metropolitan 
Asylums Board, after the first twelve months of working the 
process, the Steward pointed out that in addition to this saving 
the wear and tear on the linen had been greatly reduced by its being 
washed in softened water. A large proportion of the saving here 
is due to reduced wear and tear of steam-boilers, and of steam and 
hot-water pipes, which are not used in an ordinary household, and 
therefore the average saving throughout a town is not likely to be 
so great as it is in such a public institution as this. Even if about 
half as much, say 5«. per head per annum, it would represent at 
least £4,200 per annum for the town of Watford. 

The advantages so far considered have all been in favour of soft 
water, or of softened water; and there is one other advantage in 
the softening of water by the lime-process. Organic and other 
impurities are thrown down with the chalk, and thus the water 
is purified as well as softened. (See Table IV, p. 116.) 

And not only is this the case, but the softening of the water 
appears to render it less liable to become contaminated by con- 
fervoid growths. In a Report to the Canterbury Gas and Water 
Company, Mr. S. C. Homersham said: ** Spring water, when softened, 
may be kept in open reservoirs exposed to the air, light, and sun, 
witiiout becoming covered on its surface with vegetation as the 
hard water does which issues from a chalk spring ; for such water, 
though naturally free from organic matter, has a source of con- 
tamination within itself. When exposed to air, light, and sun, 
more especially in warm weather, the duplicate dose of carbonic 
acid that keeps the chalk dissolved gives rise to masses of vege- 
tation that float in the water. Such masses (Confervas) soon grow, 
soon become corrupt, soon give forth an offensive marshy odour, 
and become the habitat of animalcules and other living organisms 
that permeate and contaminate the water." (Quoted in * Sixth 
Report of the Rivers Pollution Commission,' p. 210.) Whether 



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112 J. HOPKINSOir — BELATIYB ADTANTAGES 

or not Mr. Homersham may be correct as to the cause of the 
immunity of softened water from such organic vitiation, its 
beautiful light blue tint, as seen in the softening-tanks at the 
Colne Valley Waterworks, bears witness to its extreme purity. 

The only advantages which I can find in a hard-water supply are 
the certain immunity from lead-poisoning, and the sparkling nature 
of the water, which renders it, te some, more pleasant te tiie taste 
than is a softened water, or a naturally soft water. 

The action of soft water upon lead has been fully investigated, 
especially in the exhaustive enquiry which was made preparatory 
te the introduction into Glasgow of the soft water of Loch Katrine, 
when the only cases of lead-poisoning which were found to have 
occurred in any town supplied with soft water were traced to the 
action of the lead contained in paint upon plumbers and house- 
painters. It was also elicited that the water of Loch Katrine, 
which is about as soft as it is possible for any natural water to be, 
having a hardness of less than one degree, although having a decided 
action upon bright lead when taken direct from the lake, after 
it has run some distance has no action whatever upon leaden pipes, 
and this was found te be the case upon its introduction into Glasgow. 
Cases of lead-poisoning from very soft water of a slightly acidulous 
composition, have, however, occurred in the North of England, but 
as it is only proposed to reduce the hardness of the Watford water 
to about 6 degrees, there need be no fear of lead-poisoning when it 
does not occur with the very pure water of less than one degree 
of hardness obtained from Loch Katrine. 

The teste of the water is a matter upon which opinions differ. 
Prom habit we usually prefer the water te which we are accustomed, 
but I think that to make softened water palatable to all it is only 
necessary to ensure its thorough aeration. 

The title of this paper may appear to be somewhat misleading in 
view of the conclusion at which I have arrived that the advantages 
are all in favour of soft wator, with the reservation that although 
the balance of evidence and the consensus of opinion of those b^t 
qualified to judge are in favour of the dietetic superiority of soft 
water over nard water, such superiority cannot be absolutely 
proved. I prefer, however, to leave the first part of the title as 
announced in our circular before the writing of the paper was 
commenced, when I thought that something might be said in 
favour of hard water and that there would not be so much to say 
in favour of soft water. In the case of Watford the only possible 
objection to softening the water that could be urged is the cost, 
and although that would probably be saved ten times over in the 
use of the water, most people would rather incur an indirect ex- 
penditure of half a sovereign, if not very patent to them, than be 
directly taxed a shilling. The poorer classes would benefit the 
most, for their water-rate is very much less in proportion to the 
quantity of water they use than is the rate charged to those who 
live in highly-rented houses. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



or HABD ITTD SOFT WATVB. 



113 



^— ^ 


CD 

Is 

i= 
1- 
I"- 

w_ 

o 

S 
§ 

Pi 

s 

f 
% 

Q 
PQ 

5 


'WOX 


Q b^d^r^r^bvbvQ woo « i^oo '-"I- in^b 


5 




*9a9avmj9j 


*o Vi* w Vn Vo •* fO e« W u-> fO ^ ^ ro 




23, an 


-jLnuodm9x 




5 


dshiei 
101, 1 


■9nuoiqo 


5^S,'Sar?^<2SR8a8>5S55 


8: 




Previous 
Sewage 

con- 
tamina- 
tion. 


2 3,3,8 gaaa° 3,2=8 s«8%s. 

tC tCvo fo ^ ci ro »n ^foo•^^^f^« 




AND Springs in 
m Commission,* p 




HI^Hgir^aiH?:!. 


1 


'vinommy 


P:^5|?^?||lp:|IBa 




Table I. — Analyses op Water from Chalk Welm 
( Compiled from Tables in the * Sixth Report of the Rivers Pollutii 


88°i''|l8'<='8®*"'8°<=' 


•^l^2oJ^I^J 

aiUB^JQ 

•noqjBO 


o p o p p o p o o p p^ o p 




ll^lls^p*??!?!!!? 




33 it 




QO 
in 


5 


Watford— Well at Waterworks, 1870 _. 

Well at Waterworks, 1873 . 

Ware— Mew Kiver Co.'s well at Amwell, 1868 

„ Amwell Spring, 1873 


<1 



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114 



J. H0PKIN90N — EELATITE ADY^VTkOBS 



Table II. — Habdfess of thb Watbe supplied to Londoit 

THBOVGHOUT THE TEAB 1892, DT O&AINS PER GALLON. 

{Compiled from the Official ReporU ^On the Composition and 
Quality of Daily Samples of Water supplied to London,'') 



Month. 



January „ 
Februaiy.. 

March 

April .. 

May 

June..^ 

July 

August .. 

September 
October „ 
November 
December 






17-32 
1638 
1673 
14*94 
1500 
14*28 

13*77 
14-26 
1407 
15-10 
17-42 
18-58 



^1 



18-63 
17*43 
17*89 
15-94 
15*78 
14-42 
13*50 
14*05 
1326 
14*01 
18-63 
1984 



.a o 
00 



16-03 
1657 
i6-io 
14*53 
1498 
13*35 
13-65 
14' 1 1 

13*49 
14-89 

1774 
1800 



ll 



16-73 
16-73 
16-26 
14-94 
15*52 
13*55 
13*14 
1279 
1204 
12-84 

15*47 
17-16 






17-63 
16-41 
16-38 
15-05 
150S 
14*48 
13*79 
1300 
1300 
1309 
16-25 
1779 



-go 
o-J 



17-10 
16-40 
16-31 
1505 
14-84 

14*21 

13*50 
13*17 

12*49 
12*59 

1594 
17*69 



17-03 

16*73 
16-68 

1484 
15-00 

13*73 
13*39 
13-50 

1305 
13*06 
1605 
17-84 






17-21 
16-66 
16*62 
15-04 
15-17 
14*00 
13*53 
1355 
13*06 

13*65 
i6-8o 
18 13 



Year 



15-65 16*11 15-29 



14*76 



15-16 



14-94 



15-07 



15-28 



Table III. — Mean Annual Death-rate pee 1,000 in 1882-91, nr 
26 LABGE Towns in England, with the Population in 1891. 

{Compiled in part from Tables in the Appendices to the *Jt^ort of 
the Royal Commission on Metropolitan Water Supply y^ p, 347.) 



Towns supplibd with Habd Water. 

1 


Towns supplied with Sopt Watbh. 


Municipal 
Borough. 


Population. 


Death- 
rate. 


Municipal 
Borough. 


Population 


Death- 
rate. 


Birkenhead 

Birmingham ».. 
Briatol... ..... 

Cardiff 

Derby 

Hull 

Leicester..... 

Newcastle „ „ 
Norwich -...-»...... 

Nottingham «.« 
Portsmouth ..... 

Sunderland 

Wolverhampton 


99.857 
478,113 
221,578 

128,915 
94.146 
200,044 
174,624 
186,300 
100,970 
213,877 
159,251 
131,015 
82,662 


19-5 

20-2 

:?i 

17-9 
19-9 
19*6 
24-1 
20*4 

197 
19-8 
22-6 
21-8 


Blackburn . 

Bolton 

Bradford „.. 

HaUfax 

Huddersfield ««. 

Leeds 

LiverpooL ^.. 

Manchester 

Oldham 

Plymouth 

Preston 

SalfonL 

Sheffield 


120,064 
115,002 
216,361 
89,832 
95,420 
367,505 
517,980 
505,368 

107,573 
198,139 
324,243 


24*5 
22-5 

19*5 
21-3 
205 

22-2 
242 
272 
22-7 
22-4 
27*3 
22-3 
21*9 


Mean 


174,720 


20-5 


Mean 


221,015 


23-0 



London (** Greater London"), with a population of 5,633,806 and a death- 
rate of 19*9, and Brighton, with a population of 115,873 and a death-rate 
of 17*7, are supplied with hard water. 



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OF HA&D AlTD SOFT WATEB. 



115 



Table IY. — Impumtt ajud Habdness of Water from Chalk Wells aio) 
Biters before akd after softening with Lime bt Clark's Process. 

( Compiled from Tables in the * Sixth Report of the Rivers FoUutim 
Commission^'' pp. 209 and 215.) 



SOVRCB. 


Bbforb Sopthnino. 


Aftbel Sopttoino. 


h5 


IJ 


If 

07^ 


1 


if 


ll 


If 

oi2 


3 


From ChM JTelU. 


Puru 

per 

100,000 


Farts 

per 

ioo»ooo 


Parts 

per 

100,000 


Grains 

per 
GaUon 


pMrts 

per 

100 000 


Pans 

per 

100,000 


Paru 

pt-r 

100,000 


Grmlns 

per 
QaUoa 


Tring Water-Bupply ^ 


2860 


•036 


CIO 


18-41 


818 


•041 


•008 


224 


Caterham Water-supply ..... 


2768 


•028 


•009 


14-84 


880 


-015 


•003 


3-08 


Canterbury Water-supply..... 


3360 


•012 


012 


18-41 ! 


11-94 








3*43 


Kent Company's Water «.. 


40-42 


•045 


•014 


2037 


1900 


•044 


-016 


490 


From the Thamet, 


















Grand Junction Co.'sWater* 


2746 


•159 


•026 


14-40 


12-49 


•no 


•019 


3*51 


From the Lea, 


















New BiTcr Co.'s Water .... 


3060 


•135 


•018 


15-68 


1376 


•100 


•on 


420 


Ayerage 


31*39 -069 


•CIS 


17-02 


12-36 


-051 


•009 


3-56 



* Mean of ten analyses given in the * Beport.' 



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XIV. 

ON THE ADVANTAGES OF A SUPPLY OF SOFT WATER FOB 
THE TOWN OF WATFORD. 

By Akthuk King, M.B., CM., D.P.H. 

Read at Watford, 29M January, 1895. 

Absolutely pure water is a very rare if not an unknown 
substance in nature, and haa only been prepared by very careful 
distillation in vessels constructed of silver. In tbis condition, as 
is well known, it is composed of two elementary gases — oxygen 
and hydrogen — in the proportion by volume of one of the former to 
two of the latter. If we passed a current of electricity through 
some water we should see the bubbles of gas come off at the two 
poles of the battery, and if over each pole we placed an inverted 
glass tube we should find that at all stages of the process we 
should have double the volume of hydrogen to that of oxygen. 
Hydrogen is an inflammable gas, and oxygen is what is called 
a supporter of combustion; that is, it unites with bodies of the 
nature of hydrogen to give out light and heat, a new body being 
formed. Coal gas is largely composed of hydrogen and carbon 
or charcoal, and we know that when we heat it to a certain 
temperature it bursts into a flame, uniting with the oxygen of the 
air, two new bodies being formed, namely, water and carbonic 
acid gas. Perhaps some people do not quite appreciate the full 
importance of water to living beings, especially human beings. It 
forms about three-quarters by weight of the body of animals, 
a large percentage of all our drinks, and from about 10 to 80 per 
cent, of the different food-stuffs. It occurs largely dissolved in the 
atmosphere in the form of vapour. In this way it moderates the 
direct heat of the sun, and, still more important, it prevents the 
earth from losing heat by radiation ; indeed, if it were not for this 
watery vapour the earth would not be a fit place for us to live on, 
for its whole surface would be frozen in a single night. I mention 
this presence of water in the air because it is of the utmost 
importance in connection with the question of water-supply. 

Our main reservoir for water is the ocean, covering as it does 
nearly three-quarters of the surface of the earth. Unfortunately 
we do not all live near the sea, and, if we did, the large quantity of 
salts dissolved in sea- water would prevent our using it for drinking 
or domestic purposes. Nature, however, comes to our rescue, and 
by distillation and evaporation the sea gives up a large quantity 
of its water to the atmosphere in a very pure condition, retaining 
the salts itself. The warmer the air the more water it will absorb, 
and when this heated air comes to colder portions of the earth it 
cannot hold so much water ; clouds are formed, and eventually the 
surplus water falls in the form of rain. In this country we are 
chiefly supplied with water distilled from the seas which lie 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



ADYAKTAGKS OF SOFT WATER, ll7 

between the tropics, aod we owe in great measure the mildness of 
our climate to the latent heat conveyed by this watery vapour, 
which is again set free when it becomes condensed and falls to the 
earth as rain or snow. This rain falling on the different soils gets 
disposed of in various ways : some runs off the surface at once, 
forming streams, lakes, and rivers ; a part again evaporates and 
goes back into the air ; and a third portion sinks into the ground 
until it comes to some impervious stratum, when it accumulates in 
underground reservoirs or forms streams that break out at a lower 
level on the surface as springs. 

Although the water when in the form of clouds is nearly pure, 
when it falls as rain it dissolves and takes up various matters 
which it meets with in the air, and various mineral and organic 
matters from the soils it falls upon. Near manufacturing towns it 
often contains sulphuric acid from the combustion of the sulphur in 
the coal consumed, and in all localities it dissolves a considerable 
quantity of the carbonic acid gas existing in the air. This carbonic 
acid, as I have mentioned before, is the result of the burning 
or combustion of carbonaceous materials, and is prodiiced in large 
quantities from any ordinary wood or coal fire, and is also 
given off by the lungs of animals as the result of the burning or 
oxidation which goes on in them. I want especially to draw 
attention to this fact, because this gas in rain-water falling upon 
chalk is an important agent in the production of hard water. 
Hardness of water merely means that the water contains certain 
mineral substances which decompose soap, and render it a difficult 
matter to get any undecomposed soap dissolved in the water. The 
chief hardening ingredients are salts of lime and magnesia, but 
in the case of the Watford water we are principally dealing with 
carbonate of lime or chalk. To obtain a numerical expression for 
this quality of hardness, a sample containing 1 lb. of carbonate of 
lime in 10,000 gallons of water is said to possess one degree of 
hardness. The hardness of water is divided into permanent and 
temporary; the former is uninfluenced by boiling, the latter is 
removed by boiling for half- an-h our. As we cannot get rid of the 
former by the different softening methods, we will onlv consider 
the latter, which is principally due to the carbonates oi lime and 
magnesia. The temporary hardness of the "Watford water appears to 
vary somewhat between 15 degrees and 20 degrees. 

The next question to consider is where the water obtains this 
considerable quantity of chalk. As there are extensive beds of 
chalk beneath the surface both around Watford and at a great 
many other localities in England, and as chalk is a porous medium, 
it stands to reason that the water from wells, springs, and streams 
in such situations should contain a great deal of (Ussolved chalk. 
But carbonate of lime or chalk is insoluble in pure water, so we 
must have some additional information as to the method of its 
solution. I have drawn attention to the fact that rain-water when 
it arrives on the ground has a good deal of carbonic acid gas in it, 
and it is the presence of this gas that enables the water soaking 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



118 A. KIKG — THB ADYAITTAGES 

into the chalk to dissolve some of the carbonate of lime on its way. 
With regard to water from deep wells in the chalk, the Bake of 
Richmond's Commission on the Pollution of Bivers made the 
following report in 1874: — "The unpolluted deep weU waters 
from the Chalk rank amongst the best and most wholesome with 
which we have become acquainted. They are almost invariably 
colourless, palatable, and brilliantly clear. . . . The Chalk con- 
stitutes magnificent underground reservoirs in which vast volumes 
of water are not only rendered and kept pure, but stored and 
preserved at a uniform temperature of about 60° F., so as to be cool 
and refreshing in summer and far removed from the freezing 
point in winter. It would probably be impossible to devise, even 
regardless of expense, any artificial arrangement for the storage of 
water that could secure more favourable conditions than those 
naturally and gratuitously afforded by the Chalk; and there is 
reason to believe that the more this stratum is drawn upon for 
its abundant and excellent water, the better will its qualities as 
a storage medium become. Every 1,000,000 gallons of water 
abstracted from the Chalk carries with it in solution on an average 
H ton of the chalk through which it has percolated, and thus 
makes room for an additional volume of about 110 gallons of water. 
The porosity or spouginess of the chalk must therefore go on aug- 
menting, and the yield from wells judiciously sunk, ought, within 
certain limits, to increase with age. The only drawback to these 
waters is their hardness, but this disadvantage is greatly reduced 
by the circumstances that it is chiefly of the * temporary ' kind, 
and can be therefore easily and cheaply removed by the application 
of Clark's process." 

Let us consider next more fully the meaning of hardness as 
applied to the action of the chalk on soap. In chemistry we 
recognize two distinct classes of compounds, acids and bases : tiiese, 
having the property of uniting, together forming a third class 
called salts. Carbonate of lime is a salt formed of the base, quick- 
lime, and the acid, carbonic acid gas. Soap in the same way is a 
salt formed of the base or alkali, soda, and some rather complex 
organic acids called fatty acids. It often happens that when the 
two salts are brought together in solution the acid of the one goes 
to the base of the other and vice versdy two new salts being formed 
as a consequence ; and although both the original salts might be 
soluble in water, it does not follow that these new salts formed are 
soluble also. This is the case when chalk and soap come together 
in solution. The chalk which is soluble by virtue of the carbonic 
acid gas in the water reacts on the soap and the base of the gas, 
and quick-lime unites with the fatty acids of the soap, giving rise 
to the white, curdy, insoluble salts that we see floating on the top 
of hard water when we try to wash in it, the soda of the soap or 
base uniting with the acid of the chalk to form carbonate of soda ; 
so that instead of chalk and soap we get carbonate of soda and 
lime salts of the fatty acids. 

If we want to do away with this property of hardness, how are 



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OF A SUPPLY OF SOFT WATER. 119 

we to manage it ? The simplest answer is by getting rid of the 
chalk. "We have already seen that were it not for the carbonic 
acid gas in the water there would be no chalk, so we may go a 
step farther and say, Get rid of the carbonic acid and the chalk will 
become insoluble. Of course, if we add sufficient soap we may in 
time get the water softened, but this is an expensive method, and 
there are always the nasty curdy compounds formed which get into 
the pores of the skin in our personal ablutions and clog them up. 
One well-known method of softening, which I have mentioned 
before, is by boiling the water for some time. This drives the 
carbonic acid gas off and liberates the chalk from solution, but to be 
effective the boiling must last for at least twenty minutes to half- 
an-hour ; and there is another objection mentioned by the Chemical 
Commission of 1851, as follows: — "It is in the more careful 
washing for the upper and middle classes that the advantages of 
soft water become f uUy sensible ; for where a hard water is heated 
the carbonate of calcium is precipitated on the linen, carrying down 
with it the colouring matter of the dirty water, and producing 
stains which there is the greatest difficulty in afterwards removing 
from the linen. The colouring matter from the water is thus, 
indeed, fixed upon the cloth by the precipitated calcium salt with 
the tenacity of a mordant.'* When, however, the chalk is pre- 
cipitated by the lime-process which I am now about to mention, 
this carrying down of organic impurities is a distinct advantage, 
and I show here a specimen of precipitate derived from hard water, 
which has taken down with it a considerable quantity of dirty 
matter much better than any filter would have done. Compared 
with others the easiest and most economical way of getting rid of 
the chalk is by the lime-method. 

It may seem somewhat paradoxical to add lime to get rid of 
chalk, but what we add is quick-lime (the base), which unites 
with the carbonic acid gas in the water and forms more chalk. By 
thus giving the gas something else to do it can no longer dissolve 
the chalk originally held in solution, and both the newly-formed 
chalk and the chadk in solution fall down to the bottom of the 
water, leaving it comparatively free from hardness. How shall we 
tell when we have added enough lime ? If while we are mixing 
the lime with the hard water we add it till we get a pale yellow 
colour with a solution of nitrate of silver, this shows a very slight 
excess of lime which will quite disappear after the water is allowed 
to remain half-an-hour longer before being again tested. 

I should like to point out one fact with regard to washing and 
laundry purposes, and that is that we cannot use hard water at all 
till it has been softened. It must be softened either by boiling, 
soda carbonate, lime, or soap, and tiie question that we have to 
ask ourselves is, Which is the most economical and convenient? 
Boiling is neither of these, as it requires time and gives trouble ; 
soda is expensive; and soap is both expensive and unpleasant. 
The lime-method is both economical and gives us a most pleasant 
water to use. 



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120 A. KDXQ — THE ADTAVTAOEB 

It may have been observed that I have not yet touched upon the 
medical aspects of the question. In this case, as in some others, 
I may say that "doctors differ." I have no doubt in my own 
mind that in some cases hard water produces indigestion, con- 
stipation, and other troubles resulting from these conditions, and 
I am inclined to think that possibly the continual drinking of even 
small quantities of lime-salts may promote calcareous degeneration 
of the arteries and valves of the heart. With regard to the skin 
there can be no two opinions that softened water is better than hard, 
and I believe that Dr. Adams Clarke has found at the Leavesden 
School a great improvement in the condition of the children's skins 
since the introduction of softened water there. One point I cannot 
help touching on, and that is the question of rickets ; I have heard 
it stated that hard water is a beneficial thing in the prevention of 
this disease. I wish rickets were only a question of chalk, as it 
might easily be dealt with then. Rickets, however, is a disease 
of improper feeding and bad hygienic surroundings. It is not 
water containing chalk that the children want, but good food 
containing phosphate of lime. If children had good pure air, 
plenty of light, and genuine new milk instead of so much of those 
starchy foods, they would not suffer from rickets. In this con- 
nection I may quote the evidence of the Eight Hon. Lyon Playfair 
(now Lord Playfair) before the Royal Commission of 1869 : — 

{Questioned hy Mr. Preetwich): "Do not some medical men 
consider that the presence of carbonate of lime in drinking-water 
is rather desirable than otherwise for health ? — I have seen evidence 
given in cases of water-supply, not only that it was desirable for 
health, but that it was absolutely necessary for the formation of the 
bones. But that showed a lamentable want of chemical knowledge, 
because the lime required in food does not come from the water, 
but from the solid articles of food taken, and I do not think that 
the lime taken in water has any influence on the processes of 
bodily nutrition." 

With regard to the other advantages of softened water I may 
quote the evidence of the same witness : — 

( Questioned hy the Duke of Richmond) : "I gather from your 
statement that the mass of the population would be likely to be 
more cleanly, and therefore more healthy, if the water were soft, 
and less soap were used, than if the water were hard, causing a 
great difficulty in producing lather? — Yes, it is a curious thing 
that one never washes one's hands in a basin with hard water; 
where the water is hard you take a small quantity of it in the 
hand itself, and rub the soap until it forms a lather in the small 
quantity of water that is in the hand, and you merely use the 
water in the basin to rinse off that which you have employed in 
cleaning the hands ; but with soft water you use the whole mass 
of water for detergence, and therefore it is more effective. 

"And it is therefore more conducive to health? — Yes, a more 
thorough cleansing takes place. 

" So that if it were a question of obtaining either hard or soft 



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OF A SUPPLY OP SOFT WATER. 121 

water for a population at the same price, you would give the 
preference largely to soft water, taking all the purposes into 
consideration ? — At a very great difference in price I would give 
the preference to soft water, because the economy in manufactures 
is so enormously great with soft water." 

{Questioned ly Mr, Sarrison): "Supposing that you had a 
choice between a hard water, such as is now supplied from the 
basin of the Thames, supposing it to be free from the impurities 
of sewage and otherwise, and a pure soft water, which should you 
give the preference to, with regard to the question of drinking or 
its use for culinary purposes ? — Undoubtedly to the soft water. In 
all cases I strongly recommend towns not to accept hard water. 
Within the last three or four weeks I have been consulted with 
regard to supporting a Bill in Parliament for a water-supply to 
a town, and 1 refused to support it because it had a water with 
20 degrees of hardness. 

" You do not consider that hardness is positively injurious to 
health, do you? — In some cases hard water might prove injurious, 
as in calculous affections and in dyspepsia ; still, generally a 
tolerably hard water may be taken without much inconvenience ; 
but water of 20 degrees of hardness is very hard water, and I 
should much prefer even for purposes of health that it should 
be softer. 

** And you think that it [soft water] is decidedly conducive to 
the health of a town, especially amongst the lower orders of the 
people ? — I think it is of very great importance indeed." 

Another point worth a moment's consideration is the furring 
of kettles and hot- water apparatus by hard water. The iron of an 
ordinary kettle is usually less than 1-16 in. thick and is a good 
conductor of heat, but the fur round the inside where hard water 
is used is at least 1-8 in. thick, and this fur is a bad conductor 
of heat. Consequently, when we want to boil water the heat has 
to pass through three times the thickness of material, two-thirds of 
which is a bad conductor. It has been found by experience that 
a kettle boils in a little more than one-third the time when soft 
water is used in place of hard water. Again, kitchen boilers 
average about i in. thick, the fur in this case is about ^ in. to 1 in. 
thick, and the pipes being more or less furred, the proper circula- 
tion of the hot water is interfered with. To obtain hot water the 
fire must be very fierce, and the boiler then gets burnt away in 
about one-half or one- quarter the time it otherwise would be. The 
pipes also have to be repaired and cleaned, and there is the risk of 
explosion. 

With reference to the matter of cooking, not having had much 
personal experience of culinary operations, I think it will be 
better if I let a cook speak for himself. Monsieur Soyer, the head 
cook at the Reform Club, was examined before the Royal Com- 
mission on "Water Supply, and gave some very interesting evidence. 
I may mention, by the way, that after the completion of this Com- 
mission, the chairman, the Duke of Richmond, was so convinced of 



VOL. VIII. — PART V. 



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122 A. SING — THE ABYANTAGES 

the advantages of softened water that he had all his water at 
Goodwood treated hy Clark's process. 

To return to Monsieur Soyer's evidence. It is as follows : — 

" You are known to the Commissioners from your writings on 
cookery ; and you have doubtless had occasion to try the qualities 
of different waters for culinary purposes ; you have probably used 
Thames water? — Yes, I have; when I first became cook to the 
Reform Club we occupied Gwydyr House, which was then supplied 
with Thames water. 

" What was your experience of it? — That it was very hard and 
inconvenient. . . . 

**What was the effect of the hardness in cooking? — That we 
were in many processes obliged to use potass or soda for the water, 
to soften it. 

" What were the processes ? — ^Tirst, in boiling cabbage, greens, 
spinach, asparagus, [and] especially French beans, hard water gives 
them a yellow tinge. Hard water shrivels greens and peas, [this] 
will be more particularly noticed in French beans. The process 
of boiling is also longer. 

** That requires more fuel ? — Certainly. 

" What would be the difference in time ? — ^With dry vegetables 
certainly one-fourth more. 

** How is it with potatoes ? — ^I do not think it acts so much upon 
potatoes, but still it has an influence upon all sorts of vegetables. 
I do not see the same effects, however, upon roots generally, as 
upon leaves generally ; the effects are very powerful. 

" What do you find to be the effect of hard water upon the animal 
foods ? — Upon salt beef the hard water is not so good ; it does not 
open the pores of the meat so freely as soft water. On fresh meat 
it likewise has a prejudicial effect, but not equal to that on 
vegetables. It has the effect of making very white meat whiter 
than [does] the soft water. Upon all delicate things it has, how- 
ever, a more marked effect ; for example, in making beef- tea, 
chicken or veal broth, or upon lamb ; and the more delicate a 
substance is, the greater is the influence of a hard water upon it. 
A hard water as it were compresses the pores, whilst a soft water 
dilates them and the succulent matter which they contain, [and] 
it makes them more nutritious. The evil of hard water is more 
visible in small quantities, such as [of] broth or beef -tea. 

**Then it will be the more prejudicial or expensive in domestic 
cookery, which must be in small quantities ? — Exactly so ; in the 
larger operations, where there is much boiling, the boiling itself, 
and for a long time, reduces the hardness. In the small quantities 
requisite for invalids and delicate persons the disadvantages are the 
most experienced. When I used Thames water at Gwydyr House, 
I have had quantities boiled in order to soften it, and have then let 
it get cool and kept it ready for use for the smaller operations. 

" What is the effect of hard water upon bread ? — I have not had 
practical experience in bread-making; but there is not the least 
doubt that soft water is of the greatest importance as making the 



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OP A SUPPLY OP SOPT WATER. 123 

best bread. This is exemplified in Paris, where the water is hard, 
and where that bread which is made in imitation of Gonesse bread, 
though made with the same flour aod by the same bakers, never 
equals that made at the place itself, where the water is soft. I am 
informed that part of the water at Glasgow is very soft, and that 
the Scotch bakers [who have used it], when they first come to 
London, cannot understand why the bread does not rise so well 
as in Glasgow, even though they make use of the same yeast 
and flour. . . . 

** What is your experience in respect to tea? — The hard water is 
injurious in deteriorating the flavour ; it also requires more tea to 
give an equal strength. There can be no doubt that the softer 
water is of great importance ; we have found it so with the water 
used at the Reform Club, which is Artesian well water. 

"In respect to coffee, what is your experience? — Hard water 
produces a similar effect, but not quite so powerful. 

"From these experiments and your extensive knowledge, will 
you state the general results as to the relative power of the hardest 
and the softest water in making tea ? — I should say that whilst 
with the hfird water three cups might be made, with the soft 
water about five might be made. 

** What extra expenditure of tea, then, would the use of the 
Thames water incur in making tea ? — J^oarly one- third. 

"That is on all the tea consumed in the Metropolis? — Yes, I 
have no doubt of it. 

" Do you consider that the action of water on tea is a fair test 
and representative of its action on meat and vegetables in general, 
in all the delicate processes of cookery? — Yes, I do, and I have 
proved it in the following way. I have taken the solution of 16°, 
and compared it with the water from the well of the Reform Club. 
First, with vegetables, that is carrots, turnips, and onions, cut into 
small pieces of about one inch long and an eighth of an inch square, 
such as are used in Julienne soup, placed in two saucepans, with the 
same quantities of water and on the same gas-stove : those cooked 
in the Reform water were quickly done, and the flavour of the 
vegetables [was] in the water ; whilst those cooked in the solution 
never became tender, nor did the flavour go into the water. 
Secondly, with potatoes, 1 cut a peeled potato into two, and boiled 
them at the same time in the above waters: the difference was 
easily distinguishable, that which was boiled in the hard water 
being harder but at the same time whiter. Thirdly, in extracting 
the juice or gravy from meat: the soft water does so quickly 
and well ; but the hard water, instead of opening the meat, seems 
to draw it closer together, and to solidify the gluten ; and I believe 
that the true flavour of the meat cannot be extracted by hard water. 
In [the] boiling of salt meat less salt is extracted when boiled in 
hara water, and at the same time the meat is not so tender as when 
boiled in soft water. Soft water evaporates one-third faster than 
hard water. I should in every way give the preference to soft 
water.'' . . . 



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124 ADVAITTAGES OF SOFT WATFJt. 

I think we are in a position now to summarize the advantages 
of softened water under three heads — Health, Convenience, and 
Economy. 

He<dth, — As to the wholesomeness of water with a hardness of 
15° before boiling and 5° afterwards, the evidence given before the 
Royal Commission on "Water Supply, 1869, is somewhat conflicting; 
for while Dr. Letheby considered a moderately hard water, such as 
Thames water, best suited for drinking purposes and the supply 
of cities. Dr. Parkes maintained that the amount of hardness 
should not exceed 10 or 12 degrees if possible. Mr. Simon and 
Dr. Lyon Playfair, on the other hand, although they did not 
condemn the . London water on account of its hardness, both 
expressed themselves in favour of a softer water for purposes of 
health. The inference that may be drawn from this and other 
evidence would, therefore, appear to be this, that the total hardness 
of a good water ought not to exceed 15 degrees nor the permanent 
hardness 5 degrees. The Watford water has much more than this 
amount of total hardness. 

Convenience. — I think we must all acknowledge the greater 
convenience of softened water both in washing, laundry, and 
cooking operations. 

Economy, — With regard to soap the General Board of Health 
in 1850 issued a report on the Thames water, and among other 
remarks occurs the following: **That the saving in soap from the 
use of soft water, in the operation of washing (the expense of 
washing linen and other clones being estimated, at an average of 
1«. per head per week, to be nearly £5,000,000 per annum on the 
population of the Metropolis), would be probably equivalent to 
the whole of the money expended at present in water-supply." 
Of course these figures would come out much larger at the 
present day. It has been calculated that a saving of Is. 6d. 
in every private family of five persons, and of 6d. in every working 
man's family, is effected by the lessened consumption of soap, fuel, 
and tea, and that for this there would be an increase of id. per 
week for water-rate in one case, and id. per week in the other. 

I will not go further into the practical methods of softening, 
except to say that there are two systems in use. The first is to 
let the precipitated chalk subside in tanks as is done in the Colne 
Valley Waterworks, and in the second, the water is filtered 
through a continuous band of cloth, which is kept continually 
worked. The latter, I believe, would be found the most practical 
for Watford. 

I must express my regret, in conclusion, that the lack of time at 
my disposal has prevented me from preparing a few simple experi- 
ments that might have relieved the monotony of the subject. 



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XV. 

CLIMATOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS TAKEN IN HERTFORDSHIRE 
IN THE YEAR 1894. 

By John Hopkiwson, F.L.S., F.G.S., F.K.Met.Soc. 

Read at Watford, 23nf ApHl, 1896. 

This is the eighth annual report of observations made at our five 
Climatological Stations, and comprises the usual series of tables. 

The mean temperature of Hertfordshire in 1894, deduced from 
these observations, was 1^*3 above that of the seven previous years, 
and 0°'2 above the mean of 1882-86, showing that the year was 
rather warm. The mean daily range was small, being 0°*6 below 
the mean of 1887-93, and 0°-8 below that of 1882-86. The 
extreme range was great, owing to the low temperature (4°*0) 
recorded at New Bamet in January. Humidity and cloud were 
about the average ; the rainfall was heavy and on an unusually 
large number of days. The most northern station (Royston) was 
as usual the warmest, and our most southern station (New Bamet) 
had as usual much the greatest range of temperature. 

The observations are made at 9 a.m., the maximum temperature 
and the rainfall being entered to the previous day. 

ROYSTON, 
(London Road.) 

Latitude: 62° 2' 34" N. Longitude: 0° 1' 8" W. Altitude: 

301 feet. 
Observer: Eale fFortham, F.R.MsLSoe. 



Months 


Temperature of the Air 





i 

1 


Rain 


Means 


Extremes 


a 


P 


Mean 


Min. 1 Max. 


Range 


Min. 


Max. 


Jan 

Feb 

March _ 

June 

July ^ 

August 

E:f::::: 

N07 ^ 

Dec 


o 

36-6 

40-2 

51-8 
50-I 
58-8 

634 
6o-6 
54-2 
496 

453 
40-4 




31-4 
33-8 
347 
407 
402 
489 
527 
521 
46-5 
431 
396 
35*3 



418 
467 
546 
629 
6o-o 
68-8 
74'2 
690 
61 9 
561 
511 
45-4 



IO-4 

12*9 

199 

22-2 
198 
199 
2IS 

16 9 

15-4 
13-0 
ii'S 

lO'I 




100 
19-8 
287 
32-3 
27-6 
412 
477 
43-8 
346 
298 
310 
253 




52*0 
560 
678 

693 
83-9 
849 
791 
722 
68*9 
6o-8 
510 


7- 
f7 
85 
79 
76 

71 
82 
82 
80 

li 


5*9 

U 

u 

67 
67 

7*4 


ins. 
1-56 
153 
093 
076 
1-50 

1-97 
270 
290 
1-38 
2-65 

148 


19 
15 
10 

9 
15 
13 
17 
17 
13 
19 
17 
16 


Year ..... 


497 


416 


577 


161 


lO'O 


849 


82 


6-2 |2277 


180 



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126 



J. HOPEINSON — CUKATOLOGICAL OBSEBYATIOirS 



Latitude ; 



BERKHAMSTED. 

(Bosebank.) 

51^ 45' 40" N. Longitude : 0° 33' 30" W. Altitude : 

400 feet. 

Observer : Edward MaioUy, F,R,Met.8oe, 



Months 


Temperature of the Air 


5* 




2 
1 

3 


Bain 


Means 


Extremes 


§ 


Q 


Mean 


Min. 


Max. jBange 


Min. 


Max. 


Jan 

Feb 

March ^. 

April 

May 

June -.- 

July 

August.... 

Sept 

Oct 

Not 

Dec 


o 

37*1 
40-9 
441 

49-1 
489 
569 
61 I 
587 
53*5 
491 

45 3 
405 



322 
347 
349 
39*4 
40-5 
48-4 
523 

51-2 

45 9 
43-0 
39-5 
35-6 




420 
470 

587 

57-4 

^'^ 
699 

661 

612 

5S-I 
511 

45 5 



9-8 

12-3 

185 

19-3 
i6'9 
I7-0 
17-6 
14*9 
15-3 

I2-I 

II-6 

9.9 




io'8 
204 
268 

327 
301 
39-8 
456 
41-5 

29*6 
307 
258 



51-5 

702 

66-2 
811 

^ 

69S 
63-2 
623 
512 


7o 
92 
90 
81 

79 
74 
79 

i^ 

86 
89 
91 
92 


7-2 
6-8 

4*9 
7'o 
70 
6-4 
7-5 
7*2 

i-l 

7-0 
7*4 


ins. 
224 
189 
1-86 
167 

?:°8l 
248 

^'f 
1-63 

350 

518 

232 


II 
14 
16 

13 
19 
18 
II 
21 
18 
19 


Year ..... 


488 


41*5 


561 


146 


IO-8 


832 


84 


7*1 


29-98 


199 



ST. ALBANS. 

(The Grange.) 

Latitude : 61° 46' 9" N. Longitude : 0° 20' 7" V. Altitude : 

380 feet. 
Observer: John Sopktnson, F.R, Met. Soe, 



Months 


Temperature of the Air 


1^ 

1 

p 





1 




Rain 


Means 


Extremes 


■*» 


5. 

p 


Mean 


Min. 


Max. 1 Range 


Min. 


Max. 


Jan 

Feb 

March ..... 

June 

July 

August..... 

Sept 

Oct 

Nov., , 
Dec 




369 
40-4 
44-2 
49-8 
491 
56-9 
61 'O 
S8-6 

535 
491 
45-2 
40-5 




31-4 
34*4 
357 
41 -o 
41-2 
490 
53-2 
517 
47 3 
440 

39*6 
35 5 




424 
46S 

lU 

til 
689 
656 

597 
54-2 
50-8 

45 5 




no 

12*1 

17-0 

15-8 
157 
139 

12-4 
IO-2 
1 1 -2 

100 




109 
230 
302 

35*3 
328 
429 
463 
44*5 

SI 




51-2 

640 

69-9 

67'2 
79-8 
81 '6 
757 
67-5 

^'5 
621 

506 


7o 
90 

f^ 
80 

79 
74 

75 

i 

89 
90 


6-8 
6-6 

5*4 
7*2 

6-2 
7-0 
6-5 
7-1 

11 

7-5 


ins. 

Ml 

236 
219 
241 

209 


24 
16 

12 
16 

16 

14 
20 
21 

15 
21 
18 
19 


Year ..... 


48-8 


42*0 


SS-6 


136 


iO'9 


81 -6 


82 


67 


3220 


212 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



TAKEN nr HERTFOBDSHIBE IK 1894. 



127 



BENNINGTOlSr. 

(Bennington Lodge.) 

Latitude : 51° 53' 45" N. Longitude : 0° 5' 20" W. Altitude : 

407 feet. 
Observer: Rev, J. B. Parker^ LL.B., F.R,Met,8oe. 



Months 


Temperature of the Air 


1* 

P 

m 




7 



f 


Rain 


Means 


Extremes 


1 


S- 




Mean 


Min. 


Max. 


Range 


Min. 


Max. 


1 


4 


5 




o 

















7o 




ins. 




Jan 


36-3 


31*3 


41-2 


9.9 


107 


50-7 


89 


7*5 


3*It 


21 


Feb 


404 


34-6 


46-3 


117 


22 


.54-6 


87 


6-6 


I-8S 


17 


March «... 


441 


408 


527 


17-2 


287 


64-J 
71-8 


78 


S-2 


I-06 


ID 


April 


50-1 


59*3 


18-5 


328 


7^ 


6-8 


180 


II 


May 


48-5 
56-8 


403 


567 


i6-4 


311 


68-8 


73 


7-8 


1-84 


17 


June 


48-5 


651 


166 


42-2 


79\3 


76 


67 


1-67 


15 


July 


61 -o 


524 


69-6 


17*2 


46-4 


82-0 


74 


7-S 


2-82 


19 


August 


586 


512 


661 


149 


43 5 


11:? 


76 


7*5 


248 


20 


Sept. 


53*4 


467 


6o-i 


134 


370 


84 


7*3 


1-64 


14 


Oct 


491 


437 


54S 


IO-8 


331 


630 


89 


^•5 


2-48 


21 


Not 


45' 


397 


50-5 


IO-8 


30-I 


61-9 


90 


7-5 


349 


19 


Dec 


406 


360 


45-2 


9-2 


25-8 


50-5 


89 


7*3 


179 


21 


Year .... 


487 


417 


55-6 


13-9 


107 


82-0 


82 


7-2 


2503 


205 



NEW BARNET. 

(Gas Works.) 

Latitude : 51° 39^ 5" N. Longitude : 0° lO' 15" W. Altitude : 

212 feet. 
Observer : T, H. Martin, C,E, 



Mouths 


Temperature of the Air 


i 

w 




t 

3 


Bain 


Means 


Extremes 


e 
g 

a 


5^ 

Q 

21 
15 

9 

13 

9 
II 
'5 
«5 
10 
18 
13 
15 


Mean 


Min. 


Max. 1 Range 


Min. 


Max. 


Jan 

Feb 

March .„.. 
April ..... 

May 

June 

July 

August..... 

Sept 

Oct 

Not 

Dec 




367 
402 

437 
49-0 
50-4 

ir? 

59*8 
54-1 
497 
44*9 
404 




311 
33-0 
326 

369 
395 
477 
51-0 

503 
45-3 
42-4 

37-6 
351 




423 

S4-8 
6i-o 
61 -4 
687 
73-1 
69-3 

62-9 

57*1 
521 

457 




11*2 

14-5 
22 2 
241 
21*9 
21 -O 
22-1 
19*0 

17-6 
147 

IO-6 




4-0 
16-5 
22 "5 
27-g 
29-8 
390 
41 -8 
390 

31-5 
261 
24-8 
252 




52*5 
569 
668 
711 

8i-6 
85-0 

79*9 
72-5 
630 
64*0 
51-5 


7° 
87 

86 
79 

80 

88 
90 

|s 

85 


70 
S-9 

6-s 

69 
6-6 
77 


ins. 
275 
189 

1*45 
210 

1-86 
2-66 
3-21 
I -07 
377 
3-17 
224 


Year _. 49*1 


402 


58-0 


17-8 


4-0 


85-0 


84 


6-4 27-90 


164 



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128 



J. H0PKIN80K — CUMITOLOGICAL OBSEETATIONS. 



HERTFORDSHIRE. 

Means of Climatological Observations (with extremes of tempera- 
ture) in 1894, at Royston, Berkhamsted, St. Albans, Bennington, 
and New Bamet. 



Months 


Temperature of the Air 


1 

s 

SI 




7 

1 



Rain 


Means 


Extremes 


1 

< 


£ 

22 
16 
10 

18 

13 
20 

17 
18 


Mean 


Min. 


Max. 


Range 


Min. 


Max. 


Jan. .....«„. 

Feb 

March ..... 
April ... 
May 

June 

July 

August 

Sept 

Oct. 

Nov 

Dec 




367 

404 

444 
500 

49 4 
57-5 
617 
593 
537 
49*3 
45 -2 
405 




31*5 
341 
347 
39-8 
40-3 
485 

523 
513 
463 
43*2 
392 
35*5 




41-9 
46-8 

537 
601 

58-5 
66-6 
71 -I 
67-2 
61 -I 

55*4 
5I-I 

45*5 



io'4 
127 
19*0 
20-3 

182 

i8-i 
i8-8 
15-9 
14-8 

I2'2 
II-9 

lo-o 




4'o 
16-5 

22-5 

276 
39 -o 
418 
39-0 

SI'S 
261 
248 
252 




525 
569 
67-8 
75-6 
721 

839 
85-0 

79*9 
72*5 
689 
64*0 
51-5 


7° 
89 

87 

79 

79 

It 
78 

11 

88 
89 


6-9 
6-2 
4-8 
6-4 
6-9 
6-5 
7-0 

7' 
7« 
7 9 
6-3 
7-2 


ins. 
2-25 
I 80 

1-53 
171 

269 
313 

I 52 

319 

4-OI 
198 


Year... 


49'o 


414 


566 


15-2 


4*0 


85-0 


83 


67 


2758 


192 



Results op Clima.tologica.l Obsekva.tions, 1887-93. 



Stations. 


Temperature of the Air 


1 




1 




Bain 


Means 


Extremes 


< 


f 


Mean 


Min. 


Max. 


Range 


Min. 


Max. 


Royston ...„ 

Berkhamsted „.. 

St. Albans 

Bennington 

New Bamet .... 




484 
47*4 
47-8 

47*5 
47-6 

477 




40*3 
397 
406 
402 
383 

39-8 



56-5 

551 
550 

547 
56-8 

55-6 



162 

154 
144 

'f5 
i8-5 




4-3 
in 
II-8 
144 

80 




93*o 
91 
91 
909 

94*5 


82 

81 
82 


6-2 

7*2 

67 

11 


ins. 
2199 

25-41 
26-12 

2431 
23*31 


160 
179 

187 
141 


County 


15-8 


4*3 


94*5 


82 1 67 


2423 


170 



Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



Trans. Herts Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. Vlll, Plate VIII. 



Development of the Frog*s Ego. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



XVI. 

THE BLASTOPORE OF THE FROG'S EGG IN RELATION TO 
THE HYPOBLAST. 

By J. B. Russell, B.Sc. 

Head at Watford, 2Zrd April, 1895. 

PLATE VIII. 

Before I refer to the special subject which I desire to bring 
before the Society with regard to the e^g of the connnon frog 
{Rana temporaria), it is necessary to consider some of the earlier 
stages in its development. 

The process of cell-division, or segmentation as it is called, 
of the frog's egg, is very similar to that which takes place in 
Amphioxus, but there are important differences which are due 
in great measure to the amount and distribution of the food-yolk. 

This food-yolk, which is much more abundant in the lower 
hemisphere than in the upper, consists of nutritious matter em- 
bedded in the substance of the egg, and although this forms a 
ready store of nutriment for the developing embryo, yet it greatly 
impedes and interferes with the symmetrical segmentation of the 
egg, as will be seen from Figures 2, 8, and 4, in Plate VIII. 

The egg, just before the completion of the first cleft, dividing it 
into two equal parts, is represented in Fig. 1 . It will be observed 
that the cleft is at this stage incomplete below, in consequence 
of the presence of a large amount of food-yolk. A small cavity, 
also, has made its appearance in the interior : this is the segmenta- 
tion-cavity (S). After this a second cleft is formed at right angles 
to the first ; and Fig. 2 shows the third cleft, which is equatorial 
and much nearer the upper pole than the lower. 

After this stage the division of the egg is continued according 
to no regular plan, but it will be seen from the figures that the 
upper cells are smaller than those at the lower pole. This is of 
course due to the absence of the hampering effect of yolk-cells. 
The ovum at the close of segmentation is represented in Fig. 4. 
At this stage we have a ball of cells — the upper ones, pigmented 
and devoid of yolk, forming the primary epiblastic layer ; the lower 
ones large yolk-beanng cells, and unpigmented. These surround 
the segmentation -cavity. 

In the succeeding stages of development the epiblast (Ep, Fig. 5) 
gradually encircles the egg until only a small circular patch remains 
at the lower pole (LB-LB', Fig. 6). The growth of the epiblast 
in this way takes place bv the division of yolk-cells into smaller 
pigmented ones at the surface. 

The point to which I wish to direct special attention is that the 
alimentary cavity is formed as a narrow slit-like aperture opening 
at LB, Fig. 5. I have placed a section under the microscope 
showing this point. The slit rapidly grows inwards and spreads 
out beneath the surface of the egg near the future dorsal sur&ice 

VOL. Vm. — ^PAET VI. 10 



Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



130 THE BLAIBTOPORE OF THE FROO's EGG. 

of the embryo (M, Fig. 6). A line of pigment appears in the yolk 
before the actual separation takes place, and the slit is at first very 
narrow, so that the two walls are almost in contact. At a later 
stage the floor of the segmentation- cavity (S, Fig. 6) is depressed, 
and a cavity is produced which forms part of the alimentary canal 
of the embryo. 

The slit was formerly described as being formed by a process 
of invagination from the epiblast, but Professor Milnes Marshall 
has, I believe, clearly shown that this is incorrect, and that the 
alimentary tract is formed as has now been described. Thus it 
will be seen that the hypoblast which lines the embryonic canal is 
derived from yolk-cells. 

The circular aperture, LB-LB' (Fig. 6), is spoken of as the 
blastopore, and in the section under the microscope is shown the 
commencing formation of the hypoblast from its dorsal lip. 

In conclusion, I desire to acknowledge my indebtedness to the 
works of Prof. Milnes Marshall, and to thank Mr. E. G. Famcombe 
for kindly preparing the drawings which illustrate this paper. 

EXPLANATION OF PLiTE VIII. 

Fio. 

1 . The egg of the frog just before the completion of the first cleft. 

2. The egg after the formation of the first equatorial cleft. N, one of the 

nuclei. 

3. A later stage in the development. S, the segmentation-cavity. 

4. The ovum at the close of segmentation. S, the segmentation-cavity. 

6. A further stage, showing the epihiast (Ep) extending round the egg. EN, 
differentiated portion of the epiblast. LB, the point at which the slit-like 
aperture appears. S, the segmentation-cavity. Y, yolk-cells. 

6. Showing the formation of the hypoblast (H) from the yolk-cells (Y). 
EN, differentiated portion of the epiblast (Ep). LB, tbe dorsal lip of the 
blastepore. LB', the ventral lip of the blastopore. M, the mesenteron 
or alimentary canal. S, the segmentation- cavity. 
The figures are highly magnified. 



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XVII. 

REPORT ON THE RAINFALL IN HERTFORDSHIRE IN 
THE YEAR 1894. 

By John Hopkinson, F.L.S., F.G.S., F.R.Met.Soc. 

Bead at Watford, 26M March, 1896. 

There has been no change in the steff of our rainfall observers 
since the previous year. The records for the year 1894 entered 
in our principal table are therefore the same in number as before, 
namely 40. The number of daily records received is 35, which is 
two more than that for the previous year. We are still without 
observers in the districts of the Upper Ivel (Baldock), the Chess, 
the Upper Colne (North Mimms), the Brent, and the Stort (Bishop's 
Stortford and Sawbridge worth). The places mentioned are those 
where rainfall observers are most required. 

Particulars of the 40 rainfall stations, and the monthly and 
total rainfall and number of days on which at least 00 1 inch of 
rain fell, or, when the measurement is taken to thousandths of an 
inch, 005 inch, are given in Tables I and II, pp. 133-135. 

The following supplementary table (Table III) gives eight other 
records of the rainfall in the year. Two of these are the records 
of additional gauges at Rothamsted, and six are taken from * British 
Rainfall, 1894.* 

Table* II I. — Supplementary to Tables I axd II. 





Station. 


Observer. 


Gauge. 


Rain- 
fall. 


Days. 


Dia- 
meter. 


Height 
above 
Sea. 


6. 
8. 

»» 
9. 

10. 

11. 

12. 

18. 


Northchurch .„ « 

Harpenden — Rothamsted 

Elstree— Aldenham House 

Watford— Kj-tes -... 

Barnet- Trent Park 

Welwyn— Danesbury .... 
Hoddeadon— FeildesWeir 


F. L. Sutton 

(Sir J. Lawesandi 
(Sir H.Gilbert ( 

E. Beckett 

Mrs. Horsman ..... 

W. H. Lees .„ 

A. M. Blake 

Major L. Flower 


ins. 

1 

72x87 
10 
5 
5 


feet. 
400 
420 
420 

239 
254 
405 
401 


ins. 
2967 
2955 

3122 

27-48 
30*06 
2742 
2828 
2998 


182 
182 
201 
166 
173 

189 
199 



The mean rainfaU in the county in the year 1894 was 27*82 
inches. This is 1*08 inch above the average for the decade 
1880-89, and 1*39 inch above that for the half ^century 1840-89. 
The year was, therefore, rather a wet one. The number of wet 
days was very large, the average throughout the county being 
nearly 14 per cent, greater than the mean during the 20 years 
1870-89. 

The second half of the year was a little more than half as wet 
again as the £rst half, 11 04 ins. of rain falling in the first six 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



132 J. H0PKIN80N — ^BBPOBT ON THE 

months and 16'78in8. in the last six months. The weather was 
dry in spring, and there was one long drought from about the 
middle of March to the middle of April ; and it was wet in 
autumn, especially during the latter part of October and the first 
half of November, 22 1 per cent., or two-ninths, of the year's rain 
falling in about one-sixteenth of the year. 

Droughts in 1894. — Accepting as before the definitions of 
Mr. Symons (in * British Rainfall*) of an " absolute drought" as 
a period of mare than 14 consecutive days without any rain, and a 
** partial drought" as a period of more than 28 consecutive days 
with an aggregate rainfall not exceeding 0*01 inch per day, there 
were three absolute droughts in 1894, and there was one partial 
drought. 

The first absolute drought occurred at 33 out of the 35 stations 
for which I have the daily rainfall, lasting for 

29 days, March 16 to April 13, at 3 stations. 
28 
27 
27 
22 
20 
17 
17 
16 
16 
15 
15 

The stations at which it did not occur were Elm House, Tring, 
where the longest period without rain was 14 days (March 16 to 
29), and Moor Park, where it was only 13 days (March 17 
to 29). The average duration of this drought was 18i days. 

The second absolute drought lasted for 

15 days, June 21 to July 5, at 24 stations. 

The third lasted for 

19 days, Nov. 18 to Dec. 6 at 1 station. 
1" >> >i 21 ,, „ 6 ,, 1 ,, 
15 ,, „ 21 „ „ 5 „ 3 stations. 

A partial drought lasted from about the middle of March to the 
middle of April, its average duration being 31 days. It prevailed 
at 30 stations, and lasted for at least 

30 days, March 15 to April 13 at the 30 stations. 

31 ,, „ 15 „ „ 14 „ 21 of these. 

32 „ „ 13 ,, ,, 13 „ 12 ,, „ 

32 ,, ,, 15 „ ,, 15 ,, 9 ,, ,, 

33 ,, ,, 13 ,, „ 14 ,, 7 stations 

of the 12 at which it lasted to at least the 13th of April. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



17 






13 




15 






10 




18 






13 




15 






5 




25 






13 




15 




March 31 




16 




April 


1 




15 




March 30 


"ll 


16 




)> 


31 




15 




» 


29 




16 




)> 


30 


!! 5 



BADTFALL DT HESTFORDSHIRK DT 1894. 



133 



Table I. — ^Hsrtfordshirb KAiNrALL Stations, 1894. 



.a 



1. 
>> 

3. 



4. 

>» 

6. 



8. 
>» 
>» 
}} 

10. 

»> 
»> 
>» 

12. 
>» 
>> 
>> 

13. 

>> 

14. 

15. 

17. 

ft 
ft 

18. 



Station. 



♦Royston 
♦Odsey ... 



♦Hitchin— The Fire 

♦ „ Bancroft ... 
,, The Maples . 

* ,, High Down . 

•Xring — Elm Houbo .... 
,, Pendley Manor. 



♦Cowroast 

*Berkhamsted — Roeehank 
♦ „ Fairhill ... 



•Great Gaddesden Vicarage.. 
♦H. Hempstead— Apftley Mills 

• „ Nash MilU.. 

•Kensworth— The Grove ., 
Harpenden — Rothamsted 
♦St. Alhans — Gorhambury ... 

• „ The Grange ... 

•Watford— Oaklandfl 

• ,, Frogmore 

„ ColneVaLWaterWkfl 
•Rickmansworth — Moor Park 



•"Welwvn Rectory 

•Hatfield— Brocket Hall.. 
♦Datch worth Rectory 
Hertford— Marden Hill.. 



•Stevenage— "Weston Park .. 
• y, Bennington House .. 



♦Therfield Rectory 

•Throcking Rectory 

•Buntingf ord — Hamels Park 



•Much Hadham 



♦Hertford— Bay 
♦Ware— Red House 
* ,, Fanhams Hall . 



•Broxboume — Stafford House 
♦Cheshunt— Old Nurseries 

* ,, College 

•New Bamet — Gas Works 
•Southgate— The Lawns... 



OBSERyBS. 



Hale Wortham .... 
H. George Fordham 

William Lucas 

Francis Ransom .... 

William HiU 

Joseph Pollard 

E. J. Le Quesne .... 
J. G. Williams 

Rupert Thomas .... 
Edward Mawley .... 
W. Bonner Hopkins 

Rev. W. T. Drake . 
J. Dickinson & Co. . 



Miss S. Grace Jones 
Lawes and Gilbert ... 
Hon. Wm. Grimston 
John Hopkinson 

Edward Harrison 

Arthur P. Blathwayt 

William Verini 

Lord Ebury 

Rev. Canon Wingfield 
Lord Mount Stephen 
Rev. J. Wardale .... 
Richard Hoare 

M. R. Pryor 

Rev. Dr. Parker 

Rev. J. G. Hale .... 
Rev. C. W. Harvey... 
E. Wallis 

T. Woodham Mott ... 

W. Clinton Baker .. 

Joseph Francis 

Miss Joyce Croft 

G. J. Newbery 

Paul and Son 

Rev. Dr. Reynolds ... 

T.H.Martin 

George A. Church ... 



Diameter 

of 

Gauge. 


Height 
abc 


f Gauge 
ve 

Sei-level. 


Ground. 


ins. 
8 
5 


ft. Ins. 

6 

1 o 


fi.t 

269 T 
260 T 


5 

i 

5 


2 I 

9 

1 I 
I I 


238^ 
212 T 

220 4C 

422 •:j: 


5 
5 


1 2 

2 O 


460 
500 ? 


1 

5 


4 2 
I o 
I o 


345L 
401 T 

550 T 


8 

24 
12 


I o 

o 9 
3 9 


427 /^ 
260 

237 T 


5 
5 

5 

5 


I o 

9 

1 o 
I o 


630 B 
420 T 
425 T 

380 TT 


5 
5 
5 
5 


5 6 
I o 

1 o 

2 O 


273 T 

182 
220 
340T 


I 

5 
5 


4 

1 o 
I o 
o 6 


228 T 
250 
386 T 
257 T 


5 
5 


8 

1 o 


470 T 

408 :t: 


5 

5 

5 


4 3 
I o 
I o 


500 

484 T 
400 T 


5 


I o 


222 B 


8 

i 


I 2 

9 

1 o 


250 
112T 
253 T 


5 
5 

I 

5 


I o 
I o 
I I 
o 9 
o 6 


118T 
92 T 

94 T 
212 

240 T 



• Daily fall received for these stations. 

t For explanation of these symbols see Vol. Yll, p. 53. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



134 



J. HOPEOTSOBT — ^BEPOET OK THE 



Table II. — Rahtfall nr 



RiYER District. 



§ 1 



« [J I ^-^^^ { 

M 3. Hiz 

oq 

< I 4. Up.Tliame 



00 



6. Bulbourne | 

7. Gade 

8. Ver 

10. Lo. Colne 

12. Mimram 

13. Beane 

14. Rib 

16. Ash 

17. Upper Lea } 



18. Lower Lea < 



Station. 



RoystoiL. 
Odsey 



Hitchin— The Firs 

,, Bancroft 

„ TheMaplea^ 
„ High Down.. 



Tring — Elm House 

,, Pendley Manor 

Cowroast „ 

Berkhamsted — Rosebank .... 

„ Fairhill 

Great Gaddesden Vicarage 

Hemel Hempstead — Apsley Mills -. 
,f Nash Mills 

Kensworth — The Grove 

Harpenden — Rothamsted 

St. Albans — Gorhambury 

„ The Grange 



Watford— Oaklands 

,, Frogmore 

, , Colne Valley Waterworks 

Rickmansworth— Moor Park 



Welwyn Rectory ....,„, 

Hatfield— Brocket HaU 

Datchworth Rectory 

Hertford— Marden Hill 



Stevenage — Weston Park 
Bennington House ^ 



Therfield Rectory 

Throcking Rectory , 

Buntingford— Hamels Park 

Much Hadham 



Hertford— Bay 
Ware — Red House 
,, Fanhams Hall . 



Broiboume — Stafford House 

Cheshunt — Old Nurseries 

„ College 

New Bamet — Gas Works . 

3 — The Lawns «».«.... 



Jan. Feb. Mas. 



ins. 
1-56 
1-35 

1-69 
I -So 
1-85 
164 

178 
1-99 

2*21 
224 
236 

2-24 
2-69 
2*40 

215 
2*26 
2-67 
258 

3-52 

2§7 

2-86 

3*21 

2*19 

2-37 

2- 18 

199 

2*09 

2*11 

I -80 

208 

256 

215 
223 
271 

278 

273 
2*64 
289 
279 



ins. 
53 

59 

73 
43 
61 

69 



Mean for the County 



2-30 



178 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



EAINFALL IN HERTPORDSHIKE IN 1894. 



135 



Hertfordshire in 1894. 



Apl. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


1 Year. 


Days. 


ins. 

•76 

1-03 


ins. 
160 

175 


ins. 
1-97 
174 


ins. 
270 
232 


im. 
289 
2-8i 


in». 
1-38 
1-63 


ins. 


ins. 
3*41 
379 


ins. 


1 ins. 
22-86 
2257 


1^ 


1*49 
1*41 
1-42 
1-27 


209 

173 
210 
i-8i 


1-98 
1-88 
2*05 
1-97 


1-94 
218 
204 
249 


418 

3-8o 
3-91 
447 


177 

178 
1-99 


2-30 
238 
232 
248 


433 
461 
4-50 
SOI 


1-56 
1-67 


2609 
25-50 
26-25 
27 60 


191 
201 

177 
197 


1-30 
1-42 


\t 


203 

2-22 


250 
227 


2-47 
273 


183 

2-12 


376 

3-66 


480 
502 


205 
216 


27-25 

28-47 


ITs 


1-48 
1-67 
171 


1-49 

2*05 

2 '02 


2*11 

1-88 
1-88 


2-56 
2-48 
238 


302 
3-28 
356 


177 

i-6i 


3*53 
350 
346 


1:3 

527 


2-35 
232 

2-22 


29-67 
2998 
3008 


199 
212 


1-49 
192 
1-67 


1-97 
201 

215 


1*93 
1-99 
201 


272 
I 99 
2-94 


302 
301 
335 


200 
2 -02 
198 


3-31 
363 
3*59 


4*99 
5-30 
519 


2-40 

2-37 
201 


29-78 
31-36 
31-22 


192 
186 
181 


1-66 

2 -06 
2-19 


1-82 

198 

2-47 

2-41 


227 
1-96 
2-03 
1-94 


2-58 

2-35 
301 
278 


2-97 
350 
395 
378 


2-28 
210 

2-47 
1-88 


349 
333 
373 
3-52 


575 
4-82 

5-30 
481 


2-o6 , 
2*07 

236 
209 


3043 
30-04 

3453 
3220 


187 
196 
203 
212 


2-o8 

2 -02 

1-96 

180 


180 
175 


229 
2-i6 
198 
242 


278 
295 
259 
292 


432 
4-59 
3-50 
423 


172 
1-35 

1*21 
218 


408 
387 
3-68 

4-57 


4-88 
4-42 
423 
553 


2 20 i 
190 

1-91 

218 


34-02 
3201 
29-64 
3560 


197 
187 
169 
203 


160 

1*37 
2-04 
I 61 


V4 

1-66 
I 79 


201 
177 
169 
179 


2-o8 

253 

2 22 

2-66 


3*31 
334 
2-49 
2-56 


1-66 
1-45 
1*33 
1-30 


2-86 
290 

2*47 
270 


4*49 
4*47 
396 
340 


I -60 

175 j 
171 j 
1-52 


26-94 
2696 
24-72 
2425 


164 

193 
180 

174 


l-g 


2-04 

1-84 


203 
167 


2-51 
282 


3-26 
248 


1-65 
164 


2-48 
248 


430 
3*49 


1-84 
179 


26-46 
25-03 


193 
205 


I 02 

I -08 
1*45 


i-8i 
213 
r8o 


1-94 
169 
1-66 


260 

1-94 
2-53 


3-17 
258 
236 


I -61 
1-47 

1-62 


2-95 
242 
260 


360 

359 
310 


171 
174 

I-9I 


2480 
23-26 
2386 


199 
203 
185 


1-74 


2-28 


2*01 


3*21 


281 


1-50 


285 


346 


224 


2774 


193 


1-46 


2-14 


1-86 
182 
190 


2-22 

2-57 
2-59 


2-66 

2-29 

2-44 


I-2I 
132 
136 


296 
2-84 


3-45 
330 
352 


1-82 
1-82 

189 1 


2522 

24*04 
2571 


195 
180 

193 


1-82 

2-o8 

244 


I 80 

1-84 
207 


2-11 
196 
200 
174 

I 99 


330 
342 
2*91 
2-66 
296 


276 
264 
273 

3*22 
309 


I-I3 
•91 

•99 

ro7 

•93 


'I 

3-92 


3-24 
280 
305 
316 
323 


177 
1-90 

1-88 

224 1 
228 1 


27-20 
26-86 
26-11 
27-89 
28-48 


199 
174 
166 
164 
227 


I -61 


1-92 


196 


258 


3-19 


1-62 


319 


426 


1-94 1 

1 


27-82 


191 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



136 J. HOPKINSON — ^RSPOBT ON THE 

The rainfall at the 7 stations at which this partial drought 
lasted for 33 days averaged 0*008 in. per diem ; at the 30 stations 
at which it lasted for at least 30 days it averaged 0*004 in. per 
diem. The average fall during all the periods was 0*006 in. 
per diem. 

Distribution of Rainfall throughout the Tear. — Of the total 
rainfall, 21i % ^^^^ during the winter months (Jan., Feb., and 
Dec), 18 % during the spring (March to May), 28 % during 
the summer (June to Aug.), and 32i % during the autumn (Sept. 
to Nov.). The fall during each quarter and each season, and tlie 
deviation from the mean for the half -century 1840-89, was as 
follows : — 

Fall. Diff. Fall. Diff. 

Ist quarter 6-56 ins. —0*08 in. Winter 6 02 ins. -f 0-02 in. 

2nd „ ...„ 6-49 —0*52 Spring 600 —0 62 

3rd „ 7-39 +0-07 Summer... 7*73 " * "' 

4th „ 9-39 



-)-0-07 Summer... 7*73 +075 

+1-92 Autumn 9*07 +114 



November was excessively wet ; August and October also 
were very wet. September was the only month much drier than 
usual. The difference in each month from the mean for the half- 
century was — 



Jan. _ 


m. 
—001 


April..... 


in. 
-017 


July ..... 


in. 
+0 08 


Oct. _ 


in. 
+0-25 


Feb. .... 


+007 


Mav 


-0*21 


Aug 


+0-81 


Nov..... 


+1*70 


Mar 


—014 


June 


—0-14 


Sept 


—0-81 


Dec. .... 


—0*04 



Thus the fall for the first six months was about half an inch 
below the mean, and for the last six months about two inches 
above it. 

The absolute maximum fall in any one day in each month, and 
the stations recording it, were — 

ins. 
Jan. 14 — Broxbourue and 

Cheshunt 0*50 

Feb. 17— Odsey 0*64 

Mar. 14 — Gorhambury, St. 

Albans 1*07 

April 24— New Bamet 0*64 

May 31— The Fira, Hitchin 0*65 

June 3 — PendleyManor,Tring 0*66 

* Abo at Moor Park on the 14th. 

The wettest day in each month was — 

January 8th at 1 station, 14th at 24 stations, 22nd at 6, 29th at 8, 14th and 
29th at 1. 

February 17th at 39, 23rd at 1. 

March 12th at 28, 14th at 12. 

April 16th at 2, 17th at 1, 18th at 4, 24th at 29, 26th at 2, 29th at 1, 16tb, 
18th, and 24th at 1. 

May 10th at 2, 16th at 1, 26th at 30, 30th at 2, Slst at 3, 10th and 26th at 1. 

June 3id at 18, 4th at 4, 6th at 1, 6th at 16, 16th at 1, 3rd and 16th at 1. 

July 10th at 29, 14th at 6, 22nd at 4, 24th at 1, 10th and 24th at 1. 







ins. 


July 


10— Moor Park, Rick- 






mansworth 


0-90 


Aujr. 


24 — Frogmore, Watford 
23— Nash Mills 


1*70 


Sept. 


0*79 


Oct. 


30— Moor Park 


1*20 


Nov. 


12— Cowroast and 






Kensworth 


1*68» 


Dec. 


14— Southgate 


0*82 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



eautfall in hebtforbshibb in 1894. 



137 



August lOth at 6, 23rd at 17, 24th at 11, 25th at 5, 23rd and 24th at 1, 23rd 
and 2oth at 1. 

September 6th at 3, 7th at 1, 8th at 1, 9th at 1, 22nd at 2, 23rd at 14, 24th 
at 8, 2dth at 5, 6th and 23rd at 2, 7th and 24th at 2, 23rd and 2dth at 1. 

October 24th at 8, 28th at 6, 30th at 26. 

Kovember 12th at 18, 14th at 22. 

December 14th at all stations. 

The day in each month on which a heavy fall of rain was most 
general over the county was therefore — 



Jan. 14th 
Feb. 17th 
March 12th 



April 24th 
May 26th 
June 3rd 



July 10th 
Aug. 23rd 
Sept. 23rd 



Oct. 30th 
Nov. 14th 
Dec. 14th 



The number of wet days in the year (average of 39 gauges) was 
191, being 23 above the mean for the 20 years 1870-89. Of the 
total number there were 54 (or 28i °/o) in the winter months, 
38 (or 20 %) in the spring, 51 (or 26 J %) in the summer, and 
48 (or 25 %) in the autumn. 

The average number of wet days in each month, and the 
deviation from the mean for the 20 years 1870-89, was as 
follows : — 



Jan. 22+7 
Feb. 16+1 
March 10 — 3 



April 13 = 
May 16 +2 
June 14 +1 



July 18 +4 
Aug. 19+6 
Sept. 13 = 



Oct. 19 +4 
Nov. 16 « 
Dec. 17 +1 



Distrihution of Rainfall throughout the County. — The following 
table (Table lY^ gives the mean fall for each month and for the 
year in each oi the five river-districts represented, and in the 
two main hydrographical divisions of the county, the catchment- 
basins of the Great Ouse and the Thames, and also the difference 
in the year from the mean for the decade 1880-89. 

Table IV. — Rainfall in the River-districts. 



Months. 


Cam. 


IVBL. 


Thamb. 


COLNE. 


Lba. 


OrsB. 


Thames. 




ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


Jan. .... 


1*45 


174 


1-88 


2-59 


2*34 


1-65 


242 


Feb. .... 


1-56 


I 61 


165 


1*93 


I 75 


160 


i-8i 


March 


•82 


I -06 


1*55 


2-09 


115 


•97 


156 


April 

May .... 


•89 


1-40 


136 


I -81 


I 61 


1*23 


1-68 


1-68 


193 


I 61 


1-96 


1-95 


1-85 


1-93 


June 


185 


1*97 


212 


206 


187 


\M 


196 


July .... 


2CI 


216 


2*39 


265 
3-58 
187 


265 


263 


August 


2-85 


4-09 


2 60 


279 


y(>i 


310 


Sept . 


1-51 


1-82 


1-97 


1-34 


172 


I 60 


October 


251 


2*37 


371 


3-66 


303 


2-42 


3*33 


Nov. _ 


3 '60 


4-6i 


491 


5-10 


353 


4-27 


426 


Dec. .... 


1-48 


I 60 


2*11 


217 


1-86 


1-56 


200 


Tear 


2271 


26-36 


2786 


31-47 


2587 


25-15 


22 28 


Diff.from 
1880-89 


-079 


+I-09 


• 


+2-50 


+0-32 


-fl-62 


+114 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



188 



J. HOPONSON — ^REPOfiT ON THE 



The mean rain&ll in each of the minor river-basins or sub- 
districts represented, was as follows : — 



Cam Rbee 

I VEL».„.^. Hiz «... 

Thamb..^. Upper Thame 

(Bui bourne 
Lower Colne « 



ins. 
22-71 
26-36 
27-86 
29-91 
30-79 
31-80 
32-82 



Lba.^ 





ins. 


f MimrAm ,........: 


25-72 


Beane 


25-75 


Rib 


23-97 


Ash 


27-74 


Upper Lea 


24-99 


. Lower Lea 


27-31 



The total yearly fall ranged from 22-57 ins. at Odsey to 
34*80 ins. at Moor Park, Rickm ans worth ; and the total monthly 
fall from OTOin. at Odsey in March to 5*75 ins. at Kensworth 
in November. The greatest fall in any one day was 1*70 in. at 
Frogmore, Watford, on the 24th of August. 

Bktrihution of Rainfall in each Month. — The nomenclature used 
in the following account of the chief falls of rain is the saune as in 
my previous reports, falls of at least i inch being styled consider- 
abky i inch very considerable, 1 inch 'great, li inch very great, and 
H inch heavy. There was no very heavy (l^ inch) or excessive 
(2 inches) fall in the year. This analysis only applies to the 35 
stations for which I have returns of the daily rainfall. 

Januaet. — Rainfall about the average but on an unusually large 
number of days, in the form of snow for a few days during the first 
week, and for the last day or two. There was a considerable fall of 
rain on the 1 4th at two stations (in the Lower Lea district). 

Febeuaby. — Eainfall about the average and on the usual number 
of davs. There was a considerable fall at twenty-two stations on 
the nth. 

Maech. — Rainfall a little below the average on a rather small 
number of days, nearly all during the first half of the month, only 
a very small quantity of rain fdling after the 15th at about half 
the number of stations on one or two days. On the 12th there 
was a considerable fall of rain at five stations, and on the 1 4th the 
fall was considerable at four stations, very considerable at five, and 
great (1*07 in.) at Gorhambury. 

Apeil. — Also a rather dry month, with rain on the usual number 
of days, nearly all during the second half of the month, very little 
rain falling before the 14th, and none at some stations. On the 
18th there was a considerable fall at one station (Datch worth), and 
on the 24th at five stations. 

Mat. — Although more rain fell than in either of the previous 
three months. May was considerably drier than usual, but with 
rather more than the usual number of wet days. On the 10th 
there was a considerable fall at one station (Gorhambury), on 
the 26th at seven stations, and on the 31st at two (in the Hiz 
district). 

June. — The fourth month in succession with the rainfall 
appreciably below the average, about the usual number of days 
being wet. All the rain fell during the Erst three weeks, none 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



BAINPALL IN HEBTFORDBHIBE Uf 1894. 139 

being recorded at any station after the 20th. On the 6th there 
was a considerable fall at five stations (all but one in the Lower 
Lea Sistrict). 

JuLT. — A wet month, with many rainy days ; rain at most 
stations falling every day but one or two for the three weeks 
6th to 26th. During a thunderstorm on the 10th the fall of 
rain was conMerahle at twenty-five stations, and veiy considerable 
at six, the only stations with less than half an inch of rain 
being Apsley Mills, Hamels Park, and the Red House and^ 
Fanhams Hall, Ware. On the 13th the fall was considerable at 
one station (Frogmore, Watford), on the 14th considerable at four 
stations and veri/ considerable at two, on the 22nd considerable at 
three and very considerable at three, and on the 24th considerable 
at one (Weston Park). 

August. — A very wet month, and, like July, with many rainy 
days. No rain fell after the 26th, but up to that date there were 
only seven days without rain on the average throughout the county. 
During a thunderstorm on the 10th, most violent in the neigh- 
bourhood of Hitchin, there was a considerable fall of rain at four 
stations, a vert/ considerable fall at one station, and the fall was 
great at The Firs, Hitchin (1*06 in.), FairhiU, Berkhamsted, 
(1-12 in), and Moor Park (M5in.). On the 16th there was 
a considerable fall at one station (Much Hadham). The 23rd, 
24th, and 25th were very wet days, the fall of rain averaging 
0-69 in. on 23rd, 0'67in. on 24th, and 0-31 in. on 25th, or 1-57 in. 
in the three days. On the 23rd the fall was considerable at twenty- 
two stations, and very considerable at thirteen, thus being at least 
half an inch at all the stations; on the 24th it was considerable 
at three stations, very considerable at three, great at Gorhambury 
(1-14 in.), Moor Park (1-22 in.), and Brocket Hall (1-22 in.), very 
great at High Down, Hitchin (l-32in ), The Grange, St. Albans 
(1*42 in.), and Oaklands, Watford (1'45 in.), and heavy at Frogmore, 
"Watford (1*70 in.); and on the 25th it was considerable at five 
stations, very considerable at one station, and great at Weston 
Park (1 -01 in.). 

September. — A month with small rainfall, but on the usual 
number of days. On the 23rd there was a thunderstorm, with much 
rain, in the west of the county, the storm being very violent about 
St. Albans, Watford, and Rickmansworth, where much damage 
was done to growing crops. The fall, however, only exceeded 
half an inch at four stations, being considerable at two (Apsley 
Mills, Hemel Hempstead, and The Grange, St. Albans), and very 
considerable at two (Nash Mills, Hemel Hempstead, and Gorham- 
bury, St. Albans). 

October. — A very wet month with many rainy days, especially 
wet towards the end, the last nine days having an aggregate rain- 
fall of 2-^38 inches, being an average of rather more than 0-26 in. 
per diem. On the 10th the fall was considerable at one station 
. (Kens worth), on the 24th considerable at twenty-two and very con^ 
aider able at one, on the 26th considerable at four, on 28th considerable 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



140 J. HOPKUrSOH — ^THE EAINFALL IN 1894. 

at twenty-two, and on the 30th considerable at five, very eonsiderahle 
.at sixteen, and great at Oaklands, Watford (1*00 in.), Southgate 
(M3in.), and Moor Park (l-20in.). 

November. — An excessively wet month, but with rain on only 
the usual number of days. All the rain fell during the first three 
weeks, except a very sUght fall on one or two days, the last eight 
days having an aggregate fall of less than 0-01 in. on the average 
throughout the county. On the 7th the fall was eomiderahle at 
eleven stations and on the 1 1 th at eight. On the 1 2th it was at least 
half an inch at every station but one, being considerable at eight 
stations ; very considerable at six ; great at The Grange, St. Albans 
(1-04 in.), Therfield Rectory (107 in.). Moor Park (1-1 1 in.), 
Gorhambury, St. Albans (I -12 in.), Apdey Mills, Hemel Hemp- 
stead (l-14in.), Nash Mills, Hemel Hempstead (l'19in.), Brocket 
Hall (1-20U1.), and Datchworth Rectory (l'21in.); very great at 
Welwyn Rectory (1-25 in.), Odsey (1-30 in.), The Firs, Hitchin 
(1-37 in.), Bancroft, Hitclmi (1-45 in.), and Elm House, Tring 
( 1*47 in.); and heavy at High Down, Hitchin (1*50 in.), Great 
Gaddesden Vicarage (1*52 in.), Weston Park, Stevenage (I '54 in.), 
Fairhill, Berkhamsted (1-68 in.), Rosebank, Berkhamsted(l*62in.), 
Cowroast (1'68 in.), and Kensworth (1-68 in.). On the 13th there 
was a considerable fall at four stations. The 14th was the wettest 
day in the year on the average throughout the county, at least half 
an inch falling at every station, although the maximum fall did 
not quite reach that on the 12th. The fall was considerable at one 
station; very considerable at ten stations; great at Bennington 
House, Stevenage (100 in.), Odsey (1*02 in.), "Rosebank, Berk- 
hamsted (1-02 in.), Bayfordbury, Hertford (1*04 in.), Broxboume 
(105 in.), Fairhill, Berkhamsted (1-06 in.), The Firs, Hitchin 
(I '07 in.), Throcking Rectory (109 in.), Weston Park, Stevenage 
(1*10 in.), Bancroft, Hitchin (1*15 in.), Datchworth Rectory 
(119in.), Elm House, Tring (1*20 in.), and Kensworth (1*21 in.); 
very great at Oaklands, Watford (1-25 in.), Cowroast (1*33 in.). 
Brocket Hall (136 in.). High Down, Hitchin (1-37 in.), Frogmore, 
Watford (1-39 in.\ The Grange, St. Albans (1-40 in.), and Welwyn 
Rectory (1*40 in.); and hea>vy at Nash Mills, Hemel Hempstead 
(1-53 in.), Gorhambury, St. Albans (1*56 in.), Apsley Mills, 
Hemel Hempstead (1*62 in.), and Moor Park (1*68 in.). An 
account of the floods caused by the rainfall on this day and the 
12th, the climax of a wet period of three weeks, follows this report. 

Dbcembeb. — Rainfall about the average, and on about the usual 
number of days. On the 14th the fall was at least half an inch 
at every station but two, beiag considerable at thirty stations and 
very considerable at three. 



Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



XVIII. 

THE FLOODS OF NOVEMBER, 1894, IN HERTFORDSHIEE. 

Uy Joror HoPKiNSOir, F.L.S., F.G.S., F.R.Met.8oc. 

Mead at Watford, 26/A March, 1895. 

The immediate cause of the floods which occurred in the South 
of England and South Wales in the middle of November, was 
a heavy fall of rain which commenced on Monday night the 1 1th, 
or Tuesday morning the 12th, and lasted until about mid-day 
or rather later on Wednesday the 14th, with one intermission 
of considerable duration in most districts. In Hertfordshire there 
were two distinct falls: the first commenced about the middle 
of the night of the llth-12th and ceased about noon; the second 
commenced about the same time in the night of the ldth-14th 
and ceased early in the afternoon of the 14th — ceased, that is, as 
a heavy fall, for a little rain fell later in the day. On the 
morning of the 13th the sky at St. Albans was perfectly cloudless 
and the weather was fine throughout the day. Each of these falls 
lasted about twelve hours and averaged about an inch and a half. 
But the severity of the floods was due in great measure to another 
cause, the saturated state of the ground upon which this heavy- 
rain fell. From the 1st to the 10th of November there was but 
little more than the average rainfall, but during the previous 
nine days, October 23rd to Slst, nearly two and a half inches 
of rain fell in our county. And it was much the same throughout 
the southern half of England and the greater part of Wales. 

October and November are usually rather wet months, our 
rainfall in October being about three-quarters of an inch above 
the average for all the months in the year, and in November being 
about one-quarter of an inch above this average, so that we have to 
compare an exceptionally wet period with a season which is 
usually a wet one, otherwise the following comparisons would 
have been much more striking than they are. 

During the nine days from October 23rd to 31st the mean 
rainfall in Hertfordslnre was 2*38 inches, or an average of 
0*265 inch per day, being nearly three times the usual ftdl for 
the time of the year; during the ten days from November 1st 
to 10th the fall was 1*02 inch, or an average of 01 02 inch per 
day, being only 20 per cent, above the usual fall for this period ; 
and during the four days from November 11th to 14th the fall 
was 2*97 inches, or 0'742 inch per day, being very nearly nine 
times the usual daily fall for November. Taking the whole 
period of 23 days from October 23rd to November 14th it will 
be found that the fall was more than three times the usual 
quantity, for this gives an average of 0-277 inch per day against 
the usual average for October and November together of 0*088 inch 
per day. These comparisons are on the average of 60 years rainfall 
in Hertfordshire ending 31st March, 1892. 



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142 



J. HOPKINSON ^THB FLOODS 



Details of the rainfall during the 23 days preceding the floods 
at 35 stations in Hertfordshire are given in the following tahle. 
The numbers in the first column are those of the river-districts 
(see p. 134). 

Table I. — Rainfall m Hertfoedshiee, 23ed Octobee to 
14th Novembee, 1894. 



No. 


Station. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Nov. 


Nov. 


Nov. 


Oct. 23- 


23-31 


1-10 


11-12 


13-14 


11-14 


Nov. 14 






ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


ins. 


int. 


iiw. 


1 


Royston 


1-69 


76 


1-34 


115 


2 '49 


4*94 


fy 


Odsey 

Hitchin— The Fire . 


1*39 


•82 


1-64 


112 


276 


497 


3 


I '57 


•92 


179 


I 32 


3" 


5'6o 


11 


,, Bancroft -... 


1*62 


I -03 


1-87 


1-41 


3-28 


5*93 


>» 


,, High Down 


171 


1*31 


1-91 


1-66 


3-57 


6*59 


4 


Tring— Elm House 


2-89 


I -07 


196 


162 


3-58 


7-54 


6 


Cowroast 


277 


1-36 


209 


192 


401 


814 


»» 


Berkhamsted — Rosebank «... 


2*59 


1-24 


213 


1*57 


370 


7-53 


if 


FairhiU 


2-57 


1-36 


203 


1-59 


3-62 


7*55 


7 


Great Gaddesden Vicarage. 
H. Hempstead— Apsley Mills 
Nash Mills 


2*45 


I 29 


2 -02 


1-47 


3*49 


723 




291 

2-82 


1*31 

I '20 


1-63 
170 


207 
196 


370 
3-66 


7*92 
7-68 


8 


Kensworth — The Grove 


228 


1*39 


223 


176 


3*99 


7-66 


fi 


St. Albans — Gorhambury.^ 


279 


1*33 


1-64 


2 '02 


3-66 


778 


»» 


The Grange 


2-8i 


1-27 


1-54 


173 


327 


7*35 


10 


"Watford — OaUands „ 


3-08 


1-44 
1-05 


1*45 
1-42 


1*55 
I 59 


300 
301 


779 
714 


)) 


,, Frogmore 


»» 


Rickmansworth— Moor Park 


377 


1-49 


160 


1-88 


3-48 


874 


12 


Welwyn Rectory 


2-27 

2-59 


•85 
•92 


170 
1-67 


174 
1-66 


3*44 
3*33 


656 
684 


}) 


Hatfield— Brocket Hall 




Datch worth Rectory 


1-96 
I -61 


•67 
•86 


1-62 


1-46 

1-26 


3-o8 
317 


5-64 


13 


Stevenage — Weston Park..... 


1-91 


»» 


,, Bennington House 


1-83 


•69 


1*37 


123 


2'6o 


5-12 


14 


Therfield Rectory 


175 


•82 


1*43 


I -14 


2*57 


514 


»» 


Throcking Rectory 


I 57 


•83 


I 25 


1*31 


2-56 


4-96 


»> 


Buntingford — Hamels Park 
Much Hadham 


171 


•64 


1-23 


I'd 


2-24 


4*59 


16 


183 


1-03 


IXX) 


1-22 


2-22 


5-o8 


17 


Hertford — Bayfordbury 

Ware— Red House „... 


2*34 
2*33 


•82 
•92 


I -ID 
1-03 


1*37 

113 


216 


5-63 
5*41 


yi 


,, Fanhams Hall 


2-03 


•87 


I-06 


1-40 


2 46 


536 


18 


Broxboume— StaffordHouse 


2-83 


79 


1-04 


I 23 


227 


589 


»> 


Cheshunt — Old Nurseries 


2-92 


•69 


•88 


I -02 


1-90 


5"5i 


a 


„ College 


2-84 


•93 


•92 


I -02 


1-94 


571 


yy 


New Bame^^Gas "Works 


2*92 


73 


i-io 


105 


2-15 


580 


♦ » 


Southgate— The Lawns .... 


2-96 


I -04 


I 19 


■68 


1-87 


5-87 




Mean 


2-38 


I '02 


1*53 


1*44 


2*97 


6-37 



It will be seen that the distribution of the rain over the county 
followed the usual rule, the fall in the west being greater than in 
the east. If the rainfall stations were equably distributed, the 
mean of their records would represent the true mean rainfall in 
the county, and they are very nearly so. It will be well, however, 



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OF NOVEMBER, 1894, IN HEBTS. 



143 



to show their numerical relation to the area of the chief river- 
basins. The area of Hertfordshire is 633 square miles, but it will 
be convenient and suflSciently accurate for my purpose to consider 
it to be 630. This area may be approximately divided between 
the different river-basins as follows :— Great Ouse (Xos. 1-3), in 
the north of the county, 75 square miles ; Thame (No. 4), in the 
north-west, 15; Colne (Nos. 6-10), in the west (including a small 
portion of the Brent), 210; and Lea (Nos. 11-18), in the east, 
330. These areas are in the following ratios: 5, 1, 14, 22. The 
number of rainfall stations in the four river-basins is as follows: 
Ouse, 5; Thame, 1; Colne, 12; Lea, 17. There are therefore 
required, in order to get an exact representation — one rainfall 
station to every fifteen square miles — only two more stations in 
the basin of the Colne, and five more in that of the Lea. If the 
relative areas of the basins are considered, it will be seen that 
a result sufficiently accurate for any practical purpose would be 
attained if there were two more rainfall stations in the basin 
of the Lea. 

The mean rainfall in each of the river-basins for the period 
under discussion is given in the following table : — 

Table II. — Rainfall in the Rivee-basins, 23kd Octobeb to 
14th November, 1894. 



River -basin. 


Area. 


Oct. 
23-31 


Nov. 
I-IO 


Nov. 
11-12 


Nov. 
13-14 


Nov. 
11-14 


Oct. 23- 
Nov. 14 


Ouse 

Thame 

Colne «. 

Lea_ 


Square 
miles. 

75 

15 

2IO 


Ing. 
I 60 
2-89 
285 
225 


ini. 
0-97 
1-07 

0-83 


ins. 
171 
1-95 
179 
1-27 


ing. 
133 

1-62 

176 
123 


Ins. 
304 
358 

3-55 
250 


inn. 
5-61 
7 54 
771 
558 



From this table we may get a very near approximation to the 
actual mean rainfall in the county by multiplying the rainfall in 
each river-basin by its area, adding together the products, and 
dividing by the area of the county. The result of this operation 
for the four days 11th to 14th Nov. gives a mean for the county 
of 2-94 inches, and for the twenty-three days 23rd Oct. to 14th 
Nov., a mean of 6*34 inches. 

An inch of rain in depth gives a weight of water of 64,636 tons 
per square mile (= nearly 101 tons per acre). Therefore, in the 
four days 11th to 14th Nov. there fell within the limits of the 
county in the river-basin of the Ouse nearly 15 million tons of 
water ; in that of the Thame nearly 3i million tons ; in that of 
the Colne over 48 million tons; and in that of the Lea nearly 
63^ million tons ; giving a total for the whole of Hertfordshire 
of nearly 120 million tons. If the mean rainfall as shown in the 
first table were taken, the result would be 124^ million tons, 
which is greater than the quantity arrived at by taking the results 



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144 J, H0PKIN80H — THE FLOODS 

for each river-basin (the more correct method) owing to the largest 
basin, that of the Lea, having the smallest rainfall ; but if we take 
the corrected mean of 2*94 inches, the result is precisely the same 
as that given above, the exact number of tons of water given by 
this method being 119,718,799. When we consider that this 
gives a daily fall for four successive days of about 30 million tons 
of water on a soil already saturated by previous heavy rain, against 
an average daily fall in this usually wet month of about 3i million 
tons, it is not surprising that the floods to which it gave rise were 
of exceptional, if not of unprecedented, severity. 

The following account of these floods is compiled from reports 
which appeared at the time in three of our County newspapers — 
the * Watford Observer,* the * Herts Advertiser,' and the * Hertford- 
shire Mercury,' except a short account of an experience of my own* 
The river- valleys will be taken in the usual order. 

In the valley of the Gade the flood appears to have been the 
worst between Apsley End and Boxmoor. The village of Apsley 
End was flooded by mid -day on Monday the 12th of November, 
the water rising over the kerbing of the footpaths and flowing into 
the shops. On Wednesday it had risen so high that the residents 
had to remove their furniture upstairs, and the roadway was 
impassable except by wading deep in water. At several points 
the water in the Grand Junction Canal overflowed the banks and 
swamped the adjacent meadows, the football-ground in the Salmon 
Meadow presenting the appearance of a group of ponds. At 
Apsley Mills operations had to be temporarily suspended owing 
to a portion of the works being flooded. At Boxmoor the cellars 
of the houses were flooded, and much damage was done to the 
extensive water-cress beds in the locality. 

In the higher part of the valley of the Colne the brook at 
Water End, which during the greater part of the year is simply 
a dry water-course, overflowed its banks, and carried down a large 
volume of water to Colney Heath near to where it joins the Colne. 
At Welham Green, on Wednesday the 14th, the roads were under 
water and almost impassable, the water being more than a foot 
deep in places. On the afternoon of the following day, wishing 
to see something of the effects of the heavy rain in this district, 
I walked to North Mimms past Smallford and Colney Heath. A 
short distance beyond the ford I found the road submerged to the 
depth of nearly two feet, but was able to avoid wading through 
the deeper part of the water by going through a cottager's garden 
and crossing the water on a plcmk which he had kindly provided 
and supported on chairs. My dog would not foUow me, but 
waited, yelping, for a passing cart, in which he was taken across 
the water. Not wishing to return this way in the dark, I found 
that it was necessary to go round by Water End and Mimms 
Hall into the London Boad at South Mimms, passing places near 
Wan'en Gate where the road was then just under water, but, as 
I was informed, had been impassable earlier in the day. 

In the valley of the Colne where the river permanently flows, 



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OP NOVEICBEE, 1894, Hf HEHT8. 145 

the floods seem to haye put people to the most serious inconvenience 
at Watford. On Monday the 12th, the meadows hordering the 
Colne were inundated, and the water flowed into Water Lane and 
the lower part of High Street. On Tuesday the water retreated, 
hut the floods rose again on Wednesday morning and attained their 
highest point ahout midnight, submerging three roads in the town 
for several hundred yards. High Street was the most seriously 
affected, the water being three feet deep in some parts. The river 
rose to within six inches of the girders of the new High Street 
bridge. All the houses between the bridge and Dalton House, 
where Mr. Schreiber had to remove his dogs for safety from his 
stables to the loft, were flooded, as well as those in the courts, 
and the workmen were surprised on looking out of their windows 
on Thursday morning to see that they would have to make the 
first part of their journey to their work by water. Horses and 
carts were soon secured and several men were lowered from their 
bedroom windows. A boat in which it was intended to row up 
High Street was carried away by the flood. In Water Lane the 
water extended from a few yards beyond the river to the railway- 
arch, and a great part of Loates Lane was also under water, the 
fields between being inundated. In the direction of Aldenham the 
water was like an inland sea. At ten o^clock on Thursday morning 
the waters began to abate, but carts were still busily engaged, 
until late in the day, in carrying passengers along the flooded 
streets. A few pigs and sheep escaped from the flooded meadows 
by swimming, but one sheep and a large number of rabbits 
belonging to Mr. Blathwayt, of Frogmore House, were drowned. 
Water was pumped out of the cellars of many houses by Messrs. 
Sedgwick and Co.*s steam fire-engine. 

At the meeting of the Watford Local Board on the same day 
(Thursday, 15th Nov.) the Engineer reported as follows: — "The 
heavy rains during yesterday caused various parts of the town to 
be flooded, notably St. Albans Koad over the railway bridge, the 
lower part of Queen* s Road, Merton Road, and Pinner Road. This 
morning the river has overflowed its banks and risen above the 
underside of the girders of the new bridge, flooding the length 
of High Street from the bridge to the mill-tail between two feet 
and three feet deep." 

Lower down the Colne several low-lying portions of Rickmans- 
worth and its vicinity were flooded, most seriously at Batchworth 
and West Hyde. 

In the valley of the Lea the neighbourhood of Hertford and 
Ware suffered most from the floods. The road from Hertford 
towards Essendon was rendered almost impassable from Tuesday 
the 13th to Thursday the 16th, presenting more the appearance of 
a running stream than of a public highway, the water in some 
parts of it being three feet deep ; the Brickendon Road was also 
flooded to a considerable depth. The Castle Meads, Hartham, and 
the King's Meads, were more or less under water, and for miles 
along the course of the River Lea its banks were submerged, and 

VOL. VIII. — PART VI. 11 



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146 THE FLOODS OP NOVEMBER, 1894. 

a great quantity of the adjoining land was flooded. The members 
of the Hertford Fire Brigade were engaged on Wednesday evening 
in pumping the water out of the basement of Dr. J. T. Tasker- 
Evans* residence in Fore Street, which had become flooded owing 
to the overflowing of the Gulphs. The water rushed down through 
the garden and into Dr. Tasker-Evans' and Mrs. C. Young's 
houses, while a stream rushed underneath Dr. Tasker-Evans' 
gateway into Fore Street, which for a time became a water-course, 
part of the water running down Fore Street and part through 
Market Street and Railway Street. In The Folly there appeared 
every likelihood of a serious flood; when the gates near the old 
waterworks were opened the torrent rushed through, and the strip 
of land between the old River Lea and Paper Mill Ditch was sodu 
submerged, a portion of the pathway being washed away to the 
depth of four feet by the force of the water. At the Lock several 
of the pleasure-boats were washed away and were subsequently 
found upon the towing-path. 

At Ware the cellars of many of the houses in the lower part of 
Star Street were flooded during Wednesday night by the rising of 
the Barge river, and the cottages in the vicinity of Angel Road 
were swamped. The meadows near the river were flooded, and 
the water on the towing-path was two or three feet deep. The 
road between Dane End and Sacombe Pond for a length of about 
a mile and a half was rendered impassable for foot-passengers, the 
water in some places being between three and four feet deep. 

This is the greatest flood which has occurred in Hertfordshire 
since the flood in the valley of the Uade on the 3rd of August, 
1879, which was described in our * Transactions * (Vol. I, p. 159) 
by the late Mr. J. E. Littleboy, but that was partial, occurring only 
in the west of Hertfordshire, while this was general, affecting the 
greater part of the county. The heavy rainfall, also, which 
immediately preceded the 1879 flood, was confined to the Midland 
counties, while on this occasion the fall was excessive over nearly 
the whole of the South of England and the whole of Wales except 
the extreme north. 



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XIX. 

NOTES ON BIRDS OBSERVED IN HERTFORDSHIRE DURING 
THE YEAR 1894. 

By Henet Lewis. 

Bead at Watford, 26th March, 1895. 

It is now nearly eighteen years since the late Mr. J. E. Littleboy 
read before the Watford Natural History Society his first paper 
on birds, entitled " The Birds of our District," but including some 
notes on birds observed in distant parts of Hertfordshire, and since 
then a yearly report on the birds observed in our county has been 
written, the second of these annual reports being read to the Hert- 
fordshire Natural History Society, for the Society had, in 1879, 
extended its sphere of influence, and its title, to embrace the whole 
of the county. These annual notes on our birds show that for 
a long time'a large amount of interest has been taken by many of 
our members in this particular branch of Natural History. 

One reason for this interest in the study of Ornithology may not 
be far to seek to those of us who, perhaps as mere lads, may have 
caught the love of Nature, for we may have partaken of the 
abounding joy and happiness surrounding us as we wandered forth 
in one of our early morning walks amid sylvan scenes on a glorious 
May day, so few of which, however, we get in this fickle climate. 
It would be vain and fruitless for me to attempt to give a faithful 
or perfect description of such a morning, when the sun is rising in 
glorious light in the eastern sky. the thirsty earth is teeming with 
new life and energy after the refreshing rain, and the balmy air is 
resonant with the pleasant hum of insect-life, and with the love- 
notes and joy-songs of innumerable happy birds. The eye is 
delighted with the beauty of form and colour, and the grace of 
movement all around, with the lovely green leaves quivering in 
the gentle breeze, and with the meadows rich in varied hues, 
every blade of grass decked as it were with a sparkling gem. Th^ 
beautiful effects of light and shade in the early morning, the 
delicate odours of trees and flowers, the rippling murmur of 
running water, the graceful flight of the swallow, the lazy caw 
of the rook, the laugh of the woodpecker, the gambol of squirrels, 
the coo of wood- pigeons, the call of the cuckoo, and the song of 
the nightingale, aU help to increase the charm. 

How cheerless would our land be without the birds ! A scientific 
writer, in speaking of the destruction of the dinomis, has said that 
the destruction of the individual is unimportant, but the destruc- 
tion of the type is a crime. Yet as matters go now, unless some 
stringent measures are taken, most of the birds of Europe will in 
the next century be as extinct as is now the dinomis. In an 
article on ** Birds and their Persecutors,'* in the January number 
of the * Nineteenth Century,' *'Ouida" says that "the craze for 
devouring birds of all kinds is a species of fury from the Alps 



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148 H. LEWIS— NOTES ON BIRDS 

to Etna," and maintams that " unless birds be protected in Italy 
they must perish all over Europe, since so great a Tariety of races 
wing their way to the south in winter** As "Ouida** also says 
that " it is admitted by all who know anything of the subject that 
agriculture would be impossible without the aid of birds, as the 
larvae and developed insects of all kinds would make a desert of 
the entire area of cultivated land,** I think it well and quite within 
my province to direct the attention of the members of our Society 
to such an important question, especi«dly as the craze of fashion 
has even in our own land filled many a shop window with the 
wretched remnants and barbarous spoils of bird-life. 

I am unable in this report to make any additions to the list of 
birds which have been observed in our county, but, through the 
kindness of the Honourable Walter Rothschild, I have been favoured 
by Mr. E. Hartert, in his name, with some interesting note« on 
birds (some rare) which have been obtained in the Tiing district 
during the past year, specimens of all of which are to be found in 
the Tring Museum. 

Grey Wagtail {MotaciUa melanope). — This graceful little bird 
was seen by Mr. Hartert in December, 1894, near the Rt^servoirs. 
My own acquaintance with this wagtail is but slight. For some 
years I have noticed the arrival of the long-tailed wagtails on the 
banks of our river Ver. They seem plentiful this winter. Mr. 
Alaa F. Grossman, of St. Cuthbcrt's, Berkhamsted, wrote to 
me in the winter: ** During this hard weather I have seen 
sevei-al grey wagtails ; the bird seems to be a fairly common 
winter visitor to this part of Herts.'* It runs, with a buoyancy and 
lightness unsurpassed in my opinion by that of any other of our 
wagtails, after the insects which are its food, often alighting on the 
floating weed, as it passes along, then flying off in graceful dips, 
uttering **chiz-zit, chiz-zit** either when flying or when alighting 
on the trees overhanging the watiT. The late Mr. Frank Buck- 
hmd said: **The wagtails have different calls. The call of the 
black-and-white wagtail is * physic, physic, physic* . . Listen to 
the first wagtail you hear, and you will find that he invokes the 
aid of the medical profeSvsion.** (* WTiite's Selbome,* with notes by 
Frank Buckland, p. 301.) Mr. Dresser (* Birds of Europe,' vol. iii, 
p. 251) states that ** In Great Britain it is, as a species, a per- 
manent resident, though individually a partial migrant ** ; and our 
President, Mr. Henry Seebohm (* British Birds,* vol. ii, p. 203), 
says : ** The grey wagtail is sparingly distributed throughout 
England and Wales, breeding in the mountainous districts and 
migrating into the lower valleys and into the plains for the 
winter.** I generally notice its arrival here in autumn, but Mr. 
Littleboy alludes to the nesting of this species at the Tring 
Kescrvoirs. 

Crossbills {Loxia curvirostra), — Some of these birds were seen 
and shot in the woods at Tring in December, 1894, and January, 
1895. In Mr. Littloboy's register I find it recorded that early in 
the year 1879 a flock of these birds frequented the Gorhambury 



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OBSEBYED IN HEBTS IN 1894. 149 

Woods between St. Michaels and the London and North Western 
station. Probably this was the same year that I received specimens 
of these birds from the boys of the town, who had procured them 
in Verulam Woods. Mr. Grossman writes : "On January the 
27th (1895), I saw a flock of about fifty common crossbills in a 
wood about three-quarters of a mile from Berkhamsted, just on the 
borders of the county. I was first attracted by the note * gip, gip,' 
which I am well acquainted with, and just as I perceived them 
they flew over my head and circled round and settled. I got 
nearly underneath a larch tree on which a small party of them 
settled, and I had a very good view of them through my field- 
glasses. In this small party there was one orange-tinted bird, and 
the rest were either crimson or green, one of the latter being very 
dull-coloured. They were feeding on the cones of the larch, and 
their mode of procedure was to break off a cone and carry it to a 
stronger branch and there peck it over and then drop it. I picked 
up several of these cones that had been dropped, and examined 
them, and found that they were very slightly pulled about, some 
of their leaves being split up. I heard one of the birds singing : 
the song is sweet, but not loud, some parts of it being like the song 
of a robin, sweeter, though not so loud. The attitude of these 
birds when feeding (sometimes hanging with the head downwards*) 
is very like that of a parrot or a titmouse." 

CiRL Bunting {Emherka cirlm). — During the year 1894 several 
pairs of these birds were observed in spring and summer near 
Tring. Dresser (iv, 179-182) says that this bunting **i8 par- 
ticularly abundant in the Isle of Wight" ; and also that Naumann 
states that ** It frequents the same kind of places as the yellow 
bunting, such as the bushy banks of stre^ims, meadows, and hedges, 
small groves in mountainous districts, in the neighbourhood of fields 
and gardens." ** In England," Dresser also says, "it is gregarious 
in winter, and may be observed in flocks on the southern coast." 

The Raven {Corvus cor ax). — Mr. Hartert writes: ** A raven 
was caught in the woods above Tring by a village boy, in the 
middle of October. He saw the bird on a branch and crept close 
enough to hit it on the head with a stone, which only bedazzled 
it, but did not kill it. When we got it first it was rather quiet, 
but became wilder afterwards. The bird did not show signs of 
having been in captivity, and it seems inexplicable what made 
such a wary bird so foolish that it could be thrown over with a 
stone. A dead raven was found by Mr. Minall, the museum's 
taxidermist, in the same woods on the 26th of December. It was 
haK rotten and only fit for a skeleton.'* Some of us may remember 
the interesting account Mr. Hooper gave us of the raven in his 
report for the year 1889. From this bird's wide distribution we 
may hope that it would escape the fate, which in these days befalls 
so many species of birds, of becoming extinct, or nearly so, through 
the agency of man, possessing as it does a very ancient if not 
honourable history, and associated as it is with the cherished beliefs 
of many nations. 



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150 H. LEWIS — ^NOTES OK BIRDS 

Mr. Seebohm (* British Birds,' vol. i, p. 532) says : " The raren, 
once so famous in fable, and held by the ancients in such respect as 
a bird of destiny, is now rapidly becoming scarce in England .... 
almost the only places where a few scattered pairs are found are the 
bold rocky headlands of our coasts, in districts little frequented by 
man, where the bird, gifted as it is with no small amount of sagacity 
and prudence, is able still to maintain its ground. But slowly and 
surely these English ravens are passing away ; their deserted eyries 
possess only historical interest; and the day is probably not far 
distant when it can no longer be counted as an English bird.'* Mr. 
Dresser (iv, 573) states that ** As a rule the raven is a shy, cautious 
bird, as crafty and clever amongst birds as the fox is amongst 
quadrupeds. . . Amongst the early Scandinavians," he adds, ** the 
raven was looked on as possessing wisdom to a peculiar extent ; and 
in the Sagas it is related that Odin possessed two ravens which 
traversed great distances, and, returning to their master, whispered 
into his ears the information they had gained during their journey." 

Bittern {Botaurus stellar is).— The Hon. Walter Rothschild in- 
forms me that an adult bittern was shot on the Reservoirs, in 
December, 1894. From Mr. Littleboy's register I gather that 
a nest with four eggs was taken at one of the reservoirs in 1849 
by the Rev. James Williams. Dresser (vi, 282) informs us that 
** it is now merely a rare straggler [to England] and no longer 
breeds here." Three of these rare birds have been obtained in 
this county which have never been recorded in our * Transactions.' 
One was brought to me alive some years since, wounded in the 
wing. It was shot near St. Albans. The other two were shot 
near a small pond close to the late Mr. Thrale's house at No-Man's- 
Land. Dresser (vi, 285) remarks of the bittern: ** When winged 
or wounded it is by no means an easy task to get hold of it ; for 
it defends itself with great pluck and determination, throwing 
itself back and using bill and claws as weapons of defence, and 
I have seen a dog get considerably the worst of it in an attack 
on a wounded bird." Mr. Seebohm (* British Birds,* vol. ii, p. 
502) says: *' There are about five-and- twenty species of bitterns, 
which are distributed throughout the world, except in the ex- 
treme north. Two species are European, both of which are very 
rare residents in the British Islands, and a third has repeatedly 
visited our islands from the American continent." This bird, 
from its habit of choosing solitary swamps and dismal morasses, 
is intimately associated in our minds with aU that is desolate 
and forsaken. 

The Teal {Querquedula erecca). — This little duck, Mr. Hartert 
says, was observed ** in flocks on the Reservoirs at the end of 
December and beginning of January." 

The Shoveller {Spatula clypeata\ Pochard {FuUgula ferina), 
and Tufted Duck (F. cristata). — These ducks, Mr. Hartert writes, 
** were shot on the Reservoirs at different times during the shooting- 
season." " The range of the shoveller," Dresser (vi, 498) states, 
** is very extensive .... Though more particularly a fresh-water 



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OBSERTEB IN HEBTS IN 1894. 151 

duck, still the shoveller is met with not unfrequently on the coast.** 
This bird nests at the Eeservoirs. The pochard, Dresser (vi, 603) 
says, "frequents both the sea-coast and inland waters, and obtains 
its food chiefly under the surface of the water. It is consequently 
an expert diver and able to remain below for some time, and to 
swallow its food when under water." The tufted duck is stated 
by Dresser (vi, 574) to be, " as a rule, only a winter visitant " in 
Great Britain. 

Golden-Eye {Clangula gJaucion), — Mr. Hartert says that the 
golden-eye " was seen in flocks on the Reservoirs at the end of 
December, 1894, and the beginning of January, 1895." Dresser 
(vi, 595) says of this bird that ** In Great Britain it is known only 
as a winter visitant. Mr. Grey says that it probably breeds 
occasionally in Sutherlandshire, as specimens have been obtained in 
that county as late as the end of May. It frequents the sea-coast, 
and appears to obtain its food chiefly under water, being a most 
expert diver, so much so that it will dive at the flash when fired at. 
When undisturbed it sits rather lightly on the surface of the water, 
but when alarmed can swim so low that the back is only just 
shown above the surface of the water." 

Woodcock {Scolopax rustteula), — '* Woodcocks were seen more 
often than during the last few years," so Mr. Hartert writes. This 
must be welcome news to those of us who have tasted woodcock 
(and who has not ?). It is to be hoped that some of these winter 
visitors may prolong their visits into the nesting-season, as they 
have previously done. Mr. Littleboy reported that woodcocks 
**have once or twice nested in Tring Park"; and from Dresser 
(vii, 623) we learn that in Germany ** it is supposed to make 
its first appearance on the so-called * Occuli ' Sunday (the third 
Sunday in Lent), which is usually termed Woodcock Sunday." 
I alluded in a former report to the habit this bird possesses of 
carrying its young, which it does from the wood to the swamp 
to feed, as well as in case of danger. 

This completes the report from the Tring district. 

Miscellaneous I^otes. 

Bebbbeast {JSrithacus ruhecula). — On the 28th of August I 
received two dead robins, picked up by Mr. Ashwell in his garden 
at The Priory, St. Albans. They were found about fifteen yards 
from each other. He had separated them only a short time before, 
and they must have succumbed to the injuries they received whilst 
engaged in mortal combat. They were both severely pecked about 
the head, the injuries being quite sufficient to account for their 
death. One bird had a much duller- coloured breast than the other. 
I have often been asked the question, ** Do the young robins kill 
the old ones?" Mrs. Brightwen (*Wild Nature Won by Kind- 
ness,* p. 194) observes: ** Every robin fights his neighbour all 
the year through, except when paired and busy with domestic 
duties." Yarrell (* British Birds,' vol. i, p. 306) tells us that after 
their annual moult, ** The old birds, then in renewed vigour, 



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152 H. LEWIS — ^NOTES OK BIRDS 

proceed to engage the young, and each lawn and thicket becomes 
a battle-field; but so far from the vulgar belief of the latter 
destroying the former being well founded, the young are almost 
invariably worsted, and possession remains with the victorious 
parents." 

Wood- Ween {PhyJloseopus sihilatrix), — ^Mr. Alan F. Grossman 
informs me that in May or June last year, whilst riding through 
Ashridge Park and across Berkhamsted Common, he noticed that 
the wood- wren ** was fairly plentiful, there being a bird singing 
in most of the clumps of beeches." 

Ween {Troglodytes parvulm). — On one occasion during a hard 
frost, when walking along a lane, I chanced to see a wren on the 
hedge-bank actively engaged, and I wondered how the little 
creature managed to exist during such cold weather. However, 
the bird soon found two or three larvae (they looked like wire- 
worms) which I noticed in its bill. I searched in vain myself 
for any. 

Starling (Stumus vulgaris), — Mrs. Kember, of Harpenden, on 
the 6th of Kovember, 1894, reported having seen ** not long since," 
near Harpenden, one of those wondrous gatherings of starlings 
which occasionally take place. 

C[jcKoo {Cuculus canorus), — ^From the reports and correspondence 
which have appeared both in the * Zoologist * and the * Field ' 
newspaper of last year, there can be no doubt that the cuckoo 
visited this country at an unusually early date. The lovely 
weather we experienced in March appears to have tempted that 
wonderful bird, ** a March cuckoo," to pay us a visit. 

Wild Duck {Anas boscas). — Immense flocks of birds, probably 
of different species, passed over St. Albans at different times during 
the month of December. Mr. Coles, Worley Street ; Mr. Gamer, 
Christ Church ; Mr. Pelley, and others, called my attention to the 
fact, and asked me if I had seen them. Amongst them I noticed 
wild duck passing over, and Mr. Coles did the same. 

Pochard {Fuligula ferina), — Mr. T. V. Roberts^ in a letter dated 
22nd January, 1894, says: **Last Saturday afternoon, when walking 
by the Colne below Hamper Mills, I saw four ducks on the water. 
They took to flight as I approached, three disappearing, the fourth 
flying heavily for a short distance. Overtaking, I got quite close 
to the last-mentioned bird, and found that it was a pochard. It 
was much distressed and had evidently been wounded, ^'o doubt 
its companions were of the same species." 

Puffin {Fratercula arctica), — Mr. Martin, a local taxidermist, 
showed a puffin to me which had been picked up alive in St. Albans 
on the It'^th of November. 

Albinism. — Mr. H. Sexton reports that just below Kidge Hill 
he observed on the 5th of October a blackbird {Turdus merula) 
with a white patch of feathers on its back. 

I have received reports of rare birds having been picked up 
alive or shot during the severe frost experienced at the beginning 
of this year, which must appear in the next annual report. 



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0B8EETBD IV HERT3 DT 1894. 



153 



The following is a list of dates on which the arrival and 
departure of some of our suniiner migrants and winter visitors 
have been reported : — 



Stthker Miobants. 



Spbcibs. 

Whbatbab 

{i!iaxicola oenanthi) 

KiGUTINOALB 

{DauHa$ luteinia) 



LOCALITT. 

Harpenden Eoad, 

St. Albans 

St. Albans „.. 

Newberries, Radlett 
Symonds Hyde, 

Hatfield 

Berkhamsted 

Harpenden 

Waiford 

Odsey, Ash well ^ 

St. Albans 

St. Albans 

St. Albans 



Whitbthroat .^ 

{Sylvia citurea) (Last seen) 
Blackcap 

{Sylvia atrieapiUa) 
Chipf-Chaff St. Albans 

{Phylloieoput ruftu) 



Datb. 

Sept. 3... 

April \0^ 

„ 10-. 

„ 16... 

„ 16. 

„ 17.. 

„ 17. 

„ 15. 
Sept. 15. 
April 29. 



Willow-Wrbn -.. 

{FhyUotcoput trochilu*) 

Sbdob-Warblbb - 

{Acrocepkalu* phragmitit) 

G&A8SHOPP BR- W ARBLB& 

{LoeuMtella navia) 



Yellow "Wagtail 

{Motaeilla Eaii) 

Trbb-Pipit 

(Anthu9 trivialis) 

Spotted Flycatcher.., 
{Muwicapa gi-iwla) 



(Last seen) 

Swallow 

{Hirundo rtutiea) 



Mar. 23.. 

Newberries, Radlett ,, 26.. 
Hitchin _ „ 26... 



Newberries, Radlett April 8.. 

St. Albans .« „ 8.. 

Rickmansworth ,, 11.. 

St. Albans May 6.. 



Obsbrtbr. 

.C. Dickinson. 
.Mrs. Hopkinson. 
.MissE.M.Lubbock. 

...T. Brown. 
-Mrs. E. Mawley. 
.J.J.Willis. 
..Mrs. Bishop. 
..H. G. Fordham. 
..H. L. 
...H. L. 
..H. L. 

...Arthur Lewis. 

...MissE.M.Lubbock. 

.J. E. Little. 

-MissE.M.Lubbock. 

„.H. L. 

...A. Sainsbury Verey. 

...H. L. 



Loud water, Rick 

mansworth 

Symonds Hyde, 

Hatfield ».» April 16. 

Harpenden _.-« May 6. 

St. Albans „.. „ 13. 

Rickmansworth April 11. 

Harpenden Road, 

St. Albans „ 20. 

St. Albans „ 8. 



Mar. 24...-T. Hope. 



(Last seen) 



Berkhamsted 

Newberries, Radlett 
Harpenden Road, 

St. Albans ^.... 

Odsey, Ash well..... 

Oaklands, St. Albans 

Odsey 

Harpenden 

Berkhamsted 

Watford. 

Hitchin . 

St. Albans ...„ „ 

Two Waters, Hemel 

Hempstead 

Ware 

Newberries, Radlett 

Odsey, Ashwell „. 

Symonds Hyde, 

Hatfield 

Berkhamsted ^ 



„ 20. 
May 16.. 

„ 18- 

„ 20.. 

„ 25.. 
Aug. 30. 
April 4. 

» 7. 

„ lU 

„ 12.. 

M 15.. 



„ 17. 

» 17. 

„ 19. 

„ 21. 

„ 24. 

Oct. 23., 



...T. Brown. 

...J. Lewis. 

...H. L. 

...A. Sainsbury Verey. 

...A. Dickinson. 
...H. L. 

...Mrs. E. Mawley. 
.-MissE.M.Lubbock. 

...Mrs. C. Dickinson. 
...H. G. Fordham. 
...H. L. 

...H. G. Fordham. 
...J. J. Willis. 
...Mrs. E. Mawley. 
- D. Little. 
...J. E. Little. 
.„F. Hibbert. 

.-T. Hope. 
...Arthur Lewis. 
...MissE.M.Lubbock. 
„.H. G. Fordham. 

-.T. Brown. 
-Mrs. E. Mawley. 



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154 



H. LEWIS — BIHD8 0B8EBYED IN 1891. 



Species. 
Swallow (Last seen" 

{Hirtmdo ruatica) ,, 
House- Martin 

{C/telidon urbica) (Last seen) 

Sand -Martin 

(Cottle riparia) 
Swift 

{Cypselm apiu) 

(Last seen) 

Nightjar ^ 

{Caprimulgus europaus) 

"Wryneck 

{Ij/nx torquilla) 



Cuckoo 

[Cueulus canontt) 



Turtle-Dote 

{Turtur communis) 
Landrail „„ 

{Crex pratenais) 



Redwing 

{Turdtt9 iliacus) 

Fieldfare 

{Turdu* pilatHs) 

Woodcock 

(Scolopax ru9ticula) 



Locality. 

, Ash well 

St. Albans 

Odsey, Ashwell 

Odsey, Ashwell ..„ 

St. Albans 

Ware 

St. Albans 

Odsey, Ashwell 

St. Albans 

Odsey, Ashwell 

High Down, Hitchin 

Harpenden Eoad, 

St Albans 

St. Albans 

Kickmans worth ... 

SteTenage (from 

newspaper) ...„««. 
Arkley, near Bamet 

BricketWood 

Newbenies, Radlett 

Watford 

St. Albans 

Berkhamsted 

Harpenden 

Symonds Hyde, 

Hatfield 

Hitchin „ 

Odsey, Ashwell 

Odsey, Ashwell 

Park Street 

King's Langley 



Date. Observer. 

Oct. 27.....H. G. Fordham. 

„ 28 Monckton \Vhit«. 

April 30_.H. G. Fordham. 
Oct. 3.....H. G. Fordham. 

,, 28„...A. Dickinson. 
April 17..... Arthur Lewis. 

May 6.....H. L. 

„ 10....H. G. Fordham. 
Aug. 25... H. L. 
Sept. 7.... H. G. Fordham. 
July 1 John Hopkinson. 



April 8 Mrs. C. Dickinson. 

„ 8....H. L 

, , 1 3 A.. Sainsbury Verey. 

Mar. 22«..Rev. — Ruddock. 
April 3 H. R. Potter. 

„ 7..... J. Bamforth. 

„ 7.....Miss E M.Lubbock. 

„ 8....D. Hill. 

„ 8.....Mr8. C. Dickinson. 

„ 8...»Mr8. E. Mawley. 

„ 8_J. J. Willis. 

„ 9_.T. Brown. 
„ ll.„..J. E. Little. 
„ 11.....H. G. Fordham. 
May 4.....H. G. Fordham. 

April 28.....T. Hope. 
„ 28_.T. Hope. 



Winter Visitobs. 

St. Albans Sept. 26-... A. Dickinson. 

St. Albans „ _ „ 17...H. L. 

St. Albans „ 23...„F. Dickinson. 



In conclusion allow me to thank those ladies and gjentlemen who 
have 80 kindly supplied me with observations, information, and 
records of various kinds, both for this paper as well as on former 
occasions. I am happy to inform our members that Mr. Alan 
Fairfax Grossman, of St. Cuthbert's, Berkhamsted, has consented 
to occupy the position I am now resigning as Kecorder of Aves. 
May I ask our members who have any observations on birds they 
may make, or information they may obtain of rare birds visiting 
our county, to forward the same to Mr. Grossman. 



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XX. 

NOTES ON BIRDS FREQUENTINa THE NEIGHBOURHOOD OF 
HERONSGATE, HERTS. 

By A. Saiksbuky Vekey, Memb. Brit. Ornithologists' XTnion. 

Head at Watford, 26/A March, 1895. 

The ways of birds are in many respects our ways. Acted upon 
by the same exteraal influences, swayed by the like impulses and 
emotions, belittled by frailties in common with ourselves, no sooner 
do we set foot within the borders of Birdland than we feel ourselves 
irresistibly attracted to the observation of its inhabitants. 

Troubles are to be met with in Birdland, yet how transient are 
they ! Hard enough are the times when frost and snow usurp the 
sway, but they are short, and when winter gives place to spring 
the only hard time for our birds is at an end. 

Frailties exist in Birdland. What could better exemplify this 
fact than the behaviour of a missel-thrush who came flying in hot 
haste to the tree under which I was standing one evening last 
summer, and then coursed madly round it, screaming to his utmost 
bent ? It was difficult at first to discover what his trouble was, 
but soon an explanation was afforded, for shortly another bird 
appeared, making her way towards him, slowly and wearily. No 
rest for her, however, for, seeing her, he at once resumed his 
journey, leaving her to follow him as best she could. And the 
explanation seemed to be that they had been spending the day 
far from their usual resting-place and stUl had some distance to 
go, and that she, tired as she was, did not make sufficient haste 
to please him. 

And again, I can almost hear even now the querulous screeching 
of an Ul-conditioned barn-owl who flew across the path which 
I was pursuing in the dusk oi evening, also last summer, making 
the air resonant with his cries. I stopped to watch him as he took 
his flight towards some hiQy ground, crested by a wood. But he 
had not gone far when an answering cry came from the direction of 
the wood, and soon another owl appeared in sight ; then he abruptly 
turned round, and, still screaming as loudly as ever, retraced his 
flight, taking good care, however, to keep some considerable dis- 
tance from his partner. It seemed evident that something had 
gone wrong in the house of the owls, and the distempered bird had 
come out to put it right. It could not have been a matter of 
selecting a mate, for it was too late in the season. 

Deeds of emprise are performed in Birdland. Observe the 
sparrows as they fight promiscuously, fluttering about on the 
ground. It might appear that they are only engaged in a game 
of **peck who peck can," but there is method in the mad conflict, 
for they are obeying one of the laws of Nature. Of course there 
is a lady in the case, and now, in a momentary cessation of hos- 
tilities', she creeps towards the one most favoured in the combat| 



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156 A. 8. VERET — ^NOTES ON BIRBS 

encouraging him to further valour. Now retiring, the battle again 
rages, until at length the victor is proclaimed, the award is made, 
and the vanquished fly off, apparently as self-satisfied as sparrows 
can be. And the reason for the battle was, as I have said, the 
observance of one of Nature's laws, — the selection and survival 
of the fittest. 

Courtship is to be studied in Birdland. Out in the field, and 
perched upon a rail-fence, a rook with tail expanded is propelling 
himself painfully to and fro, and as now and again he gives vent 
to low and laboured groans, one might imagine him to be in the 
throes of immediate dissolution. Yet there is meaning in his 
behaviour : he is striving to attain an object ; for, ludicrous as it 
aU appears to us, grace and attraction are evinced in every antic, 
poetry and music also in those weird utterances, passing sweet and 
full of import to the dusky lady sitting arbitrative upon his fate. 
And soon his reward comes to him ; love, the gauge thrown down, 
and love as quickly taken up again. Then away he flies with his 
bride to the tree top whereon his nest will be rudely swayed, and 
for cradle-song the wild, hard wind of spring will shriek a lullaby, 
fit rearing-place for his hardy brood. 

And pathos is to be met with in Birdland. Yearly, when I am 
gathering strawberries in my garden, just in front of me a fragile 
feathered form flutters timorously from her nest under one of the 
plants, and then, scarcely out of reach, flits around me on the 
ground, as, with palpitating breast and plaintive cry, she upturns 
her eyes beseechingly to mine, hoping, yet gravely doubting, that 
the shrine of her affections may escape unravished. 

Birdland, in these and many other interesting aspects, may be 
profitably studied at Heron sgate, near Rickmansworth. The fol- 
lowing are a few observations which I have made on the habits of 
some of the more familiar birds which frequent this neighbourhood. 

The Whitethroat {Sylvia cinerea), — I was very much interested 
last summer in the behaviour of a whitethroat, and could but 
regard it as an instance of protective mimicry. I had found her 
nest with eggs, and stooped over it, watching the bird as it glided 
off into the surrounding brambles. Then, and all at once, she 
adopted the motions of a dormouse, and so admirably did she play 
the rdle that — aided, as naturally she was, by the dense brush — 
had I not known it to be the bird, it would have been difficult 
indeed to determine it to be anything but a mouse. Never for 
a moment still, but gliding swiftly along the branches and twigs 
after the manner of the animal, she made no use whatever of her 
wings, which were kept closely pressed to the body, but, when 
arrived at the end of one twig, she would spring to another in a 
perfectly mouse-like way. Very often she was quite close to me, 
yet her movements were so rapid and confusing to the eye, and 
the part she had elected to play was so cleverly perform^, that 
at any other time the deception might well have been complete. 

The Grasshopper- Warbler {Locuatella navt'a). — The grasshopper- 
warbler, a distant relative of the Dartford warbler of our southern 



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FEEQUENTINe HEBONSOATB, HERTS. 157 

heaths, and equally gorse -loving in its habits, seems, however, to 
prefer the stunted oaks and solitary hawthorn bushes there to be 
met with from which to pour forth its curious song. There is 
no other bird coming under my observation that yields itself more 
completely to the tender passion. When standing on one side 
of a bush, I have watched a pair of these birds engaged in 
their love-passages on the other side, and quite indifferent 
to my proximity; the male singing all the while to his mate, 
and imparting to his wings that peculiar tremulous movement 
characteristic of the bird. And it is very interesting when, a 
little later in the season, one has again had the good fortune to 
trace the song to its source, to mark the artifice of the little bird. 
Even when this has been accomplished, however, it is by no means 
easy to discover the bird, for love being a thing of the past, it 
becomes more wary. But presently, guided by the upturned bead- 
like eyes, it is discovered crouching low upon a fork near the 
ground, its olivaceous plumage exactly resembling the surroundings. 
After watching one for a time, I have made a feint to look aside, 
when, instantly, the bird dropped like a stone to the ground, and 
then, threading its way through the rank grass in a mouse-like 
manner, it emerj^ed at a point furthest from danger, and, flying 
off to another bush, recommenced its song. If there be any meaning 
in the song of a bird, and, indeed, I believe there is a very great 
deal, its notes were then, undoubtedly, those of self-approval and 
congratulation that the cunning displayed had so successfully 
outwitted the intruder. 

The Hedge- Spareow {Accentor moduletris). — A curious instance 
of receptivity in a bird came to my notice a year or two ago. One 
morning — I think it was early in March — I was surprised to hear, 
quite close to me, the trill uttered by the tree-pipit when flying 
upward from its perch on the topmost branch of a tree. IJpon 
looking about for the cause, I saw a hedge-sparrow sitting upon 
a shed and singing these notes. Much interested, I waited to hear 
if the bird had also acquired the song of the pipit when in 
downward flight, but that apparently formed no part of its 
repertoire. 

The Goldfinch ( Chrysomitris elegans). — Alone among the finches, 
unless, indeed, the allied species the siskin {Chrysomitris spintts) 
affects the same habit, the goldfinch feeds its young with par- 
tially-digested food from its crop. And, from very careful study 
of the bird, I am induced to think that the food consists solely 
of various seeds, in this respect differing from that of the young of 
other finches, the parent birds in their case supplying them with 
a large proportion of insect-food. If it be really a fact that seeds 
only are fed to its young by a goldfinch, the reason of this 
apparently abnormal method of administering the food becomes 
easily understood, because the dry hard seeds would, necessarily, 
require some degree of preparation before being submitted to the 
feeble digestive powers of the young birds. 

The Chappinch {Fringilla Calebs), — An interesting nest of the 



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158 A. 8. VEKET — ^irOTES OK BIEDS 

chaffinch was found by a hedger last summer, and Mr. Hughes, of 
The Swillet, called my attention to it. A hollow piece of stone- 
ware had been thrown into a hedge, and, lodging in the centre, 
the birds had made choice of it as a foundation for their nest. 
The man carried the nest in to show Mr. Hughes, and, after he 
had replaced it, the birds took to it as before. The circumstance 
suggests the thought that the chaffinches may have considered 
that the safety of their nest would be better assured by making 
the choice they did, particularly as the hedge was close to a 
highway and also to a field-path ; but, if so, their hopes were 
doomed to disappointment, for, after the young were hatched, 
they were discovered by the marauding and too evident boy, and, 
alas ! destroyed. 

The Bullfinch {Pyrrhula europaa). — Hard words are often 
spoken against the bullfinch, and if the matter rested there, 
** Bullie " would not be ruffled by so much as a feather. Unfortu- 
nately, however, powder and shot are too often resorted to by 
way of settlement. Nevertheless a little fact speaks for itself. 
In the early part of last spring I noticed that the bullfinches were 
exceedingly busy among the gooseberry-bushes in my garden, yet 
there was afterwards a magnificent crop of fruit, so good, indeed, 
as to excite the admiration of my neighbours, many of whom came 
to see it. 

It is very amusing to watch my bullfinches of a winter's evening. 
One portion of the hedge surrounding the garden terminates 
in a bushy growth of Salix capreea, and there nightly at 
dusk the birds assemble before betaking themselves to a wood 
adjacent, where apparently they roost at night. I can only suppose 
that it is their time for relaxation after the serious business of 
the day, and that, so met together, the news current in Birdland 
is fully discussed, and many indeed and anxious must be the 
forecasts of the weather, a very weighty subject with these 
children of the wild, and perhaps the only one that ever seriously 
obscures the horizon of their lives. The bullfinch is exceedingly 
partial to the berries of the privet when mellowed by frost, and 
it also eats those of the woody nightshade {Solatium dulcamara), 

Yellow-Hammer {Emheriza citrinella). — The yellow-hammer is 
very partial to strawberry-plants as nesting-sites in my garden. 
The nest is placed close to the roots of the plants and is well 
concealed by the foliage, and I usually have one, and frequently 
more, every season. 1 once found a nest of this species placed 
in an ash sapling some five or six feet from the ground. 

Thk Rook {Corvus frugilegus), — The term ^'frugilegm^^ — fruit- 
gatherer — applied to the rook, seems at first sight to be somewhat 
undeserved, and I have seen it criticized and even ridiculed in print. 
Nevertheless the bestowal of the epithet is evidence of very 
correct observation of the habits of the rook on the part of its 
sponsor. I myself have seen it feasting upon cherries, curiously 
enough preferring them before they were ripe. Notwithstanding 
this, such instances are so infrequent as to appear to be merely 



Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



FREQX7ENTIN0 HEBONSGATE, HEBTS. 159 

aberrant behaviour on the part of the rook, for it is pre- 
eminently and inseparably a bird of the soil, and one to which 
a^cnlture owes much. Before the frost set in, and when the 
plough was busily at work, a vast assemblage of rooks collected 
in the fields near here, and I was much impressed by the important 
help the friendly birds were rendering to the farmer by freeing 
the ground of harmful grubs. The flock, at a low computation, 
must have numbered some 500 or 600 individuals, and if we 
estimate the probable amount of food consumed by each at only 
half-a-pint a day — and the bird has a very voracious appetite — 
it becomes evident that the rook is a factor of very considerable 
importance in the economics of agriculture. So that, under all 
the circumstances, and although the epithet *^frugilegm " is not 
entirely undeserved, I have come to think that a better term 
might and should be devised for our friend the rook ; because 
it is very invidious thus to record the fact of his occasional 
deviations from an ordinarily strict rule of conduct, and truly 
ungracious to fasten this name upon him, overlooking his claim 
to acknowledgment for good honest services rendered, and keeping 
him in our remembrance only as the ** fruit-gatherer." 

The Lesser Spotted Woodpecker {Dendrocapus minor), — This 
species is by far the commonest of the three woodpeckers at 
Heronsgate. It is very difficult to approach, and, although 
frequently heard, is not so often to be seen, but this is sometimes 
to be done by creeping up to the tree. When disturbed it may 
be observed flying off to the wood. It seems to have a great 
partiality for oaks on the outskirts of woods, its preference for 
those trees being duo probably to the fact that the rough bark 
being full of holes and crevices affords a better return in insect- 
food than is the case with other trees having smooth bark. 

The Gkeen Woodpecker (Gecinus viridia), — This species occurs 
occasionally on the highest ground where the soil is light and 
sandy, attracted no doubt by the ants' nests, the ** eggs" in which 
form a not inconsiderable part of this woodpecker's diet. Some 
fragments of the eggs of this species were brought to me for 
determination last summer, the parent bird having been seen 
by the ubiquitous boy to enter a hole in a birch tree, whereupon 
he climbed up and found the nest. 

The Hen- Harrier {Circus cyan&us), — Hill, the keeper of the 
shooting about here, tells me that he often sees a strange hawk, 
but that it is too wary for him to shoot it. From his description, 
** blue on the back," " with white feathers above the tail," the bird 
seems pretty clearly referable to the hen-harrier ( Circus cyaneus). 
It may be, of course, although less probably, Montagu's harrier 
{Circus cineraceus)y but that could only be determined with the 
bird in hand — not that I am at all desirous of doing so. The 
presence of a few individuals of our rarer species of hawks might 
well be encouraged, for by reason of their extreme scarcity they 
could never appreciably interfere with the preservation of game, 
and a little protection afforded them would not seriously conflict 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



160 BIBDS FREQUENTING HEBONSeATE. 

with any existing interests. Still there is much to be said for the 
gamekeeper. A servant only, it is true, his position is neTertheless 
an exceedingly responsible, anxious, and arduous one, and, with 
every man's hand against him, too often a very dangerous one. 
'Not so very long ago, an old friend of mine was cruelly and 
cowardly assailed in the woods round here, and but for assistance 
opportunely arriving, would in all probability have been very 
seriously injured. I am glad to find that many keepers take 
an interest in bird-life, destroying only those birds which are 
destructive to their charges, and I gladly avail myself of this 
opportunity to acknowledge their readiness at all times to converse 
upon wild nature. Keeper Hill also informs me that a buzzard 
{BuUo vulgaris) has made its home in our woods, and that he 
frequently meets with the bird. 

The Spaerow-Hawk {Accipiter nisus) — Keeper Hill related to 
me an instance of solicitude in a domestic hen. He told me that 
as he was one day walking beside a hedge his attention was 
attracted by the cries of a hen. Upon looking through the hedge, 
he saw the hen in the midst of her chickens, struggling with 
something on the ground, which he at first supposed to be a stoat, 
but which afterwards proved to be a sparrow-hawk. Three times 
he observed the mother fly at the hawk, rolling it over on the 
ground as it attempted to escape with one of the chicks in its 
talons. At length, however, it succeeded in shaking off the hen, 
and rose in the air, but only to fall at once by the keeper's gun. 



Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



XXI. 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS TAKEN AT THE ORANGE, 
ST. ALBANS, DURING THE YEAR 1894. 

By John HopxiNsoir, F.L.S., F.G.S., F.R.Met.Soc. 

Read at Watford, 23rrf April, 1895. 

Longitude of Station, 0° 20' 7" W. ; Latitude, 51^ 45' 9" N". 
Cistern of barometer 388 feet, ground-level at thermometer-screen 
380 feet, and at rain-gauge 379 feet, above Ordnance Datum. 
Thermometers (in Stevenson screen) 4 feet, and top of rain-gauge 
1 foot, above the ground. Observations taken at 9 a.m. 

The accompanjring tables (pp. 162, 163) give the monthly means, 
etc., of the daily observations in 1894, and the following is the 
usual summary for the seasons : — 

Means for the Seasons feom Dec. 1893 to Nov. 1894. 



' 1893^94. P"^^- 


Temperature. 


«^»|- Cloud. 


Force 

of 
Wind. 


RainfalL 
Total. Days. 


Winter .... 
; Spring „.,. 

Summer 

1 Autumn..... 


ins. 
29 993 

29958 
29-971 
30033 




38s II'^ 

47-S 16-8 

588 , is-i 

490 j 11-3 


7o 


0-10 

67 

6-4 
6 6 
70 


0-12 
2-1 
17 

1*5 
1-5 


ins. 
6-85 
696 
8-50 

10 '2 1 


57 
44 
55 
54 



In the next table the chief results, monthly and annual, are 
compared with the means for the ten years 1877-86 at Watford. 

DiFFEEENCB IN 1894 FROM MeANS OF 1877-86 AT WaTFORD. 



Months. 


Pressure. 


Temperature. 








Force 


Rainfall. 


Mean. 


Daily 
Rang& 


Hami- 
dity. 


Cloud.' of 
1 Wind. 


Total. 


Days. 


January.— 
February 
March .... 

April 

May _..... 

June 

July 

August ..„ 
September 
October .... 
November 
December 


in. 

—•133 
+ 096 
--025 
- --024 
+ 007 
+•078 
—•032 
+•015 

+•079 




-fO'I 

-4-0-I 
--27 
+3-6 

""^'? 
—1-6 

— 0-2 

—2*5 

-31 
+05 
+30 
+29 


- 
- 




hi -6 
-1-8 
-22 

-1*2 

-2*3 
-2-3 
-1*5 
-2-4 
-3*9 

'XI 

-o-i 


H 


7o 

- 2 

- 3 

- 2 

- 2 

- I 

- I 


0-10 

+07 
—10 
— 09 
4-07 
■fo'i 

— O'l 

+0-5 
-04 
+07 

+1*2 

--0-3 

+0-2 


0-12 

+•3 
+•6 

— •3 

+:? 

— I 

— '2 
— '2 

-i 


in. 
— o-oi 

-073 
+070 
—0*19 

—0-92 
+0*25 
+ri6 

+179 
-0-54 


+ 7 

— I 

4- I 
+ I 

+"5 


Year .... 


+•038 


+0-2 


— 08 


+ 1 


- 


— I 


+1-24 


+28 



VOL. VIII. — PART VI. 



12 



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162 



J. HOPKmSON — ^METEOBOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 



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TAKEN AT OT. ALBANS IN 1894. 



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Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



164 J. HOPHNSOir — ^METEOEOLOQICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The year 1894 was rather warm, the excess of temperature 
occurring in the early part of spring and towards the close of the 
year, the summer being rather cold. The mean daily range of 
temperature was less than usual, and although the low minimum 
of 10^-9 occurred in January, the absolute range was not great, the 
maximum not exceeding 81°*6. The temperature was considerably 
above the average in March, April, November, and December, and 
considerably below it in May, August, and September. The mean 
pressure of the atmosphere was above the average of the ten years 
1877-86 at Watford. The lowest pressures recorded at 9 a.m. were 
29*150 ins. on 14th November and 29* 156 ins. on 13th March, and 
the highest was 30*642 ins. on 27th December, giving a range 
of 1-4 92 in. The rainfall was a little above the average of the 
ten years 1877-86, and much above a long-period average. The 
number of wet days was much greater than usual. August, 
October, and November were very wet months; February, June, 
and September were rather dry. The air was a little more humid 
than usual. The prevailing direction of the wind was from south, 
through south-west to west. 

In the winter of 1893-94 (December to February) the mean 
pressure of the atmosphere was about the average, the mean 
temperature a little above the average, with a considerable mean 
daily range, the air was of average humidity, the sky a little 
brighter tiian usual, and the rainfall about the average, though 
there was an unusually large number of wet days. There was only 
one cold period of considerable duration, the twelve days from 30th 
December to 10th January. There were ten days in succession in 
December (18th to 27th), thirteen in January (11th to 23rd), and 
twelve in February (2nd to 1 3th) without a single night on which 
the temperature of the air fell below freezing point. 

In the spring (March to May) the mean pressure of the atmo- 
sphere was rather high, the mean temperature was high with 
about an average mean daily range, the air was rather humid, 
the sky of average brightness, and the rainfall rather heavy, but 
on about the usual number of days. The high mean temperature 
was due more to the warmth of the days than of the nights, 
the mean daily range being considerable. Owing to the warmth 
and moisture the weather was very favourable to vegetation. 

In the summer (June to August) the pressure of the atmosphere 
was again rather high, the mean temperature was low, except in 
July, when it was about the average, the daily range of temperature 
was small, the air rather humid, the sky of average brightness, 
and the rainfall rather heavy and on an unusually large number 
of days. While very favourable to vegetation during the early 
part of the summer, the weather was disappointing towards the 
end, there being very few fine days together to favour hay-making. 

In the autumn (September to November) the pressure of the 
atmosphere was very high, the mean temperature was about the 
average, the daily range of temperature was small, the air rather 
humid, the sky rather cloudy, and the rainfall excessive and 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



TAKEN AT ST. ALBANS IN 1894. 



165 



very frequent. This last is the chief feature of the autumn, the 
excess in the rainfall being an inch and a half above the average of 
the ten years 1877-86 at Watford, and two and a quarter inches 
above the average of the seven years 1887-93 at St. Albans. 

The difference between these seasons and the means of the seasons 
for 1877-86 at Watford, is shown in the following table : — 

DiFFEEENCE IN 1893-94 FROM Means OF 1877-86 AT Watford. 



Seasons, 
1893-94. 




1 


Temperature. 


Humi- 
dity. 


Cloud, 


Force 

of 
Wind. 


Bainfall. | 


Pressure. , 

i 


Mean. 


Daily 
Range. 


0-10. 


Total. 


Days. 


Winter .... 
Spring ..... 
Summer..... 
Autumn..... 


- 


in. 

-009 

-019 

-•020 

1-096 




— 1-2 
+01 




-j-i-6 

-fo*4 
—21 
—2-6 


7o 

4- I 
-- I 

4- 1 


-08 


0-12 
+■4 
-•3 
— I 

-•3 


ins. 
—0-96 
+0-51 

+0-49 
+152 


+ 6 
-- 2 

--12 
+ 6 



Notes on the Months. 

January. — Rather warm, with a considerable daily range of 
temperature, an atmosphere of average humidity and rather low 
pressure, a bright sky, and a considerable rainfall on a large 
number of days. Coldest day 6th, mean 19^*3 ; warmest day 
12th, mean 44°-7. Min. below 32° on 12 days, below 22*=^ on 5 
(6th to 9th), below 12° on one day (6th) ; max. above 42° on 21 
days (below 32° on 6). The first ten days were very cold, having 
a mean temperature of only 27°*3 (9 a.m. 27°*3, min. 21°-7, max. 
32°'8) ; the 23rd and 24th also were rather cold days (mean 
33°* 9) ; the rest of the month was warm. Rain (or snow) fell 
every day from 8th to 20th (13 days), and the only two suc- 
cessive days without either were the 6th and 7th. 

February. — Rather warm, with a considerable daily range of 
temperature, an atmosphere of average humidity and rather high 
pressure, a bright sky, and a rather small rainfall on about an 
average number of days. Coldest day 19th, mean 29°*9; warmest 
day 7th, mean 49°*6. Min. below 32° on 9 days ; max. above 42° 
on 22 days, above 52° on 4 (6th, 7th, 26th, and 27th). The thirteen 
days from the 1 2th to the 24th were colder than the rest of the 
month ; the five days 1 9th to 23rd were very cold, having a mean 
temperature of only 30°-7 (9 a.m. 28°*3, min. 24°-l, max. 39°-7). 
The rainfall during the last half of the month was twice as much 
as it was during the first half. 

March. — Very warm, with a large daily range of temperature, 
a dry atmosphere of rather high pressure, a very bright sky, and 
a rather heavy rainfall, but on an average number of days Coldest 
day 3rd, mean 38° 2 ; warmest day 3l8t, mean 53°*2. Min. below 
32° on 4 days (3rd, 6th, l7th, and 18th); max. above 62° on 13 
days, above 62° on 3 (27th, 30th, and 31st). The last seven days 
were much the warmest ; there wfis no really cold period, and on 



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166 J. H0PKIK80N — METEOBOLOGICAL 0BSEEVATI0N8 

only four nights was the minimum below 32° ; but the temperature 
was very variable, especially during the drought of 16th to 30th; 
thus at 9 a.m. it was on 19th 37°-5, and on 20th 46°*9 ; on 24th 
37°-7, and on 25th 50°-8; on 29th 39°-0, and on 30th 48°-8. Ko 
rain fell from 16th to 30th, there being thus an absolute drought of 
fifteen days ; on the other hand the rainfall for the ^'ve days 11 th 
to 15th was an inch and a half, nearly all, however, falling on 
12th and 14th. 

April. — Very warm, especially during the first half of the 
month, with a considerable daily range of temperature, a humid 
atmosphere of rather high pressure, a rather cloudy sky, and 
about the average rainfall on the usual number of days. Coldest 
days 2l8t, mean 43°*6, and 22nd, mean 43°*5 ; warmest day 8th, 
mean 57°-2. Min. below 42° on 14 days; max. above 52° on 
26 days, above 62° on 8 (1st, 3rd, 7th to 11th, and 29th). For 
the first 13 days in the month only 0*15 inch of rain fell, on three 
days ; but rain fell every day from 14th to 18th and from 23rd 
to 30th, none falling for the 4 days 19th to 22nd. A partial 
drought of 30 days, with 0*26 inches of rain, terminated on 13th. 
The maximum temperature recorded has but slightly been exceeded 
during the previous seven years ; the minimum has been 9 degrees 
lower during that period. 

May. — A cold month, being about half a degree colder than 
April, with a small daily range of temperature, a rather humid 
atmosphere of about average pressure, a sky of ordinary brightness, 
and an average rainfall on the usual number of days. Coldest day 
20th, mean 42°*4 ; warmest day 16th, mean 59°-8. Min. below 
42° on 20 days; max. above 52° on 28 days, above 62° on 6 (14th 
to 17th, 24th, and 25th). On the first eight days only 006 inch 
of rain fell, on two days ; between 9th and 15th 0*80 inch fell, and 
between 21st and 31st 155 inch; none falling on the &\e days 
4th to 8th nor on the five days 16th to 20th. There was a slight 
fall of snow on 20th, and on the uight of 21st-22nd a sharp ground- 
frost, which did much damage to young fruit and vegetation 
generally, potatoes, gooseberries and currants, and the blossoms 
of the earlier strawberries, specially suffering. 

June. — A rather cold month, with a small daily range of tempera- 
ture, a rather humid atmosphere of considerable pressure, a sky of 
average brightness, and a small rainfall on about the usual number 
of days. Coldest day 6th, mean 49°"4; warmest day 31st, mean 
67°-0. Min. below 52° on 26 days; max. above 62° on 18 days, 
above 72° on 3 (28th, 29th, and 30th). The month may be divided 
into a cold and wet, and a warm and dry period, all the rain 
falling during the first 20 days, the mean temperature of which 
period was 54°-9 (9 a.m. 55°^, min. 48°-l, max. 6l°-5); while 
the last ten days — the rainless period — had a mean temperature 
of 6()°-4 (9 a.m. 60° 2, min. 50°-5, max. 70°-6). The highest 
temperature during the wet period was 67°*7 : this was exceeded 
every day but one during the dry period, and on each of the last 
three days the maximum exceeded 76°. 



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TAKEIf AT ST. ALBANS IN 1894. 167 

July. — Of average temperature, with a rather large daily range, 
an atmosphere of averajre humidity and rather low pressure, a 
rather cloudy sky, and about the average rainfall, but on a large 
number of days. Coldest day 23rd, mean 56°-2 ; warmest day Ist, 
mean 69°-7. Min. below 52° on 8 days; max. above 62° every 
day but one (23rd), above 72° on 9 days. The first week and the 
last week were very warm, the mean temperature of the first seven 
days being 6o°-8, and that of the last seven days 62°-9, while the 
intermediate period of seventeen days had a mean temperature of 
only 58°*4. An absolute drought of 15 days terminated on 5th, 
after which rain fell on nineteen consecutive days, 6th to 24th, 
to the amount of 2 J inches. The only other fall of rain during 
the month was 0*28 inch on the 29th. There was a thunderstorm 
on the evening of the 6th, and another on the afternoon of the 
14th, when nearly a quarter of an inch of rain fell in half an hour 
(2 to 2.30). A double rainbow was observed on the 7th, lasting 
from about 7.45 to 8 p.m. As usual, the colours in the larger arc 
were fainter than in the smaller one, and in reversed succession. 
On the 29th, between 1.55 and 2 p.m., Miss E. A. Ormerod 
observed at Torrington House, St. Albans, ** a mass of very much 
broken cloud behaving most peculiarly. . . The chief part was 
floating from east to west, but several straggling masses at the 
highest point, or pieces of neighbouring cloud, became detached, 
or rather turned back in the contrary direction, and the two bodies, 
or fragments of clouds, crossed each other. In about a minute the 
air in the valley was full of dust, the wind bringing it up, with 
a quantity of smoke also, and by about two o'clock the curling cloud 
was dispersed. It did not fall as rain, nor did it float on, but 
appeared as if it were simply blown to pieces." "While Miss 
Ormerod was making these observations in the valley, a miniature 
whirlwind was observed on the hill above, at The Grange, the 
air being suddenly filled with particles of dust whirling rapidly 
round and round. At about the same time there were thunder- 
storms, with heavy rain, in several parts of the Midland counties. 

AuGFST. — A rather cold month, with a very small daily range 
of temperature, an atmosphere of average humidity and pressure, 
a rather bright sky, and a very heavy rainfall on a large number 
of days. Coldest day l7th, mean 53°-7 ; warmest day 14th, mean 
64°'7. Min. below 52° on 14 days; max. above 62° on 26 days, 
above 72° on 3 (14th, 26th, and 31st). All the rain in the month 
fell during the first twenty- five days, and only four of these (6th, 
14th, 17th, and 20th) were without rain. On the 23rd 0*77 inch 
fell, and on the 24th 1 '42 inch, giving over two inches in the two 
days. It is entirely due to this excessive fall that the month was 
a wet one. 

Septembeb. — A cold month, with a very small daily range of 
temperature, an atmosphere of average humidity and pressure, 
a cloudy sky, and a rather small rainfall on about the usual 
number of days. Coldest day 29th, mean 46°*5 ; warmest day 
1st, mean 58°-8. Min. below 42° on 5 days ; max. above 52° 



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168 J. HOPKINSON — METEOROLOGICAL 0BSEBVATI0W8. 

every day, above 62° on 7 days. Raiii fell every day from 3rd 
to 9th (0-75 inch), and every day from 2l8t to 26th (0'98 inch), 
also on 15th and 16th (0-15 inch). 

October.— A rather warm month, with a very small daily range 
of temperature, an atmosphere of average humidity and pressure, 
a very cloudy sky, and a heavy rainfall on a large number of days. 
Coldest day 22nd, mean 39°-4 ; warmest day 26th, mean 53°-8. 
Min. below 42° on 10 days; max. above 52° on 22 days, the nine 
days on which it did not exceed 52° being 14th to 22nd, a cold 
period having a mean temperature of 44°'0 (9 a.m. 43°*5, min. 
39°- 5, max. 48°- 9). The nights were much warmer than usual 
and the days rather colder. A few flakes of snow fell on the 23rd, 
and from that day to the end of the month rain fell daily, the total 
fall for the last nine days being 2*81 inches, leaving only 0-71 inch 
for the rest of the month. 

November. — Very warm, with about an average daily range of 
temperature, an atmosphere of average humidity and considerable 
pressure, a rather bright sky, and a very heavy rainfall, but on the 
usual number of days. Coldest day 23rd, mean 36°- 1 ; warmest 
day 1st, mean 56°-2. Min. below 42° on 24 days, below 32° ol 
one day (23rd); max. above 52° on 9 days, above 62° on one 
day (Ist). The first five days were very warm, having a mean 
temperature of 54°-8 (9 a.m. 54°-9, min. 50°-9, max. 58°-5). The 
rainfall on the five days 10th to 14th was 3*52 inches, and on the 
eight days 7th to 14th 4*23 inches, leaving only 0*58 inch for the 
rest of the month. An account of the floods in Hertfordshin 
to which this heavy rain gave rise, was given at the previout 
meeting of the Society (see p. 141). During the last ten dayj 
the fall was only 0*01 inch, on the 23rd, due to condensed fog 
rather than actusd rain. 

December. — Another warm month, with an average daily range 
of temperature, an atmosphere of average humidity and considerable 
pressure, a rather cloudy sky, and a rather small rainfall, but on 
a considerable number of days. Coldest day 31st, mean 32°*4; 
warmest day 14th, mean 48°*4. Min. below 32° on 10 days; 
max. above 42° on 27 days. During the nine days 13th to 21st 
1-47 inch of rain fell, leaving only 0*62 inch for the rest of the 
month. The large number of days (20) on which an overcast sky is 
recorded is due in great measure to the prevalence of fog in the 
mominffs. 



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Trans. Herts Nat. Hist. Soc., Vol. VIII, Plats IX. 






Ancient Stone Implements. 

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XXII. 

ANNIVERSARY ADDRESS. 

THE STONE AGE IN HERTFORDSHIRE. 

By SiE John Evans, K.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., Sc.D., Treas.R.S., 

V.P.S.A., etc., Vice-President of the Society. 

Delivered at the Annual Meeting, 26th February , 1895, at Watford, 

PLATES IX-XIV. 

Ladibs and Gentlemen, — 

I am sure that aU who are present this evening, at the twentieth 
Anniversary Meeting of our Society, sincerely regret the absence 
of our President, especially as he is away from us on account 
of ill-health ; but of all who regret his absence I do not think 
that there is anyone who does so more sincerely than I do. The 
reason why I am now addressing you is that about ten days ago 
our Secretary, Mr. Hopkinson, called upon me and pathetically 
appealed to me to help the Society out of a difficulty. I suggested 
that as on this occasion a new President was to be elected, he 
might be willing to anticipate the Address which he would have 
to give in twelve months* time. I found, however, that Mr. 
Henry Seebohm had already been approached on the subject, but 
had more work on hand than would allow him to prepare an 
Address, and out of sheer compassion for our Honorary Secretary 
I agreed to deliver the Ajiniversary Address in the place of our 
President, Mr. Stradling. 

The subject which I have selected is ** The Stone Age in Hert- 
fordshire." But before I proceed to discuss this subject I wish 
to congratulate the Society on having completed its twenty years 
of existence. I was present when the Society was inaugurated; 
I had the honour of being its first President ; I have watched over 
its growth and prosperity during the last twenty years ; and I am 
glad to think that at the end of this year it will have attained its 
majority. The Society is in a very favourable condition compared 
with that of a great many of the local societies which are spread 
over the length and breadth of the land, and I think that our 
* Transactions ' contain as valuable papers as any that are published 
by other local societies. They are admirably edited by our Honorary 
Editor, Mr. Hopkinson, and I am sure that without his aid the 
Society would on more occasions than one have found itself in 
circumstances of great difficulty. 

VOL. Vin. — PABT VII. 13 



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170 Snt JOHN ETANS — THE STONE AGE 

I believe that duriDg the past year there has been no event in 
the proceedings of the Society of sufficient importance to require 
mention by me, and I will now, therefore, address a few words 
to you on the subject of the Stone Age in Hertfordshire, — and the 
consideration of the Stone Age in Hertfordshire involves that of 
the Stone Age in many other parts of the world. 

The last time that I had the honour of addressing the Society, 
about fifteen months ago, I spoke with regard to the Bronze Age, 
and I then pointed out that the history and progress of human 
civilization had been divided into three great periods, namely the 
Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age. There was a 
period during which mankind was entirely unacquainted with the 
use of metals, and to that period the name of the Stone Age has 
been given, inasmuch as for those ordinary purposes to which 
metal is now applied, stone implements were used instead of those 
of metal. But after a time it was found that bronze, a metal 
consisting of a mixture of copper and tin, the origin of the 
manufacture of which was probably due to the previous use of 
copper only, was more durable and more effective for tools 
than stone, though stone implements continued in use during the 
Bronze Period for certain purposes, especially for pointing arrows, 
which were readily lost, and of which it was therefore desirable 
that the intrinsic value should be but small. 

The Bronze Age was succeeded by the Iron Age, and it is known 
that at all events for three or four centuries before our era iron was 
in use among the Gaulish, and therefore probably among the British, 
tribes. When I last addressed you I suggested that bronze came 
into use in this country about 1,000 or 1,200 years B.C., but I added 
that before that time there must have been a lengthened period 
during which stone alone was the material in use for cutting-instru- 
ments. The period which immediately preceded the Bronze Age was 
characterized by tools and weapons of a fairly civilized kind, that 
is to say their edges were in many cases ground, and as much care 
was taken in fashioning them as if they had been made of metal. 
But behind that age — the Neolithic or Surface Stone Period — there 
lay a far earlier period, separated from it by a gap which no one 
has been able to measure, but which carries the traces of man back 
to an almost incalculable antiquity. 

I purpose on the present occasion to treat first of the Neolithic 
or Surface Stone Period, a period during which the surface con- 
figuration of the country had assumed very much the same 
appearance as that which it now shows; and then to treat of 
the PalsBolithic or Early Stone Period, a period which carries us 



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Trans. Hertt Nat. Hut. Soe„ Vol. VIII, Plate X. 







Ancient Stone Implements. 

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IN HTRTPOEDSHIRE. 171 

back to the time when the valleys which now exist were not 
excavated to anything like their present depth, and when various 
animals now extinct inhabited this country. 

The ordinary forms of implements which characterize the 
Neolithic Period are celts (a kind of hatchet), picks, chisels, 
gonges (rare in Britain), hammers, hammer-stones of various 
kinds, grinding-stones, flakes, cores, scrapers (with a rounded or 
a semicircular edge), borers, knives, javelins, arrow-heads, and 
perforated axes. Personal ornaments also occur, such as buttons 
or studs, beads, rings, armlets, and necklaces. 

The manner in which some of these articles were manufactured 
may first be considered. To make a flint implement, such as a 
small flint knife with two sharp edges to it, would at first sight 
not appear to be an easy thing to do ; but the manufacture of such 
flint implements is still carried on in this country, at Icklingham 
in Suffolk, and at Brandon on the borders of Norfolk and Suffolk, 
at both of which places I have seen the process of making gun- 
flints. At Brandon some twenty or thirty workmen are employed, 
producing from 200,000 to 300,000 gun-flints per week. The 
flint-blocks used in the manufacture are there obtained by sinking 
small shafts into the ground until one of the bands of flints 
occurring in the Upper Chalk is met with which contains flints 
of the right qufdity ; and along this band low horizontal galleries 
are then worked, and the large flints extracted. 

The same method was followed not far from the same spot by 
the ancient flint- workers of the Neolithic Age. At Grime's 
Graves, near Brandon, in Norfolk, the whole surface of the 
ground is studded with pits which were evidently made at that 
remote period for the purpose of extracting flints from the chalk. 
One of these pits was explored by Canon Greenwell, the well- 
known barrow-digger, and it was found that after passing through 
a layer of flints of inferior quality, the very layer from which 
gun-flints are manufactured at the present day, known as the 
** floor- stone," was met with, and that along it horizontal galleries 
had been driven, the excavations having been made by means of 
picks formed from the antlers of the red deer. Similar pits have 
also been explored at Cissbury, near Worthing, in Sussex ; and at 
Spiennes, near Mens, in Belgium. 

The process of making a sharp-edged flint flake or knife 
with two sharp edges is really easy. A large piece of flint 
is first broken across so as to give it a flat surface; a blow 
is then given netir the margin of the flint with a spherical- 
ended hammer (which may be of iron or merely a large pebble) 



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172 • snt JOHir eyaks — the stone age 

almost at right angles to the flat surface. By this means a flake 
or splinter is struck off. Another blow detaches another flake, and 
a ridge is left between the two plane surfaces from which the 
flakes have been removed ; a blow immediately behind this ridge 
will bring off a third flake of triangular section and having two 
sharp knife-like edges. If the blow be administered at some 
distance from the edge of the flint, a perfect cone will be produced. 
The flint being elastic, the small circular spot on which the blow 
falls is driven slightly inwards into the body of the flint ; and the 
result is that a circular Assure is made which gradually enlarges 
in diameter as it descends below the surface, so that the piece of 
flint within the circular fissure is in the form of a cone, with a 
slightly-truncated apex at the small circle struck by the hammer. 
It is then an easy matter to strike ofl the surrounding flint. The 
cone or portion of a cone made by the blow is known as the bulb 
of percussion. A cone of flint thus made by a single blow of 
a hammer is shown in Fig. 1. 




Fio. 1. Artificial cone of flint, i. 

Gun-flints are manufactured in a rather diflerent manner. After 
one flake has been struck off, the next blow is given at a distance 
of about an inch from the spot where the first blow fell, and then 
others are given at similar distances. By this means splinters are 
struck off until the block of flint assumes, at least in some portion 
of it, a more or less regular polygonal outline ; flakes are then 
struck off by blows behind a flat surface and not a ridge, so as 
to produce flat four-sided blades with two edges, and these are 
converted into gun-flints by breaking them into short lengths and 
trimming them. 

I will now show you, by practical demonstration, how flakes 
can be struck off a block of flint by blows from a round-pointed 
hammer. After being thus struck off they can be pieced together 
again, the flint being built up into its original form, as you will 
see by Fig. 2. The central block from which flakes have been 
removed is known as a * core ' or * nucleus.' You can readily 
imagine how one of the simpler forms of hatchets can be manu- 
factured. The stone hatchet represented on the scale of one-half 
in Plate IX, fig. 1, has not been ground, but was produced by 
a series of blows, first on one side and then on the other, so as to 



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IN HEBTF0BD8HIBE. 173 

produce a regular form, having a cutting edge at the broader end. 
"When I was out shooting one day I picked up, in a field at 
Bedmond, a roughly- formed hatchet of this kind, and showed it 
to my keeper. Before we had proceeded many hundred yards, 
the keeper, whose eyes were sharper than mine, discovered a flint 
hatchet of somewhat narrower proportions, and almost uninjured. 
It is figured in Plate Xl, fig. 1. I have found four or five of the8e 
roughly- chipped hatchets in a single field of my own, and no doubt 
those who would take the trouble to look in the fields around 
them would have their efforts rewarded. The roughly-chipped 
hatchets which have afterwards been ground and polished have in 
all cases been finished on a grindstone which was fixed and not 
rotatory, and the striae on them are nearly always longitudinal, 
thus proving that they were rubbed lengthways, not crossways, on 
the grindstone. I have a hatchet, which I found in a field of my 
own at Abbot's Langley, ground at the edge, which has afterwanU 
been intentionally blunted by grinding. A specimen ground at 
the edge only is shown in Plate IX, fig. 2. Rough-hewn hatchets 



Fig. 2. Flint core with flakes replaced upon it. i. 

have been found in the neighbourhood of Ware, and a fine speci- 
men of a polished hatchet, found in the neighbourhood of Pans- 
hanger, is in the possession of Earl Cowper ; others have been found 
at Albury near Bishop's Stortford, and at Hitchin, the latter not 
being of flint but of some other hard stone. The hatchet or celt 
found at Albury is sharp or but slightly rounded at the sides, and 
presents a pointed oval in section ; that from Panshanger is flatter 
at the sides, and has the butt end semicircular, and, like the sides, 
rounded. Both are polished all over and attain a length of about 
seven inches* An example of such a celt is shown in Plate IX, fig. 3. 



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174 ant john eyaits — the stone age 

From the hatchets the step to the chisels and the gouges or 
hollow chisels is easy. In this country the latter are of extreme 
raiity, hut in Scandinavia they are often to he found, chiefly near 
the sea- coast, where they were prohably used in the construction of 
canoes cut out of solid trunks of trees, and for other purposes. 

Other forms of implements are perforated. A block of stone of 
a hard character was generally selected, and a hole bored in the 
middle, in all probability by pecking with a flint implement, and 
then grinding the rough holes thus made on either face with 
a piece of hard wood and sand, drilling until the two conical 
depressions met in the middle of the block. In other specimens in 
which the hole is nearly parallel, and which may be of later date, 
it is probable that some other method of boring was adopted. It 
has been found that with a piece of ox's horn and wet sand or 
emery-powder a hole can easily be bored by turning the horn round 
and round. I have myself taken an old stone hatchet and cut 
it in two with a bit of string and some sand ; and I have bored 
a hole in it partly by means of wood and partly by means of 
a marrow-bone, used with sand and water, but I found that the 
latter answered better than the former. I am not aware of a per- 
forated hatchet having been found in this county, but some years 
ago a small stone hammer-head, with a hole for the shaft or 
handle which must have been bored in some similar manner to that 
which I have described, was found near Sandridge by Dr. Griffith, 
and is now in the British Museum. This type of hammer is shown 
in Fig. 3. A perforated adze or hoe formed of a dark grey grit, 



Fio. 3. Hammer found in Redmore Fen, Cambs. }. 

and found at Welbury, near Offley, is shown in Fig. 4. The 
original is in the collection of Mr. W. Ransom, F.S.A., of Hitchin. 
Flakes are plentiful, but it is difficult to say to what period they 
belong. A certain number may have been made by the plough 
coming in contact with flints, and others may have been used 
in comparatively modem times for the purpose of striking a light. 



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Trantf. Herts Nat, Hitt. Soe., Vol. VIII, Plate XI. 



8 

Hertfordshibe Stone Implements. 



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IN HEETFOBDSHIKE. 175 

Plint flakes are often found on Roman sites, and one reason for this 
I may explain. The word ** tribulation" is well-known to all of 
you, and some may have thought that they may have suffered what 
they call tribulation ; but probably all do not know that tribulation 
means being placed under a ** sharp threshing instrument having 
teeth," the Latin name for which was ** tribulum." It was 
a kind of wooden sledge in which a number of holes were bored, 



Fio. 4. Stone adze or hoe, "Welbury, Offley. }. 

and in each one of these holes, some hundred in number, a sharp 
flake of flint was inserted. The implement was drawn over the 
threshing-floor by a yoke of oxen, and the com was thus subjected 
to the process of tribulation. It was no doubt his tribulum that 
Araumdi gave to David with which to make a fire for his burnt- 
offering. I have seen threshing-machines of this kind in use in 
Spain, and they are still used in the East. Some of the chipped 
flints probably used for this purpose in Roman times are frequently 
found on Roman sites. I have myself noticed them at Yerulamium 
(St. Albans). A long flint-flake from Highbury, Hitchin, is shown 
in Plate XII, fig. 6, from Mr. Ransom's collection. It is probably 
PaltBolithic. 

Flint-flakes with ground edges are occasionally fouud. They 
appear to be well adapted for use as knives when held between the 
ball of the thumb and the end of the first finger, no handle being 
required. I have one of these flakes, which I found in a field of 



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176 SIR JOHW EVAW8 — THE STONE AGE 

my own in the parish of Abbot's Langley. It is about 2^ inches 
long, ridged, pointed at one end, and ground at the other ; one side 
has been very carefully ground to an edge. Fig. 5 shows a flake 
thus sharpened. 



Fio. 6. Flmt-flake, ground at edges, Charlton, Yorkshire, £.R. i. 

I will next direct your attention to the scraper, an implement 
still used in North America for the purpose of scraping the insides 
of hides in order to remove the fatty matter and so prepare them 
for tanning. I am not aware how the Esquimaux make these 
instruments, but I have found by experiment that, taking a flake 
of flint, made with a stone hammer consisting of a flint or quartzite 
pebble held in the hand, and placing the flake on a smooth block 
of stone, I can, by successive blows of the pebble, chip the end of 
the flake without any difficulty into the desired form. The face 
of the stone hammer must be brought to bear a slight distance only 
within the margin of the flake, and, however sharp the blow, the 
smooth block of stone on which the flake is placed, and which of 
course projects beyond it, acts as a stop to prevent the hammer 
from being carried forward so as to injure the form, and it is 
brought up sharply directly it has done its work of striking off 
a splinter from the end of the flake. The upper face of the flake 
remains quite uninjured, and there is no difficulty in producing the 
evenly-circular edge of the scraper by successive blows of the 
convex pebble. A typical scraper is shown in Plate IX, fig. 4. 
A longer form of scraper, to which the term duck-bill scraper has 
been applied, is of frequent occurrence. One of these, found by 
myself on the Sussex Downs, is represented in Plate IX, fig. 5. 
A flat flake, trimmed into a scraper-like form, and found near 
Hitchin, is shown in Fig. 6. It is in the collection of Mr. J, 
Hopkinson. 



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Dr HERTFOBDSHIKE. 177 

I have frequently shown how scrapers may have been made 
in the manner described, and once it led to an amusing incident. 
You all know what an admirable lecturer the late Professor 
Tyndall was. I once met him by appointment at Watford 
station and we took a walk into the country together, during 
which I showed him the process of making a scraper, and he 
was very much interested in it. When near Red Heath a 
shower came on and we stopped to take shelter. A country girl 
about twelve years of age came up to us, and Professor Tyndall 
proceeded to explain to her the process by which a flint scraper 
could be made ; and whether it was more amusing to watch the 
amazed expression on the face of the girl who was being instructed, 
or the intellectual countenance of the Professor who was giving 
the lecture, I am not prepared to say, but it was certainly a quite 
unlooked-for result of the little insight which I had given Professor 
Tyndall into the manner in which stone implements were made. 



Fio. 6. Flint-flake, near Hitcbin. }. 

In olden times it was necessary to produce a state of combustion 
by some violent frictional action in order to obtain fire. It has 
been supposed by some that by striking two flints together a spark 
can be obtained that will ignite tinder, but that is not the case, 
as however much flint may be heated it will not bum as some 
metals do. A spark may be obtained by striking together a piece 
of iron and a piece of flint, but iron was not known to early man. 
Pyrites (sulphide of iron), however, has the same property in this 
respect as iron itself, and Pliny records the tradition that fire was 
the offspring of Cilix and Pyrodes, which seems to refer to the 
method of making fire by means of silex and pyrites. I have 
myself been able to light tinder by means of pyrites and a piece 
of flint, and this may have been another purpose for which these 
scrapers were made, as long scrapers worn at the end have been 



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178 SIR JOHN EViKS — THE STONE AGE 

found in graves, together with blocks of pyrites, also showing signs 
of wear. 

Turning from these homely implements to weapons of war or of 
the chase, I will now refer to the small flint weapons, varying 
in size and also considerably in shape, known as arrow-heads. 
The variation in size probably arises from some of them having 
tipped spears to be held in the hand for close encounters, and 
others having been attached to lighter shafts to form javelins for 
throwing at objects at a distance; but most of the smaller kinds 
were undoubtedly the heads of arrows discharged from bows. 
Lance-heads are usually more or less lozenge-shaped, while arrow- 
heads, though sometimes of that form or more nearly leaf-shaped, 
with or without a decided stem like the petiole of a leaf, are often 
of more complicated form, being stemmed and barbed. These are 
of most common occurrence, but one leaf-shaped form appears to 
be almost peculiar to a certain class of long barrows, though the 
stemmed and barbed, lozenge and leaf- shaped forms have been 
found together in the soil of the same grave-mound. 

I have this morning received by post three arrow-heads which 
have been found in the neighbourhood of Hitchin by Mr. Frank 
Latchford. I have also arrow-heads found near Ware, and otliers 
from Pirton and Tring. The irregularly-barbed arrow-head repre- 
sented in Plate X, fig. 1, was found by myself in 1866 on the 
surface of a field at the foot of the Chalk escarpment between 
Eddlesborough and Tring. One of the surfaces is very rough, and 
the outline is far from symmetrical, though it can hardly be re- 
garded as unfinished, but rather as showing how rude were some 
of the appliances of our savage predecessors in Hertfordshire, even 
in the Neolithic Age. Some tanged and barbed flint arrow-heads 
of nearly the same form, but apparently a little more symmetrical, 
were found about 1763 at Tring Grove when the Grand Junctioa 
Canal was being made. The remains of a warrior were then found, 
and between the legs of the extended skeleton were several of these 
arrow-heads, at the feet being some perforated plates of greenish 
stone used as bracers or arm-guards, and similar in character to 
those still worn by archers to prevent the string of the bow from 
hitting the arm. A bracer from Scotland is represented in Fig. 7, 
and some more arrow-heads are shown in Plate X, figs. 2, 3, 4, 
and 5. A specimen from Ashwell, fialdock, in the collection of 
Mr. A. £. Gibbs, is shown in Plate XII, fig. 1. It is a debatable 
question whether the majority of the flint arrow-heads do not 
belong to the Bronze Period rather than to the Stone Period. 

Flint arrow-heads are not so difficult to make as they appear to 



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Trans. Herts Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. VIII, Plate XII. 



5 6 7 

Hertfordshire Stone Implements. 



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IK HERTFOEDSHIBE. 179 

be. I have made them both with and without barbs, in this way. 
Placing a flake of flint against a stop on a flat piece of wood, and 
raising its edge when necessary by placing a small blocking-piece, 
also of wood, underneath it, by pressure of a large flake of flint, 



Fio. 7. Bracer, Evantown, Rose-shire. }. 

such as when now found is called an " arrow-flaker," or " fabri- 
cator," upon the edge of the flake, I have detached successive 
splinters until I have reduced the flake into the required form. 
But the edges of the arrow-heads made entirely with these flint 
** arrow-flakers" are more obtuse and rounded than are those of 
ancient specimens, so that these flint tools were probably used 
rather for the main chipping-out than for the final finishing. This 
process can be best performed by means of a piece of stag's horn. 
Placing the flake of flint which is to be converted into an arrow- 
head against a wooden stop, and pressing the horn against the edge 
of the flake, this edge enters slightly into the body of the horn; 
minute splinters can then be detached by bringing the pressure of 
the horn to bear sideways, and the arrow-head may in this manner 
be formed by degrees without much risk of its breaking. The 
leaf- shaped arrow-heads are the most easy to manufacture, and 
they were probably the earliest in use ; but not only can these 
simple formB be produced by this means, but also the barbed 
arrow-heads, both with and without the central stem. Here is one 
leaf- shaped (like that in Plate X, ^g. 3), which I may describe as 
a Hertfordshire stone implement, for I made it myself out of a 
Hertfordshire flint in the manner which I have described. 



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180 8IB JOHN EYANS — THE STONE AGE 

At the International Congress of Pre-historic Archaeology held 
at Norwich in 1868 I gave an account of the method by which 
I believed various forms of stone implements were made, and after- 
wards when at our warehouse in the City I was told that a man 
wanted to see me. I found myself confronted by a disreputable- 
looking individual who informed me that he was known as " Flint 
Jack." He was a notorious forger of stone implements and of fossils 
in general, carrying on his iniquitous trade in Yorkshire. On my 
enquiring how he came to be in London he said to me : "I under- 
stand that you have been showing them at Norwich how to make 
these things, and I wish you would show me some of your 
specimens, for I understand that you are likely to attain to an 
equal degree of eminence with myself." I did not satisfy his 
curiosity, but gave him a trifle and advised him to get back to 
Yorkshire. Since that time I have always looked with a certain 
amount of interest at ** Flint Jack's" productions, although I 
consider my own arrow-heads to be superior to those which he was 
in the habit of making. 

I will not detain you with any account of the other forms of 
implements which were in use in the Neolithic Age, nor of the 
ornaments with which the ladies of that period adorned themselves, 
but I may say that there was already at that time a certain 
number of domesticated animals, that spinning and weaving were 
practised to some extent, and civilization was fairly advanced, 
considering that metals were almost unknown. It is now necessary 
to say a few words about the Palaeolithic or River-drift Period. 

The Palaeolithic or Old Stone Age is also known as the River- 
drift Period, because the majority of the implements belonging to 
that age have been found in river-gravels, near the course of the 
present rivers but above their present levels. It is, however, 
a mistake to suppose that the occupation of the country by 
Palaeolithic man was limited to river-valleys, for a considerable 
number of implements has been found a long way from any stream. 

Let us briefly consider how our rivers have been able to deepen 
their courses. As it is chiefly in the gravels of such Chalk districts 
as those of our own county that such implements are found, it will 
be sufficient to trace the probable origin of one of our Hertfordshire 
river- valleys. 

We may assume that the central part of our county, over which 
the upper portions of the rivers Lea and Colne and their tribu- 
taries now flow, was an almost horizontal area of chalk, with beds 
of marine clay and shingle upon it, rising from beneath the sea 
more rapidly than a river flowing over it could excavate its valley 



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nr HSRTFORDSHISB. 181 

to the leyel of the aea hy any suhaerial action. We may also 
assume that the winter climate was more rigorous than it is at 
present, and that the annual rainfall was much greater. At the 
present time there is no geological formation less liable to floods 
than the upper portion of the Chalk. It is so absorbent that under 
ordinary circumstances it takes in the rain as fast as it falls upon 
it, and the moisture, when once in the soil, is either carried ofP 
again by evaporation and vegetation, or descends to the plane at 
which the chalk is saturated with water. This plane of saturation 
varies much in different seasons; near the Chalk escarpment in 
Hertfordshire, at a spot several miles away from any stream, I 
have known its level to vary as much as 70 feet in a single year; 
but with a greater rainfall than at present the chalk might at all 
times be saturated nearly up to its surface. Floods might then be 
as readily produced as if the soil were the most unabsorbent of 
rocks. 

As the land rose from beneath the retreating sea, shallow 
channels might be formed by its waters, a course thus being 
marked out along which streams would subsequently flow; on 
the bare surface of this newly-elevated tract the eroding power 
of heavy rains would be great ; and with a rigorous climate there 
would be a large accumulation of snow and ice in the winter, the 
rapid thawing of which in the summer would add enormously to 
the volume and the eroding power of the streams, causing them to 
deepen and widen their channels. The valleys being at first broad 
and shallow, the floods would cause the streams to overflow their 
banks and spread over the bottom of the valleys, carrying with 
them and depositing fine mud or clay, sand, small pebbles, larger 
pebbles, and flints or other stones, according to the velocity of the 
current. With each succeeding flood the valley would be deepened 
and narrowed, the river would become less sinuous, and the 
deposits spread by former floods over the bottom and the slopes 
of the valley would gradually be left out of the way of subsequent 
floods, the earliest-formed deposits being on the highest levels, 
which first escaped from the disturbing action of the repeated 
floods. Assuming, as I have done, that there were beds of marine 
clay and shingle upon the surface of the chalk, there would be 
in the higher and older gravels a much larger proportion of pebbles 
derived from these beds than of flints from the chalk than would 
be found in the lower and newer deposits ; for when the latter 
formed the river would have worked its way below the level of 
these upper beds, and it would be excavating the chalk and forming 
the gravel in its bed chiefly from flints derived from the chalk. 



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182 Snt JOHN. EVANS — THE STONE AOE 

With a severe climate, also, ground-ice and shore-ice, hoth of 
which have considerahle transporting power, would he formed; 
the rocks would he disintegrated hy frost, and the fragments or 
talus formed would he easily carried away hy the streams. 

There is also another reason why we have these valleys formed 
in Chalk districts. Rain-water is enahled to dissolve chalk hy 
becoming charged with carhonic acid from the decomposition of 
vegetable matter on the soil on which it falls, and from every 
square mile of chalk country no less than 140 tons of chalk are 
carried away in solution each year hy the water which percolates 
through the chalk, thus eventually lowering the surface of the 
country. 

The fact that the constituent parts of the drift gravels con- 
taining Palaeolithic implements are always of the same petrological 
character as are the rocks in the existing river-hasins, proves that 
the gravels are due to some local cause ; and that they frequently 
contain land and fresh-water shells and mammalian bones of the 
Quaternary period, is conclusive evidence of their fresh -water 
origin. The character of the beds and their manner of deposition 
also exactly accord with the river hypothesis ; and, moreover, they 
occur in such positions as might have been expected had their 
presence been due to the action of a stream excavating its valley 
in the manner I have described; indeed, in several instances the 
probability that certain gravels contained Palaeolithic implements 
was pointed out before implements were actually discovered in 
them. There are other points of agreement between the actual 
phenomena and those of such river-action as I have supposed to 
have taken place, and we may, without any doubt, accept the 
implements as being truly characteristic fossils of the deposits in 
which they are found, and these as being Quaternary river-deposits. 

Some important discoveries of Palaeolithic implements have 
recently been made in the gravel in the vaUey of the Colne by 
Mr. Clouston, a resident at Watford, whom I am pleased to see 
here this evening. As the gravel in which he has found them 
is 40 feet above the level of the existing river, it follows that at 
the time this gravel was deposited the bed of the river was at that 
height above its present level. 

In the valley of the Gade discoveries of Palaeolithic implements 
have been made by myself. One implement was lying on the 
surface of a ploughed field near Bedmond, at a spot which, though 
probably 160 feet above the level of the nearest part of the river, 
is nearly at the bottom of one of the lateral valleys leading into 
the main valley of the Colne between Boxmoor and Watford. The 



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Trant, Herts Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. VIII, Plate XIII. 






Hertfordshire Stone Implements. 

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m HERTFOBDSHIKB. 183 

implement, which was originally of nearly triangular form, has 
unfortunately lost its point. It was probably held in the hand 
and used as a weapon of offence. The flint of which it is formed 
has become nearly white and porcellanous on both faces, and it has 
in some places been so much altered in structure that it can be 
cut with a knife, which leads me to suppose that it may have 
been derived from some beds of pervious red brick-earth which 
occur at the spot where it was found. I have lately found a 
smaller ovate specimen at a higher level at Bedmond Hill Farm, 
about half-a-mile away. This is represented in Plate XI, fig. 8. 
In 1868 I found two other implements in gravel laid on the 
towing-path of the Grand Junction Canal, where it is united with 
the Gade, between Apsley and Nash Mills. I do not know exactly 
whence the gravel in which they lay was obtained, but there is 
little doubt of its having been dredged or dug from the bottom 
of the valley in the immediate neighbourhood. One of the imple- 
ments is of grey flint, flat, of ovate outline, neatly chipped, and 
about 4 inches long by 2J inches broad. The other is of an 
ochreous colour, of much the same form, though flatter on one 
face, and with its angles considerably water-worn. Other imple- 
ments have been found near the head of the tributary valley of the 
Bulboum, at Wigginton, near Tring. 

In the valley of the Lea specimens have been found in gravel 
from No-Man's-Land Common by the late Rev. Dr. Griffith, 
including one very well-formed implement in my possession, of 
which a photograph is given in Plate XI, flg. 4. In all 
probability the Lea at one time flowed past No-Man's-Land, 
instead of Wheathampstead as at present, and these specimens 
have been left by the river. We may not only look for such 
implements in the valleys, but also on the tops of the hills where 
the rivers have been in many cases. Further down the valley 
of the Lea Mr. Worthington Smith has been successful in finding 
implements at Hertford and Ware, specimens of some of which 
I have. Still further down they have been found at Cheshunt 
(see Plate XIII, fig. 5), and on the west side of the Lea Mr. Smith 
has found implements at a height of 100 feet above the existing 
level of the Thames; and not only implements but the place 
where they were manufactured. He has there found the flints 
from which the various implements had been made, and flint 
flakes which can be put together in their original position ; there 
is also other evidence of the occupation of the spot by primeval 
man, the traces of which occupation were subsequently embedded 
in the gravel. Specimens have also been found at Knebworth, 



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184 am john evajts — the stone age 

Stevenage,* Hitchin, and Ippollitts. Examples from most of these 
places are figured in Plates XI and XII ; particulars of which are 
given in the Description of the Plates. 

In the valley of the Stort two Palaeolithic implements have heen 
found hy Mr. W. H. Penning near Bishop's Stortford. Though 
hoth were found on the surface, yet their condition is such that 
there can he no douht as to their having heen hut recently dug out 
of the soil, their colour being dark brown and ochreous in places. 
One of them was found at a short distance from the river, by the 
side of a ditch cut in a thin deposit of valley brick -earth, about 
a mile north of Bishop's Stortford, and it had probably been 
thrown out with the soil from the ditch. It is oval in outline, 
rather flatter on one side thjui on the other, and a little thinner at 
one end than at the other. The second was found on the sandy 
surface of a ploughed field close to Pesterford Bridge. It is of the 
same character, but is somewhat broader, and square at the base. 
An additional idea of some of the most prevalent forms of Palaeo- 
lithic implements may be gained from Plate X, figs. 6, 7, and 8, of 
which fig. 6 represents a flake. That from Hoxne, Suffolk, is 
singularly like the one described by Mr. Frere so long ago as 1797. 

I must now refer to one of the most remarkable discoveries of 
such implements which have been made in Hertfordshire. On the 
hills in the neighbourhood of Caddington,t Mr. Worthington Smith 
has made a similar discovery to that on the west side of the lower 
part of the valley of the Lea, to which I have already alluded. 

He has there discovered what he believes to be the site of an 
ancient lake, the shores of which were once tenanted by men of the 
Early Stone Period, who have left evidences not only of their 
occupation of the site but also of their having made their stone 
implements on the spot, for they have left the flint tools with which 
they made them and the flakes they chipped off them in the process 
of manufacture. Mr. Smith has pieced together many of these 
flakes, reconstructing the original block of flint and thus showing 
that the flakes were struck off on the spot. He considers that the 
men who made these implements were skilful workmen, and there- 
fore that they were not nearly the most ancient of the human race, 
having probably migrated from some country with a warmer 
climate. The implements which he has found comprise nodules 
of flint artificially pointed at one end, and with an un worked butt 
end, which was very convenient for holding in the hand; drills 

♦ See 'Trans. Watford Nat. Hist. Soc.,' Vol. I, p. Ixi. 
t See * Man, the Primeval Savage,* by Worthington G. Smith. Stanford, 
London, 1894. 



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Trans. Herts Nat, Hist. Soe., Vol VIII, Plate XIV. 



5 6 

Hertfordshire Stone Implements, 



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IN HXBTF0BD8HIEB. 185 

or borers ; trimmed flakes ; knives and scrapers ; hammer-stones ; 
punches ; and other tools the use of which is unknown. Amongst 
the implements are some which have been re-pointed, and others 
which appear to have been broken in use. In several places there 
are artiflciEdly-raised heaps of flints, a further indication that this 
was a workshop where the implements were manufactured. 

In illustration of these important discoveries, Mr. "Worthington 
Smith has kindly lent to the Society a selection of the wood-blocks 
used in his excellent little book, "Man, the Primeval Savage." 
Impressions from these are given in Plates XIII and XIV, 6uid 
full particulars concerning them will be found in the Description 
of the Plates. 

Mr. Smith believes that the Palaeolithic implements which he 
has exhumed at Caddington are not all of the same age, for they 
occur in distinct layers, the tools in the highest layer being 
different in their nature and colour from those in the layers below. 

It does not by any means follow that a rudely-chipped imple- 
ment belongs to the Palaeolithic Period, for although the forms of 
such implements aflord a comparatively safe guide as to their 
antiquity, their age can with safety be determined by geological 
evidence only. The character of the fauna with which the worked 
flints are associated, comprising as it does the elephant, rhinoceros, 
hippopotamus, and other animals now extinct in this country, 
aflords corroborative evidence as to the length of time that has 
elapsed since these flints were fashioned. 

These appear to aflord the earliest traces of the existence of man 
which occur in our own county, but if we visit the South of 
England we And more striking proofs of his antiquity, for there, 
capping the cliffs some 80 or 90 feet above the level of the sea, 
what was once the bed of a river now forms the surface of the hills 
which stretch along the coast, the other side of the valley having 
been removed by the inroads of the sea, and in these high-level 
and almost inconceivably ancient river-deposits flint -implements 
have been discovered. 

In Kent what have been regarded as worked flints have been 
found in ancient beds upon the plateaux, and these if rightly 
regarded as implements, seem to belong to a still earlier period 
than the ordinary Palaeolithic forms. 

But early as may possibly be the period to which these 
discoveries point, I should not venture to affirm that they 
designate the origin of primeval man, for discoveries which have 
been made in India and other southern countries seem to indicate 
a still earlier period for human existence; and although these 

VOL. vui. — PABT vn. 14 



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186 8IB JOHN BVAN9 — THE STONE AGE 

carry us long ages back in our history, I should still be far from 
saying that we have as yet disooyered the very earliest traces of 
the existence of man upon the earth. 

EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 

PLATE IX. 
Fio. Neolithic Implekbntb. 

1. Symmetrically-chipped, unground, oelt. Reach Fen, Cambridge. Scale, 

one-half. In the collection of the author. (* Ancient Stone Imple- 
ments.' Fig. 23.) 

2. Celt, pointed and unpolished at the butt-end, and ground to a thin circular 

edge at the hroad end. Near MUdenhall, Si^olk. Scale, one-half. 
Coll. the author. (A.S.I. Fig. 32.) 

3. Celt of porphyritic greenstone, polished all over. Coton, Cambridge. 

Scale, one-half. CoU. the author. (A.S 1. Fig. 48.) 

4. Discoidal scraper made from a broad and short flake. Helperthorpe, 

Yorkshire Wolds. Natural size. Coll. the author. (A.S.I. Fig. 207.) 

6. ''Duck-hill*' scraper made from a flat flake. Near Cuckmere Hayen, 

Sussex Downs. Natural size. CoU, the author. (A.S.I. Fig. 213.) 

PLATE X. 
Fio. Neolithic Implements. 

1. Unsymmetrical barbed flint arrow-head. Eddlesboroueh, near Tring, 

Herts. Natural size. Coll. the author. (A.S.I. Fig. 315.) 

2. Lozenge-shaped arrow-head made from a flat flake. Grindale, Bridlington, 

Yorkshire. Natural size. Coll. the author. (A.S.I. Fig. 296.) 

3. Leaf -shaped arrow-head. Yorkshire Wolds. Natural size. Coll. Re?. 

W. Greenwell, F.R.S., F.S.A. (A.S.I. Fig. 282.) 

4. Small harbed arrow-head, with the ends cut straight. Yorkshire "Wolds. 

Natural size. Coll. Rev. "W. Greenwell. (A.S.I. Fig. 312.) 
6. Barbed arrow-head, the ends forming an acute an?le with the sides. 
Lamhome Down, Berks, (from a barrow). Naturtd size. Coll. British 
Museum. (A.S.I. Fig. 319.) 

pALiBOLITHIC IMPLEMENTS. 

6. Flint flake, with both its edges re-chipped. Redhill, Thetford. Scale, 

one-half. Coll. the author. (A.S.T. Fig. 431.) 

7. Flint implement, worked to an edge all round. Near Dartford Heath, 

Kent. Scale, one-half. Coll. Mr. F. C. J. Spurrell, F.G.S. (A.S.I. 
Fig. 466.) 

8. Acutely-pointed flint implement, with twisted hlade. Home, Suffolk. 

Scale, one-half. Coll. the author. (A.S.I. Fig. 450.) 

F.O. ^I^TE XI. 

1. Neolithic celt. Redmond, Abbot's Langley. Scale, one-half . Cb//. the author. 

2. Palaeolithic instrument. Bearton Green, Hitchin. Scale, one-half. Coll. 

the author. 

3. Ditto. Fisher's Green, Stevenage. Scale, one-half. Coll. the author. 

4. Ditto. No-Man's-Land, Wheathampstead. Scale, one-half. Coll. the 

author. 
6. Ditto. Railway-cutting, Enehworth. Scale, one-half. CoU. the auUior. 

6. Ditto. Ickleford, Hitchin. Scale, one-half. CoU, the author. 

7. Ditto. Brickfield, Hitchin. Scale, one -half. CoU. the author. 

8. Ditto. Bedmond Hill, Abbot's Langley. Scale, one-half. CoU. the author. 



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IN EEBTFOSDSBISE. 187 

FlO. ^I^TE XII. 

1. Neolithic arrow -bead. Ash well, Baldock. Scale, one-balf. Coll. Mr. A. 

E. Gibbs, F.L.S. 

2. Palseolitbic implement. Folly Pit, Hitcbin. Scale, one-balf. Coll. 

Mr. William Ransom, F.S.A. 

3. Ditto. Higbbory, Hitcbin. Scale, one-balf. CoU, Mr. W. Ransom. 

4. Ditto. Higbbnry, Hitcbin. Scale, one-balf. Coll. Mr. W. Ransom. 

5. Ditto. Ickleford, Hitcbin. Scale, one-balf. Coll Mr. W. Ransom. 

6. Flint flake. Higbbnry, Hitcbin. Scale, one-balf. Coll, Mr. W. Ransom. 

7. Palsolitbic implement. Highbury, Hitcbin. Scale, one-balf. Coll. 

Mr. W. Ransom. 

PLATE XIII. 

Fig. Paksolithio Implements. 

1. First flint implement found in titA at Caddin^ton, Herts. Scale, one-balf. 

Coll. Mr. Wortbington G. Smitb. (* Man, tbe Primeval Savage.* 
Fig. 65.) 

2. Ovate flint implement. Caddington. Scale, one-balf. Coll. tbe autbor. 

(Fig. 67.) 

3. Small scraper-like flint knife. Caddington. Scale, one-balf. Coll. tbe 

autbor. (Fig. 81.) 

4. Ovate flint implement, witb sbarp cutting edge all round. Caddington. 

Scale, one-balf. Coll. the author. (Fig. 69.) 
6. Slightly-abraded flint tool. Flamstead End, Chesbunt, Herts. Scale, 
one-half. Coll. tbe author. (Fig. 130.) 

6. Flint flake trimmed on one face. Caddington. Scale, one-balf. Coll. 

Mr. W. G. Smith. (Fig. 70.) 

7. Scraper-like flint tool. No-Man*s-Land Common, Wheatbampetead, 

Herts. Scale, one-half. Coll. Mr. W. G. Smitb. (Fig. 128.) 

PLATE XIV. 

Fio. Paueouthic Implements. 

1. Small unfinished flint implement, witb one flake replaced. Caddington. 

Scale, one-half. Coll. Mr. W. G. Smitb. (Fig. 94.) 

2. Finished flint implement, broken in Palaeolithic times ; both pieces found 

and conjoined. Caddington. Scale, one-half. Coll. the author. 
(Fig. 97.) 

3. Other side of the same implement, with three flakes replaced. (Fig. 98.) 

4. The same implement, with a fourth flake replaced. (Fig. 99.) 

5. Finished flint implement, witb one large flake replaced. Caddington. 

Scale, one-half. Coll. the author. (Fig. 96.) 

6. The opposite side of tbe same implement. (Fig. 96.) 

7. Edge view of tbe same implement. (Fig. 96.) 

The figures in Plates IX and X are from the author's * Ancient Stone 
Implements, Weapons, and Ornaments of Great Britain ' (1872) ; those in 
Plates XI and XII are process-reproductions of ormnafphotographs of 
the actual implements ; and those in Plates XIII and XIv are from Mr. 
Wortbington G. Smith's *Man, tbe Primeval Savage* (1894). 



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XXIII. 

NOTES ON LEPIDOPTERA. OBSERVED IN HERTFORDSHIRE 
DURING THE YEAR 1894. 

By A. E. GiBBs, F.L.S., F.E.S. 
Bead at Watford, 2SrdApHl, 1894. 

The year 1894 was marked by a dearth of insect-life, so far, at 
least, as the Lepidoptera are concerned. Whether this was due to 
the excessively wet season following the very dry summer of 1893, 
I cannot say, but it is probable that meteorological conditions were 
the chief cause of it. All my correspondents tell the same tale of 
want of success. ** Sugaring " locally yielded no results, and a few 
days in July spent in the New Forest, where insects are generally 
very abundant, proved most disappointing. Mr. Arthur Lewis 
and your Recorder tramped many miles, visiting plantation after 
plantation, only to return home with empty boxes. 

Mr. 8. H. Spencer, jun., of Watford, says that while he found 
the sallows in his neighbourhood very productive, sugaring was 
quite a failure, although the evenings selected for this work were 
such as are known in the ordinary way to be good ones. A great 
many Geometers and a few NoctuaB were taken by him on the 
lamps, and he expressed the opinion that ** lamping " was fairly 
successful on the whole. 

I regret that the number of our local observers is falling off. 
One gentleman — ^Mr. Pilbrow — who has in past years supplied me 
with valuable information from Colney Heath, has left the neigh- 
bourhood, and others have been too much occupied by business and 
other engagements to devote their time to Entomology. My report 
this year will therefore be a short one. 

Butterflies. 

Mr. A. C. Smith, of St. Peter's Street, St. Albans, brought to me 
a specimen of the large tortoise-shell butterfly ( Vanessa polyMoros) 
which he captured in his house. This is the first specimen of this 
insect which I have seen alive in St. Albans for some years. I 
alluded in my last report to the fact that it is getting scarce in 
Hertfordshire, and Messrs. F. Latchmore and Harold Gbtward, 
of Hitchin, again write that the large tortoise-shell '^ is not nearly 
so common here as it was a few years back." It is interesting to 
notice that Miss E. A. Ormerod has included this butterfly amongst 
the injurious insects of 1894, and has devoted a chapter to it in 
her last annual * Report of Observations of Injurious Insects.* Mr. 
D. D. Gibb, of Ossemsley Manor Farm, Lymington, wrote to Miss 
Ormerod on the 19th of June asking advice as to dealing with a 
caterpillar-infestation, a cherry-tree on his lawn having been 
stripped of its leaves in a very rapid manner. The larvsB proved 
to be those of the large tortoise-shell butterfly, and they were easily 
found and destroyed. Miss Ormerod points out that, " generally 



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LKPIDOPTEBA OBSBRYED IN 1894. 189 

speaking, the large and beautiful insects are so scarce that they 
might be left uninjured with little fear of consequences," and all 
naturalists, I am sure, will thank her for speaking a word in favour 
of such a comparatively-rare and therefore harmless species. 

Messrs. Latchmore and Gatward report that the peacock butterfly 
{Vanessa To) was abundant at Hitchin, both in the larval and 
perfect state, and that the painted lady ( V. cardui) was observed 
on the wing in several places. The red admiral (F. atalanta) 
was plentiful in both the larva and the pupa state, and was very 
common, even through the cold days of October, feeding in the 
rolled- up leaves of the nettle. Colias edusa is not reported as 
having been observed in 1894. 

Moths. 

Yery few observers have sent notes to me with regard to the 
hawk-moths. My correspondents at Hitchin, Messrs. Latchmore 
and Gatward, report that the poplar, lime, and eyed hawk-moths 
were the species principally noticed by them at Hitchin, the 
first-named insect being very abundant. Mr. R. W. Bowyer, of 
Haileybury, reports that the elephant hawk-moth (Charoeampa 
elpenar) came rather commonly to light. A new Hertfordshire 
locality has to be recorded for the broad-bordered five -spot bumet- 
moth \Zygana trifolii). On the 14th of July Mr. S. H. Spencer 
had a specimen of this insect taken to him by his friend, Mr. Edwin 
Jackson, who found it drjring its wings on a thistle at Watford. 

Mr. Latchmore tells me that he noticed a number of webs of the 
little eggar-moth {JEriogaster lanestris) on hawthorn and sloe bushes, 
but did not attempt to rear any. Two years ago I drew the 
attention of our members to this moth, which is interesting on 
account of the length of time during which it will remain in the 
chrysalis state. I captured a number of the larvae both in 1892 
and 1893, and they fed-up and in due time became chrysalises. 
Many of those reared in 1892 are still in the pupa state, and 
scarcely one of the 1893 brood has yet become a perfect insect, 
although I have some scores of them. They emerge at the rate 
of about three a year, so that it takes a considerable amount of 
time and patience to obtain a nice series for the cabinet. 

In 1893 I alluded to the fact that four years previously Mr. 
Arthur Lewis, of Sparrowswick, St. Albans, liberated some larvae 
of the emperor- moth {Satumia pavonia) in his garden, and the 
insect appears to have established itself on Bernard's Heath, which 
adjoins his grounds. On the 31st of August last Miss E. A. 
Ormerod kindly sent to me four larvae and a pupa of this handsome 
insect which had been taken on the Heath and sent to her. The 
larvae were full-grown, and three of them began to spin their 
cocoons at once, the other feeding on sloe and plum for some days 
longer. On the 4th of April Mr. E. G. Bryant, of 8t. Peter's Street, 
St. Albans, sent to me a female imago of this species which his 
little boy had picked up in the street. She laid a number of bright 
green eggs, but they proved to be infertile. Specimens of the 



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190 A. E. GIBBS — NOTES ON LEPIBOPTERA 

caterpillar feeding upon heather are adorned with a number of 
beautiful pink tubercles, each surrounded by a black ring, but in 
the specimens from Bernard's Heath the tubercles were golden. 
Probably this is the original colour, and the pink tint of the 
heather-feeding individuals may be developed for the purposes of 
protection in order to assimilate with the colour of the heather- 
blossom. 

At the beginning of August Mr. Latchmore, of Hitchin, found 
a beautiful specimen of the sallow kitten-moth {IHcranura furcula) 
on a sallow-leaf. It so strongly resembled the white deposit of a 
bird that he nearly overlooked it. Unfortunately a friend to whom 
he showed it shook it off the twig and killed it on the floor. 

Mr. Arthur Lewis reports the occurrence of the bullrush-moth 
{Nonagria arundinis) in his grounds at Sparrowswick. When he 
cut the buUrushes growing in a small pond in August or September, 
he found that they had been attacked by the larvae of this moth, 
and he succeeded in finding one pupa from which the perfect insect 
had not yet emerged. He preserved it, but the drying of the rush 
caused the moth to appear in a crippled state. The larva of this 
species feeds in the stem of the buUrush, eating a gallery in the 
pith until nearly fully fed, when it prepares a circular hole for its 
escape, leaving only the epidermis. It then pupates in its gallery 
and in due time emerges through the hole which it has made. 
Mr. Arthur Griffith includes this moth in his Sandridge list, but 
this is the only other Hertfordshire record. 

One of the insect-pests of last season, in the south-west of 
Scotland, was the antler-moth ( Charaas graminis). Miss Ormerod, 
in her recently-issued * Eeport,* alludes to this infestation as ** one 
of the most remarkable insect-appearances of the past year." The 
caterpillars were present on the sheep-farms in vast numbers, and 
as they feed upon the tender shoots of the grass they did in- 
calculable mischief by devastating the pastures. This moth was 
present in Hertfordshire, but not in any great numbers. In July 
Mr. Albert Piffard, of Felden, Boxmoor, sent to me for identifica- 
tion a specimen which he had taken in the day-time on heracleum. 

Mr. Bowyer tells me that Agrotis ohscura (ravida) was the rarest 
insect seen by him on Hertford Heath in 1894. There are only 
two other Hertfordshire localities entered for it, namely, Hitchin 
and East Bamet. Mr. Bowyer says that it is scarce in his 
neighbourhood. 

In March and April sallow-beating proved fairly remunerative ; 
indeed, this work was the most productive of the year. The 
common Tantocampa were, as ususd, very abundant, and for the 
first time I took T. populeti at Bricket Wood. Mr. S. H. Spencer 
took six specimens on the 19th and 24th of April, and Mr. Arthur 
Lewis and I each captured a few. T. munda was plentiful, but we 
did not take a single specimen of T. gracilis, 

Mr. Cutts, of Nascot Wood, Watford, had two specimens of the 
green arches-moth {Aplecta prasina) emerge in his insect-cage on 
the 6th of June. This beautiful moth is far from common, but 



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OBSEBTED IN HSBTF0BD8HIBE IK 1894. 191 

I have taken two or three specimens at " sugar." The only other 
observer who has recorded it is Mr. Bowyer, who has found it on 
Hertford Heath. 

The handsome caterpillars of the mullein-moth ( Cucullia verhasci) 
were observed by Mr. Harold Gatward, of Hitchin, feeding on 
a mullein plant in his garden in Tilehouse Street. Mr. Cutts has 
also taken the larva of this insect abundantly on mulleins at his 
residence at Nascot Wood, Watford. The allied species, the water- 
betony moth {C. scropkularia), was, as ususd, very abundant on the 
plant from which it takes its name, at Ickleford and other water- 
side places in the north of the county. It is not easy to determine 
these two moths in their perfect state. Mr. Cutts records the 
capture of a specimen of the chamomile shark-moth ( C, chamomilla) 
at Nascot Wood. This is the second record for Hertfordshire. He 
also adds the treble-bar moth {Anaitis plagiata) to his Watford list. 

When searching some sallow-bushes for kitten-moths in July, 
Mr. Latchmore found several beautiful cocoons which contained 
very black-looking chrysalises. One moth had not emerged. A 
few days later he was delighted to find in the box a specimen 
of the herald-moth ( Oonoptera lihairix), Mr. Latchmore says : 
" I cannot conceive of a more beautiful insect than this is on its 
emergence from the pupa state." 

The common silver Y-moth {Plusta gamma) was remarkably 
abundant in the autumn in my garden at Avenue House, St. Albans. 
I had a number of plants of Lilium auratum in flower, and they 
proved to be very attractive to these species, several moths being 
frequently seen in a blossom at the same time. I did not notice 
that other species were attracted by the lilies. 

A very pretty insect is the least-yellow underwing {Heliaca 
tenebrata\ of which Mr. Spencer and his friend Mr. Wigg caught 
four specimens on the 14th of May at Biicket Wood, a locality in 
which I captured it ten or twelve years ago. They were flying 
over the blossoms of the wild strawberry and several other small 
flowers. This species appears to be generally distributed through- 
out the county, though it is nowhere very abundant. 

One bitterly cold evening in October Mr. Latchmore took at 
"sugar," at Grove Mill, a fine specimen of the red imderwing 
(Catocala nv^ta). This insect he reports as being quite common 
at Hitchin, by the water-side. On the 26th of March Mr. Spencer, 
who, like myself, was at Biicket Wood in the day-time with the 
net, caught a specimen of the orange underwing (Brepkos par- 
thenias)j and saw several more flying among the sallows and birch 
bushes. I also caught sight of this insect, but as it flies very high 
it is not easy to capture it. This moth appears in our record-book 
as having been captured at Haileybury, Hertford, and East Bamet. 
It is a good insect for the cabinet, its undcr-wings having a 
striking orange tint, and its fore-wings being of a reddish colour. 

Mr. Spencer records the occurrence of the bordered white 
{Bupalus piniaria) at Chipperfield Common on the 30th of June. 
He writes: '^I saw this insect flying in considerable numbers 



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192 LEPIDOPTRBA OBSEHYED IN 1894. 

round the tops of some Scotcb firs and other conifers. I was 
nnable to catch a single specimen, though they came aU but within 
the reach of my net. I know the insect well, so there can be no 
mistake as to its identity." The only other Hertfordshire record 
for it is that given by Mr. J. H. Durrant, who has taken it at 
Hitchin. The two sexes of this insect are quite dissimilar. The 
male has white as the ground-colour of its wings, with a black 
apical patch, while the female has wings of an orange-brown tint. 

The little moths known as pugs are a very difficult genus to 
make out, and are very apt to be neglected. The larv© mostly 
feed in the blossoms of plants, eating the floral organs and some- 
times penetrating the seed-vessel. We have fifty British species 
of these Uupitheciaj of which exactly one half have, up to the 
present time, been recorded as occurring in Hertfordshire. To our 
local list Mr. Spencer now contributes one more. He records the 
capture of a specimen of the dwarf pug-moth (^JEupitheeia ptmUata) 
in Kowse Bam Lane, Watford, in May last. 

Early in July, Mr. B. Piffard, of Hill House, Hemel Hempstead, 
sent to me a pretty little olive-brown and white moth, one of the 
Tineina, the larva of which he had found feeding in the centre 
of the base of the peduncle of the common ash, he believes in May. 
Before turning to a pupa the larva crawled out and spun a thm 
web. The infestation of this insect caused many leaves to fall off. 
The species proved to be Frays curtiselluSy a moth which is known 
to cause mischief to ash-trees through the ravages of its larvae. 

Mr. Spencer has sent the following notes : — ^' Melanism : I took 
one specimen of Taniocampa stahilu in which the brown has changed 
to black, and one specimen of Apamea oeulea, which is one of the 
darkest I have ever seen. — Colias hyalei two specimens of this 
butterfly were taken by some boys in the gravel-pits near Cassio 
Bridge during the year 1892. — UuehloS cardamines: I have a 
specimen of this butterfly, captured in 1893, which measures 
l-sV inch from tip to tip, the markings being the same as in the 
ordinary typical form. — Acidalia remutata : several specimens 
taken during June, 1893. — Acidalia bisetata: several specimens 
taken at dusk in 1893." 

I desire, in conclusion, to thank my correspondents for kindly 
sending to me notes of their observations. As the number of 
our observers is declining, I again appeal to all entomologists in 
the county to assist in the work of compiling as complete a list 
of the Lepidoptera of Hertfordshire as possible. This can only 
be done by united effort, and it will be a great help if those 
who take an interest in Entomology will communicate with the 
Eecorder of the Lepidoptera. 



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XXIV. 

REPORT ON PHENOLOGICAL PHENOMENA OBSERVED IN 
HERTFORDSHIRE DURING THE YEAR 1894. 

By Edwabd Mawlbt, Pre8.R.Met.Soc., F.R.H.S., 

Phonological Recorder to the Royal Meteorological Society. 

Bead at Watford, 2Zrd April, 1896. 

The number of observers remains the same as in the previous 
year. No returns were received from Broxboume, but on the 
other hand a new station has been started at Hatfield. The 
observing stations are now well distributed over the county, 
the only districts unrepresented being those in the neighbourhood 
of Che^unt in the south-east, Bishop's Stortford in the east, and 
Buntingford in the north-east, from any of which localities I shall 
be very glad to receive observations. 

The names of the stations, their height above sea-level, and the 
names of the observers are as follows : — 



Station. 


Height above 
Sea-lerel. 


Obsbrveb. 


Watford (The Platts) 

Radlett (Newberries) 

St. Albans (The Grange) 

St. Albans (Addiscombe Lodge) 

St. Albans (Worley Road) _. 

Berkhamsted (Rosebank) 

Harpenden „ 

Hatfield (Symons Hyde) „. 

Hertford 

Hifrhir^ ,,^,,,^ 


240 fe 

320 

380 

400 

300 

400 

370 

300 

140 

230 

260 


Bt. 


Mrs. G. E. Bishop. 
Miss E. M. Lubbock. 
Mrs. J. Hopkinson. 
Miss E. F. Smith. 
Henry I/e wis. 
Mrs. E. Mawley. 
J. J. Willis. 
T. Brown. 
W. Graveson. 
J. E. Little, M.A. 
H. G. Fordham. 


Aahwell (Odsey) 









The Wintbb op 1893-94. 

"With the exception of two cold periods, one lasting nearly a 
fortnight and the other about a week, the weather during this 
winter continued persistently mild. The first frost set in at the 
end of December, and lasted until the 8th of January. For several 
successive nights very low readings were registered at Berkhamsted, 
and on one of them a thermometer exposed on the surface of the 
snow fell to zero of the Fahrenheit scale — thus indicating 32° of 
frost. The second cold period, which occurred soon after the 
middle of February, was not nearly so severe, the exposed 
thermometer at no time showing more than 18° of frost. 

Notwithstanding the exceptional keenness of the January frost, 
very little harm was done to vegetation. This is no doubt ac- 
counted for (1) by the gradual way in which the temperature 
declined from night to night, until the lowest reading was reached, 



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194 



E. HAWLET — PHENOLOGICiLL PHENOMENA. 



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OBSERTED IN HEBTFOBDSHIBE IIT 1894. 



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196 B. HAWLET — PHEN0L06ICAL PHEKOMENA. 

(2) the covering of snow protecting low-growing plants, (3) the 
perfectly matured condition of the wood of fruit-trees, shruhs, etc. 
In fact, when I came to prune my roses in March, I found that 
the shoots of even the most tender hyhrid perpetuaLs were perfectly 
sound. 

Mr. Little, writing from Hitchin, remarks that queen wasps 
hibernated together in large numbers, as many as filled an old 
teapot having been found under a large tarpaulin on the roof of 
an outhouse. 

Taking all the returns sent in, the hazel flowered four days later 
than its mean date for the county for the previous seventeen years ; 
the song-thrush was first heard five days later than usual ; and the 
honey-bee first visited flowers about a fortnight later. 

The Spbing. 

Until the middle of April there did not occur a single unseason- 
ably cold day, while only a few of the nights were even moderately 
cold. From that time seasonable temperatures mostly prevailed 
until the end of the third week in May. A change to cold weather 
then took place which lasted until the end of the quarter. This 
change was remarkably complete, and took place very suddenly. 
Indeed, on two nights, those preceding the 2l8t and 22nd of May, 
my exposed thermometer registered 11° of frost. 

These frosts, which were followed by cold north-easterly winds, 
proved most disastrous to fruit-blossoms and potatoes, as well as to 
the young shoots and the foliage of trees, shrubs, roses, etc. It 
must be remembered that at the time they occurred everything 
was in a singularly forward condition, owing to the previous long 
spell of warm weather, and the absence of anything like a check 
from low night temperatures. Fortunately, beyond arresting tem- 
porarily their growth, no damage was done either to the young 
com or to the grass. The effects of these frosts varied greatly in 
different localities according to their elevation, exposure to sun- 
shine or cold winds, and other causes. Previous to their occurrence 
the fruit-trees were laden with blossom, and having weU-ripened 
shoots, the promise of grand crops never seemed more assured. 
The apple-trees and strawberries were in most places the greatest 
sufferers. 

At Watford, Mrs. G. E. Bishop states, potatoes and strawberry 
blossoms were very much cut, while bedding plants in frames 
unprotected were much injured and many were killed. 

Mr. Hopkinson reports that May was the first month last year 
in which the mean temperature had up to that time been below the 
average, and that on the nights preceding the 21st and 22nd there 
occurred at St. Albans sharp ground-frosts which did much damage 
to fruit-blossoms and vegetation generally. Our earliest and best 
strawberries were, he says, cut off, making the crop very poor, 
and a fortnight later than usual. 

Nearly all the potatoes in my garden at Berkhamsted had their 
tops destroyed, with the exception of those growing on a south 



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0B8EBTED IN HEKTF0BD8HIEB IN 1894. 197 

border under a high well. These^ although a foot high, were 
8C€u:cely touched. 

At Harpenden these frosts are described by Mr. Willis as having 
done an immense amount of damage to fruit-trees, and to some 
vegetables. The apple-blossom, of which there was in this neigh- 
bourhood an abundance, was almost entirely destroyed, with the 
consequence that this fruit was exceedingly scarce. Goose- 
berries could be gathered from under the bushes by quarts, many 
trees being almost bared of their fruit. Strawberry-bloom suffered 
greatly in exposed situations. Potatoes were cut down in many 
places, and so greatly were the plants injured that they never 
recovered, and yielded minute tubers only. 

At Hitchin the May frosts appear to have been severely felt, 
for Mr. Little states that in that neighbourhood potatoes, beans, 
and all tender plants such as geraniums, placed out too early, 
were destroyed. Many native trees and other plants such as the 
oak, ash, beech, elm, maple, elder, ivy, thistles, plantains, and 
bladder campion {Silene injlata) were frost-bitten. In the gardens, 
gooseberries, currants, and strawberries were much injured. 

Mr. Fordham mentions that at Ashwell, geraniums, dahlias, etc., 
were cut down by the frosts of the 2l8t and 22nd of May. 

According to the returns sent in coltsfoot came into flower one 
day earlier than its mean date, the wood-anemone four days later, 
blackthorn ten days earlier, garlic hedge-mustard eight days earlier, 
and the horse-chestnut and hawthorn respectively twenty-one days 
and nineteen days in advance of their usued time, whereas the 
white ox-eye, which flowered in many places after iie May frosts, 
was only four days early. 

The swallow made its flrst appearance four days late, but the 
cuckoo was first heard two days earlier than the average, while 
the nightingale was one day early. 

The wasp was first seen sixteen days earlier than usual, the 
small white butterfly six days earlier, and the orange-tip butterfly 
nearly a fortnight in advance of the mean date. 

Thr Summeb. 

There was a little warm weather at the end of June and at the 
beginning and end of July, but with these exceptions the tempera- 
ture remained cold for the season. The summer rainfall was in 
excess of the average, and there was a marked deficiency of sun- 
shine, especially during August. 

The crop of hay was an unusually heavy one, and was in most 
districts harvested in capital condition. The cereal crops were also 
good, but their ingathering took place under trying conditions, 
much of the com having been laid by heavy thunderstorms, while 
rain fell almost every day until nearly the end of August. The 
yield of wheat, barley, and oats was above the average, but the 
heaviest crop of the year was that of oats. 

By the middle of June the potatoes in my garden at Berkhamsted, 
which had had their tops destroyed by the May frosts, appeared to 



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198 £. MA.WLET — PHONOLOGICAL PHENOICENA. IN 1894. 

have quite recovered, and were looking as vigorous as ever. On 
the roses, however, many more ** scorched " leaves were to be seen 
than immediately after tiie frost occurred. 

Owing to the frosts in May and the two droughts of the previous 
year, there were in most places but few strawberries, while rasp- 
berries, currants, and gooseberries were less plentiful than usual. 

Throughout the summer very few wasps or butterflies were to 
be seen. 

The dog-rose came into flower six days in advance of the average, 
but after this time most of the plants on the list were late in 
blossoming, black knapweed being two days late, the harebell a 
week late, and the greater bindweed one day late. 

Thb Autumn. 

During the whole of September and the greater part of October 
the weather continued cold, while November on the other hand 
remained unusually warm throughout. The three weeks ending 
November 14th were excessively wet, but during the rest of the 
quarter the rainfall was very light. 

This was a favourable season for the farmer, as the land during 
the flrst half of it was in a capital state for working and for sowing 
autumn com; and later on the weather was so mild and the rainfall 
so plentiful that imtil unusually late in the year the supply of keep 
for cattle and sheep in the meadows remained singularly abimdant. 

The apple-crop was a very scanty one in most places, while that 
of plums was only about the average. The yield of pears, on the 
contrary, was a heavy one. Wild berries of all kinds were especially 
abundant, and notably holly-berries. Mr. Little remarks that at 
Hitchin the whitethorn haws were as abundant as the spring 
blossom promised. Holly-berries also were very plentiful there. 

Owing to the sunless character of October the autumn tints 
were, as a rule, very poor. During November Mr. Little noticed 
at Hitchin that thrushes were singing throughout the month, and 
that the leaves on the ehns at Bearton Green remained on the trees 
with little change of colour, and in considerable masses, much 
beyond their usual time. Mrs. Bishop noted at Watford on 
November 5th that the leaves of the ash were still very green, 
while the oak leaves had nearly all fallen. 

The ivy came into flower eleven days later than its mean date. 



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XXV. 

THE GALE OF THE 24TH OF MARCH, 1896, IN HERTFORDSHIRE. 

By John Hopkikson, F.L.S., F.G.S., r.R.Met.Soc. 

lUad at Watford, 2Zrd April, 1895. 

DuBiNG the last few months, rain, frost, and wind have been 
vying with each other as to which could do the greatest amount of 
damage, but far more irreparable injury was done by last month's 
gale than by the frosts of January and February or by the floods of 
November. In a few days nearly all traces of the greatest flood 
probably ever recorded in the annals of Hertfordshire had passed 
away ; m a few months our burst mains and service-pipes may all 
be renewed or repaired ; but never will the many mighty monarchs 
of our parks and woods, relics of our primeval English forests, 
which have been laid low by the recent gale, again raise their 
heads and look proudly down upon their companions of more 
recent growth. The damage done to churches and other buildings 
throughout the Midland Counties and the South of England can 
easily be repaired, but when thousands of trees are uprooted on 
a single estate, as at Sandringham in Norfolk and on the adjoining 
estate of Castle Rising, the loss is irreparable — generations will 
pass away before younger trees can take their place. 

Although there was not such wholesale destruction as this in 
Hertfordshire, our loss has been heavy, and the gale swept with 
devastating force over the greater part if not the whole of the 
county. The maximum velocity of the wind appears to have been 
about that of an express train, as will be seen from the following 
observation of Mr. Edward Mawley at Rosebank, Berkhamsted : — 

"Throughout the day of the 23rd of March and during the 
following night the wind blew constantly from S.S.W., and at an 
average velocity of 17 miles an hour. By noon of the 24th thj) 
direction had changed to S.W., and the velocity had increased to 
25 miles an hour. At 1 p.m. tiie wind was still in the 8.W., and 
the mean rate of movement had increased further to 32 miles. 
During the next hour the wind was veering gradually from S.W. 
to W.8.W., and the record for the hour reached 40 miles. Between 

2 and 3 p.m the direction changed slowly from W.S.W. to W., 
and it was during this time that the gale reached its height, the 
velocity for that hour amounting to 44 miles. After this the 
strength of the wind gradually decreased until between 3 and 
4 o'clock the next morning, when the velocity had fallen to 5 miles 
an hour. Since observations were first made here ten years ago 
I have never before recorded so high a velocity as 44 miles for 
a single hour. The individual gusts were often very fierce. At 

3 p.m. during the gale I obtained a mean velocity for a quarter of 
a minute of 60 miles an hour." 

We have here given not only the velocity of the wind and its 
variation from time to time as recorded by an anemometer, but also 



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200 J. Hopxnrsov — oile of the 24th of habch, 1895, 

its direction ; and that the wind, when at its height, hlew from the 
west or slightly south of west is fully borne out by the direction 
in which most of the trees fell. I walked through several of the 
parks in the west of the county and as far east as Panshanger after 
the gale, compass in hand, and found nearly all the trees lying 
towards the east or slightly north of east. Elms seem to have 
sufPered most, and next I think were oaks. 

At St. Albans the gale was at its height rather earlier than at 
Berkhamsted. Writing from Hedges, St. Albans, Mr. F. W. 
Silvester says : — 

** The wind began to gather force at about 1 o'clock, and at 1.45 
exactly a tremendous gust swept over Hedges Farm from a north- 
westerly direction. At that moment our garden-wall, seven feet 
high, was levelled to the ground for a distance of forty feet, and 
the best fruit-tree in the garden, a greengage, was buried beneath 
the ruins. At the same time ricks were stripped and the straw 
was blown all over the place ; a wild cherry-tree hard by was cut 
in two, the top being blown several yards from the trunk; an 
immense poplar on Mr. Wigg's estate fell; and several large and 
valuable trees on Lord Grimston's property at Sopwell were blown 
down. The high chimney-shaft of my engine-house oscillated so 
much that it was considered prudent to remove the cart-horses 
from the stable-yard adjoining it until the gale was over, and all the 
afternoon men were engaged putting harrows, etc , on the ricks in 
order to prevent further damage. Some straw in one of my fields 
was blown a distance of two fields* length back to the homestead. 
It appeared that the shepherd wanted a special heap of straw as a 
shelter for his lambs. The foreman wished him to use some other. 
He, however, took three or four bundles out of the forbidden heap, 
and strange to say each one was blown back to the rickyard, no 
doubt much to the delight of the foreman, who thought that the 
act of disobedience was justly punished. Later in the afternoon 
I had occasion to drive to Leav^en, and the havoc effected on the 
route bore evidence to the north-westerly direction of the wind as 
far as I could see. A large tree at Leavesden Asylum fell at the 
time we felt the full force of the gale at Hedges." 

I now give a brief account of the damage done by the gale 
chiefly as recorded at the time in three of our county newspapers 
— the * Watford Observer,' the * Herts Advertiser,' and the * Hert- 
fordshire Mercury.' 

In the north of Hertfordshire the gale did much damage to 
Royston and its neighbourhood. The cupola in the cemetery was 
blown off, falling upon and damaging the roof of the building. 
Tiles and slates were scattered about the streets, straw stacks were 
blown to pieces, and many trees were torn up by the roots or 
snapped in two. At Hitchin the gale did much damage to roofs 
and chimnej's, and uprooted a large number of trees, chiefly elms, 
some of which fell across the roads, interrupting the traffic. 

In the west the gale was severely felt in Hemel Hempstead. 
The parapet on the eastern side of the Midland Eailway bridge was 



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IN HEBIFOBBSHIBS. 201 

blown over on to the line of railway. Exposed farmyards suffered 
much, the thatch and some of the contents of ricks being scattered 
to a great distance. 

In the south-west the gale was severely felt. At Rickmans- 
worth, slates, tiles, and fencing were blown down, and some shop- 
shutters in High Street were blown in. A stable at Woodcock 
Hill was blown down. Fine trees were uprooted in Moor Park 
and Rickmansworth Park, and at Loudwater Hill and Croxley 
Green. In Watford a garden-wall and palisading in Clarendon 
Eoad were blown down, plate glass windows in High Street were 
smashed by shutters being blown through them, and chimneys fell 
through the roof of Field House. The trees in Cassiobury Park 
suffered severely, several being uprooted and branches of others 
torn off. At Aldenham stacks were much damaged and many 
large trees were blown down or had branches torn off them. 

Proceeding towards the centre of the county the havoc wrought 
by the gale was even greater than in the west and south-west. An 
account of some of its effects in the neighbourhood of St. Albans 
has already been given. Three of the finest old trees at Halls 
Place fell not many minutes before I saw them Ijdng prostrate in 
St. Peter's church-yard. Some of the oldest trees in Gorhambury 
Park were uprooted and others were broken off near the ground. 
On the Sandridge road the hedges presented a strange appearance, 
being lined with straw from demolished stacks ; straw was also 
hanging over the telegraph wires of the Midland Railway for 
miles. At Harpenden a wall near Mardell's brewery was blown 
down, several stacks and outbuildings were stripped of their 
thatch, and many trees were blown down in the neighbourhood. 
Similar damage was done at Hatfield, slates and chimney-pots 
being blown off, and the contents of ricks scattered in all direc- 
tions, while trees were uprooted and huge branches were torn off 
others. Several trees were blown down in Hatfield Park and 
Brocket Park, while further north the fine ayenues of Knebworth 
Park suffered irretrievable damage. In the neighbourhood of 
Welwyn many trees, chiefly elms, fell, and others lost largo 
branches. The trees in Digswell and Tewin Water Parks suffered 
severely. 

In the east of Hertfordshire similar damage was done in Pans- 
hanger, Watton, and Sacombe Pca*ks, and also in the parks and 
woods in the neighbourhood of Buntingford. At Hertford the 
gable- end of a house in Villiers Street was blown down, several 
other houses were damaged in various ways, and roofs were blown 
off sheds and stables. A considerable length of the wall round 
The Grove, Port Hill, was demolished. A tree in the Castle 
grounds was blown down, and also one in Morgan's Walk, several 
others in the neighbourhood sharing a similar fate. Stacks also 
were much injured. Several slates were blown off the roof of the 
dome of Haileybury Chapel and carried some sixty yards across the 
quadrangle and through one of the dormitory windows. At Ware 
tiie gable-end of a house in Little Horse Lane was blown down, 

VOL. vin. — PAET vn. • 16 



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202 J. HOPKINSON — SALE OF THE 24tH OP IIAKCH, 1895. 

roofs and cowls of malting-housea were much damaged, and a large 
window at the west end of Christ Church was blown in, crashing 
through the flooring-boards, without being broken. The brick 
wall bordering the Presdales estate on the London Boad was blown 
to the ground for a length of from sixty to seventy yards. Hay 
and straw stacks were unroofed and scattered, and many trees in 
the neighbourhood were uprooted. Three large trees on the side 
of the road leading from Baldock Street to Wadesmill fell across 
the road, stopping traffic until the following day, when they were 
removed. The fine old avenue in Ware Park suffered severely, no 
less than sixteen of its trees being levelled to the ground. At 
Hoddesdon considerable damage was done in several parte of the 
town ; a stone cross was blown off the top of the church ; and large 
boughs of trees were wrenched off at Rose Hill and elsewhere in 
the neighbourhood. 

Our record is a long one, but it can by no means be considered 
exhaustive. It covers nearly the whole of Hertfordshire, and it 
must not be inferred that in the few districts which have not been 
alluded to, no damage, or but little, was done, but rather that 
these districts have not been visited by me and no reports from 
them have appeared in the newspapers from which my information 
has been derived. Most of the damage seems to have been done by 
two gusts of wind, one at about 1.45 p.m., the other at 3. The 
severe frost of February, which penetrated far into the ground, 
must have considerably loosened the surface-soil, and this may 
account to some extent for the very large number of trees which 
were uprooted, especially in the case of such shallow-rooted trees 
as elms, which suffered most. It is also possible that some trees 
which withstood the first gust had their roots somewhat loosened 
by it and succumbed to tiie second, though neither gust alone 
would have brought them down. The great force of the wind is, 
however, amply testified to by the snapping of large trees just 
above their roots, as in Gorhambury Park, and by the huge 
branches torn off others. 

It is to be hoped that our county may not again for many years 
be visited by such a devastating gale as swept over it on this 
memorable Sunday afternoon. 



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XXVI. 

MISCELLANEOUS NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 

Entomology. 

Head at Watford, 2%th December, 1894. 

Tree- Wasp's Nest at Herga, Watford. — About the middle of last 
June a man whom I had employed to mow the grass around some 
trees in my garden informed me that he had been a great deal 
troubled by wasps, and after much search (for he had looked on 
the ground) had discovered a wasp^s nest on a Cedrus deodara. 
The nest was on a lower branch about two feet from the ground, 
and, when I first saw it, was a little larger than a big cocoa-nut. 

As this was the first nest of the tree-wasp {Vespa silvestris) 
which I had met with, I asked my neighbour, Mr. George Hooper, 
to look at it, and he informed me that the nest would grow much 
larger, and that the wasps were not nearly so pugnacious as our 
common ground- wasp ( Vespa vulgaris). Such I found to be the 
case, as though I looked at the wasps every day quite closely, they 
never attacked me, and the nest grew imperceptibly and apparently 
by expansion from within, for I could never detect any fresh 
addition to the exterior. 

My time being much occupied from the middle of July, I had 
but few opportunities of watching the nest after then, and on the 
21st I went on a visit to some Mends. Eetuming on the 1st of 
August, I went to look at the nest and found but very few wasps 
about, and these were extremely inactive. On visiting it a few 
days later I saw that all the wasps were gone. I then cut off the 
branch with the nest and had them mounted in a case. 

The wasps appeared to me to be darker in colour than the 
ground-wasp, the yellow being of rather a duller hue, while the 
black bands were somewhat wider. 

A short time after my wasp*s nest was discovered, I was asked 
by Mr. and Mrs. Osborne, of Widcombe Lodge, Watford, to see 
another nest, apparently of the same species of wasp, which had 
been built in the pantry window between the glass and some 
lattice-work with a spray or two of ivy across it, the nest being 
attached to the glass on one side and to the lattice-work on the 
other. These wasps did not molest the inmates of the house, but 
Mrs. Osborne informed me that they were obliged to have them 
destroyed, as their neighbours complained that they would eat 
their fruit. In this I think that the neighbours were wrong, and 
I am somewhat at a loss to know what these wasps feed on, for, 
with an abundant crop of peaches, nectarines, and plums all around 
them, I never saw one of them on a fruit, while the ground-wasp 
is a voracious thief. — Daniel Silly Watford. 

Metbokologt. 
Mead at Watford, 26lh March, 1895. 
Temperature and Rainfall at Mitchin, 1850-94. — The last five 
seasons show the temperature of the three winter months to have 



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204 HI8CELLAKEOX7S NOTES AlO) 0B8ERVA.TI0NS. 

been lower than the average during the previous forty years, the 
mean minimum during those years being 15^*1, while for the forty- 
five years it stands at 14^*4, the mean maximum being unaltered. 

Last February was the coldest month ever recorded here, its 
mean temperature being 26°'6. The nearest approach to it was 
in the Crimean winter of 1855, when the mean temperature of 
February was 27^-0; this was also the mean of December, 1890. 
The following are the instances of months showing a mean 
temperature below freezing point: — 

1866 Feb. 27°0 1874 Dec. 29-2 1880 Jan. 31°2 1890 Dec. 270 

1861 Jan. 31*3 1878 Dec. 31-0 1881 Jan. 28*1 1891 Jan. 31*3 

1870 Dec. 30-9 1879 Jan. 28*9 1886 Feb. 308 1895 Jan. 309 

1871 Jan. 31*3 „ Dec. 297 „ Mar. 30*8 „ Feb. 26*5 

With regard to the rainfall, the mean of forty years was 
24*80 inches ; it is now, for forty-five years, 24*69 inches. 

I am afraid we are forced to come to the conclusion that our 
seasons are becoming colder and drier. — William Lucas, Hitchin, 

Supplementary Note on Temperature and Rainfall at Hitchin, 
— When giving, in our * Transactions * (Vol. VI, pp. 72, 73), 
a summary of the observations of Mr. Lucas for the forty years, 
1850-89, I stated that they did not show that the temperature or 
the rainfall in the north of Hertfordshire was undergoing any 
secular change, but that a connection could be traced between the 
temperature and the rainfall, cold periods being wet and warm 
periods being dry. The extended observations fully bear out these 
inferences, for if the forty-five years be divided into three equal 
periods of fifteen years each, it will be found that for the 
first period the mean temperature was 47°* 1, the mean rainfall, 
23°-75 ins. ; for the second period the mean temperature was 46^*9, 
the mean rainfall, 25*78 ins. ; and for the third period the mean 
temperature was, as in the first period, 47^*1, the mean rainfall, 
24*54 ins., being very nearly the mean of the first two periods 
together. That wet periods are on the average cold, and dry 
periods warm, is shown more strikingly if the forty-five years 
be divided into five periods of nine years eachj as follows : — 

1850-58 Mean Temperatore 47°' 1 Mean Bainfall 24*42 ina. 

1859-67 „ „ 4r'*3 „ „ 24*27 „ 

1868-76 „ „ 47°*1 „ „ 24*18 „ 

1877-85 „ „ 4i>^*9 „ „ 26*27 „ 

1886-94 „ „ 4r*7 „ „ 23-31 „ 

It will be seen that both the temperature and the rainfall of the 
first three periods of nine years each were about the same in each 
period; that in the fourth period the temperature was very low 
and the rainfall very heavy; and that in the fifth and last 
period the temperature was rather high and the rainfall rather 
small. — John Hophinson, 8t, Albans. 



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INDEX. 



A. 

Accentor modularis, habits of, 1 57. 
Accipiter nisus, habits of, 160. 
Achcrontia atropos at St. Albans, 79. 
Adaptation to surroundings, curious 

instance of, in larree, 7d. 
Additions to the Library in 1893, XTiii ; 

in 1894, Ivi. 
Address, Anniyersary, 1894, 86 ; 1895, 

169. 
AgaricuB (Leptonia) euehrous found 

near Aldbury, xl. 
Age of bronze, 1 ; of stone, 169. 
AgrotU puta new to Herts, 76 ; A. 

obtcura on Hertford Heath, 190. 
Air in towns, pollution of, xlvi. 
Albinism in birds, 54, 152. 
Alcedo inpida in Herts, 53. 
Aldbury visited, xxxviii ; list of fungi 

collected near, xxxix. 
Aldenham, rainfall at, in 1894, 131 ; 

gale of March 24, 1895, at, 201. 
Ampclia garrulus near Hertford, 50. 
Anaitis plagiata at Watford, 191. 
Animal, a wonderful, 85. 
AnniTersary Meetings, Feb. 27, 1894, 

xiv ; Feb. 26, 1895, ^ J Address, 

1894, 85; 1895, 169. 
Apsley Mills, Hemel Hempstead, rain- 
fall at, in 1893, 36; in 1894, 134. 
Aquatic mammals, x. 
Archeeology, pre-historic, defined, 1. 
Armlets of bronze, 8. 
Arrow-heads of bronze, 8 ; of flint, 178. 
Ashrid^e Park visited, xxxriii ; list of 

fungi collected in and near, xxxix. 
Ashwell, phenological observations at, 

in 1894, 194. 
Attfibld, Prof. J., remarks on 

softening of hard water, xlix, li. 
Auk, little, near Royston, 51. 
Autumn of 1893, ^^> ^^ i ^^ ^^f 

164, 198. 
Awls of bronze, 6. 
Axes of bronze, 6. 
Ayot, derivation of the name, xxiii. 
Ayot St. Lawrence visited, xxiv. 
Ayot St. Peter visited, xxiii. 
Ayres, C. p., remarks on softening of 

hard water, 1. 

VOL. Tin. — ^PABT IX. 



B. 

Bacteriology, of recent growth, 14. 

Badhamia nitena at Caddington and 
near Kensworth, 66 ; B. uiricularis^ 
living Plasmodium of, shown by 
lantern, 70. 

Balance-sheet for 1893, xvii ; 1894, Iv. 

Bamet, New, rainfall at, in 1893, ^^i 
in 1894, 134; climatolo^cal observa- 
tions at, in 1893, 47 ; in 1894, 127. 

Bayfordbury, Hertford, rainfall at, in 
1893, 36; in 1894, 134. 

Bedfordshire, Mycetozoa of, 71. 

Bbldbrsox, W. J.,on wasp -infestation 
of 1893 at Elstree, 24. 

Bennington, rainfall at, in 1893, 36; 
in 1894, 134; climatological observa- 
tions at, in 1893, 47 ; in 1894, 127. 

Berkhamsted, wasp-infestation at, 23 ; 
phenological observations at, in 

1893, ^^ ' ^^ ^^^^' ^^^ * rainfall 
at, in 1893, 36; in 1894, 134; gale 
of March 24, 1895, ^^ l^^- 

Bemicla canadetitiB at Roj'ston, 49. 

Birds, memorial to Herts County 
Council for protection of, Ixi ; 
observed at field meetings, xxvi, Ixvi : 
observed in Herts in 1893, 49 ; in 

1894, 147 ; frequenting the neigh- 
bourhood of Heronsgate, 165. 

Bittern at Tring Reservoirs, 160. 
Blackbven, H., remarks on softening 

of hard water, 1. 
Blastopore of the frog's egg, 129. 
Blathwayt, a. p., remarks on 

softening of hard water, 1. 
Blocks, erratic, recording of, xlvii. 
Blow, T. B., on wasp-infestation of 

1893 at Welwyn, 25. 
Boa constrictor f feeding of, xlviii. 
Botaurut stcllaris at Tring Reservoirs, 

160. 
Bracelets of bronze, 8. 
Brain, its weight in man, 94. 
Brett, Dr. A. T., remarks on the 

Bronze Age, ix ; on wasp-infestatiun 

of 1893 at Watford, 23. 
British Association, Oxford, 1894, 

report on Conferences of Delegates 

to, xli. 

16 



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206 



TKDEX. 



British hut-f oundationB near Dunstable, 

zxix. 
British Museum (Natural History) 

visited, in 1894, xxi ; in 1895, ^^• 
BaiTTON and Bbatlbt (quoted) on 

Dunstable Priory Church, box. 
Brocket Hall, Welwyn, rainfall at, in 

1893, 36 ; in 1894, 134. 
Brocket Park, Welwyn, visited, xxt. 
Bronze Age, 1 ; chronology of, 9. 
Bronze, composition of, 1 ; method of 

casting weapons of, 11. 
Beown, a. M., on the springs at 

Trine^, xxxiv ; entertainment of 

members by, xxxv. 
Bbown, T., on wasp-infestation of 

1893 ftt Hatfield, 26. 
Broxbonme, phenological obserrations 

at, in 1893, 2d; ^ i^) ^^^'f 

rainfall at, in 1893, 36 ; in 1804, 134. 
Buckinghamshire, Mycetozoa of, 72. 
BuUiinch, habits of, 158. 
Buntingford, rainfall at, in 1893, 36 ; 

in 1S94, 134 ; gale of March 24, 

1895, at, 201. 
Bupalus piniaria at Chipperfleld, 191. 
Butterflies observed in 1893, 76; in 

1894, 188. 

Buxton, J. H., on preservation of our 
rare and beautiful birds, Ix. 

BcxTON, T. F., on preservation of 
our useful birds, Ix. 

Bye-meetings, 1894, April 21, Natural 
History Museum, South Kensington, 
xxi; June 16, Zoological Qardens, 
Kegent's Park, xxx ; 1895, ^pril 27, 
Natural History Museum, South 
Kensington, Ixii. 



Caddington visited, xxvii ; ancient lake 
at, xxvii ; flint implemente made at, 
xxvii ; geology of, xxviii ; in Roman 
and in Saxon times, xxix; palaeo- 
lithic implements found at, 184. 

Cahdria arenaria in Herts, 64. 

Cam district, rainfall in, in 1893, ^^ 1* 
in 1894, 137. 

Cameron, A. 0. G., remarks on the 
geology of Caddington, xxviii. 

Canada goose shot at Royston, 49. 

Cataloguing specimens in local 
museums, xlii. 

Cauldrons of bronze, 9. 

Celts of bronze, 4 ; of stone, 173. 

CerthiafamUiaria ix Bricket Wood, 62. 

Chaffinch, habits of, 157. 

Charaaa fframinitf infestation of, in 
1894, 190. 

Cheimatobia boreata new to Herts, 76. 



Cheshnnt, rainfall at, in 1893, 36 ; in 

1894, 134. 
Chisels of stone, 174. 
Chronology of Bronze Age, 9. 
Chryaomitris elegana^ habits of, 167. 
Circulation of museum specimens, xlii. 
Cireua eyaneua^ habits of, 169. 
Cirl-bunting near Tring, 149. 
CUmgula glaueim on Tring Reservoirs, 

161. 
Classification in local museums, referees 

for, xliii. 
Climatological observations in Herts, 

in 1893, ^^ > ^ i^* 1'^^- 
Coecothrauatea vulgaria in Herts, 52. 
CoUybia Umgipea in Grove Park, 

Watford, IxxL 
Colne district, rain^ in, in 1893, ^^ ! 

in 189^, 137. 
Colne valley, floods of November, 1894, 

in, 144'; palteolithic implements 

found in, 182. 
Conferences of Delegates to British 

Association, Oxford, 1894, repoi^ 

on, xli. 
Copper Age, 3 ; implements, origin 

Corvua corax near Tring, 149 ; C 

frugiUgua^ habits of, 158. 
Council elected, 1894, xiv; 1895, ^^« 

report of, for 1893, xv ; for 1894, Hi. 
County Councils, their relations with 

local museums, xliv. 
Cowroast, Tring, rainfall at, in 1893, 

36 ; in 1894, 134. 
Crepia taraxacifoUa near Wheathamp- 

stead, XXV. 
Cribraria violaeea on Ivinghoe Hills, 69. 
Crossbills at Tring, 148 ; near Berk- 

hamsted, 149. 
Cbossman, a. F., remarks on destruc- 
tion of birds, Ix ; ornithological 

notes by, Ixvi: on the crossbill, 149. 
Cryptogamic plants, lists of, xxxix, 

Ixvii, Ixxii, 71. 
Crystals and precious stones, xiii. 
CueuUia verbtuci at Hitchin, 191 ; C. 

M«momt/to at Watford, 191. 
Cygnua muaieua near Hertford, 51. 



Dabchick, nests of, Ixvi, 

Daggers of bronze, 7. 

Danesbury, Welwyn, rainfall at, in 

i8q3, 38; in 1894, 131. 
Datch worth, rainfall at, in 1893, 36; 

in 1894, 134. 
Days of rain in 1893, 39 ; in 1894, 137. 
Death-rate in large towns, 114. 
Detopeia pulchella at East Barnet, 76. 



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IVDBZ. 



207 



Delaporty Wbeathampstead, yiflited, 

XX vi. 
Dendi-ocopus major and minor in Herts, 

63 ; i>. minor y habits of, 169. 
Dieranura fureula at Hitchin, 190. 
Drift beds at Caddington, xxvili. 
Droughts in 1893, 33 ; in 1894^ 132. 
Duck, tufted, on Trine Eeservoir, 150. 
Dundale spring near Tring, xxxir. 
Dunlin at Redooum, 54. 
Dunstable visited, xxx, Ixvii ; west 

front of its Priory Chnrch described, 

Ixix. 
Dyke near Wheathampstead, xxtI. 

E. 

Ear-rings of bronze, 8. 

Earth-tremors, their investigation, xlvi. 

Elstree, wasp-visitation at, 24 ; rain- 
fall at, in 1894, 131. 

Emheriza eirlus near Tring, 149; E. 
citrinella, habits of, 158. 

England, death-rate in large towns 
of, 114. 

JErithacut rubeeuhf pugnacity of, 151. 

Erratic blocks, recoraing of, xlvii. 

Ethnographical Survey, xlviii. 

Eupithecia minutata new to Herts, 76 ; 
E. putillata at Watford, new to 
Herts, 192. 

Etans, Sir John: The Bronze Age, 
ix, 1-12 ; remarks on local museums, 
ilv ; Anniversary Address — The 
Stone Age in Hertfordshire, lii, 
169-187. 

Expenditure in 1893, xvii ; in 1894, Iv. 

F. 

Fairhill, Berkhamsted, rainfall at, in 
1893, 36 ; in 1894, 134. 

Fanhams Hall, Ware, rainfall at, in 
1893, 36 ; in 1894, 134. 

Feilde's Weir, Hoddesdon, rainfall at, 
in 1894, 131. 

Field Meetings, 1894, April 28, Ayot 
St. Peter and Ayot St. Lawrence, 
xxiii ; May 19, Brocket Park and 
Wheathampstead, xxv ; May 26, 
Luton, Caadington, and Dunstable, 
xxvii ; June 23, Tring, zxxiii ; 
Junejo, Stevenage, the Wymondleys, 
and Hitchin, xxxv ; Oct. 13, Aldbiury 
and Ashridge Park, xxxviii ; 1895, 
May II, Tewin and Panshan^er, 
Ixiii ; June 8, Great Gaddesden, 
Nettleden, and Frithsden, Ixiv ; 
June i<, Luton Hoo, Ixvi ; June 22, 
Dunstable and Tottemhoe, Ixvii ; 
Oct. 19, The Grove, Watford, Ixi. 



Fieldfare at St. Albans, 52. 

Files of bronze, 6. 

Flint implements, how manufactured, 

171 ; flakes, how struck off flint, 172. 
Floods of November, 1894, in Hert<, 

141. 
Flowbe, Sir W., reception of members 

by, xxi, Ixii. 
Flowering plants, lists of, xxiv, xxxviii, 

Ixvii. 
Fratermla aretiea near Hertford, 52 ; 

at St. Albans, 152. 
Fringilla calehsy habits of, 157. 
Frog's G^gf blastopore and hypoblast 

of, 129. 
Fuligula firina on Tring Reservoirs, 

150 ; near Watford, 152 ; F. crittata 

on Tring Reservoirs, 150. 
Fungi of Aldbury and Ashridge Park, 

xxxix ; of Grove Park and Woods, 

Watford, Ixxu. 



G. 

(raddesden. Great, visited, Ixv ; its 
church described, Ixv; rainfall at, 
in 1893, 36 ; in 1894, 134. 

Gade valley, floods of I^ovember, 1894, 
in, 144 ; palsBolithic implements 
found in, 182. 

Gale of March 24, 1895, ^ Herts, 
199. 

Gales in Herts in 1893, 42, 43. 

QalUnago e<Bli$tia and gallinula in 
Herts, 54. 

Oeemut viridU in Herts, 53. 

Geography, teachiug of, in schools, 
xlviii. 

Geological photographs, xlvii. 

Geology of Caddin^n, xxviii ; of 
Hitcnin Hill, xxxvii; of Tottemhoe, 
Ixvii. 

G1BB8, A. E. : The Wasp Infestation 
of 1893, xxi. 22-26; Notes on 
Lepidoptera observed in Hertford- 
shire during the year 1893, xxi, 
74-84 ; . . . during the year 1894, 
Ixi, 188-192. 

GiLLUM, Col., list of Lepidoptera 
captured by, in 1893, 76. 

Golden-eye on Tring Reservoirs, 151. 

Goldfinch, habits of, 157. 

Goose, Canada, shot at Royston, 49. 

Gorhambury, St. Albans, rainfall at, 
in 1893, 36 ; in 1894, 134. 

Grasshopper- warbler, habits of, 156. 

Great Gaddesden, 9ee Gaddesden. 

Grimston, Lady Anne, her tomb at 
Tewiu Church, liiv. 

Gun-flints, how manufactured, 172. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



208 



INDEX. 



H. 

Hadena dUaimilia new to Herts, 76. 

Hadham, Much, rainfall at, in 1893, 
36; in 1894, 134. 

Haileybury, Hertford, rainfall at, in 
1893* 38. 

Halberds of bronze, 8 ; of stone, 172. 

Hamels Park, Buntingford, rainfall at, 
in 1893, 36 ; in 1894, 134. 

Hammers of bronze, 6 ; of stone, 174. 

Hard and soft water, relative ad- 
Tantaees of, 101. 

Harpenden, phonological obsenrations 
at, in 1893, 28 ; in 1894, 194 ; rain- 
fall at, in 1893, 36, 38; in 1894, 131, 
134 ; gale of March 24, 1895, ^^ 2^^- 

Haevey, D. H. : The Lower Micro- 
organisms and their Belation to 
Every-day Life, xi, 13-16. 

Hatchets of bronze, 6; of stone, 172. 

Hatfield, wasp-infestation at, 25 ; 
rainfall at, in 1893, 36 ; in 1894, 
134 ; phonological observations at, 
in 1894, 194 ; gale of March 24, 
1895, »^> 201- 

Hawtiuch in Herts, 62. 

Hawk-moths observed in 1893, 79. 

Hearing, sense of, in man, 9s. 

Heaton, N., list of Lepidoptera cap- 
tured by, in 1893, 76. 

Hedge-sparrow, habits of, 167. 

ffeltx pomatia at Luton Hoo, Ixvii. 

Hemel Hempstead, rainfall at, in 1893, 
36 ; in 1894, 134 ; gale of March 24, 
1895, at, 200. 

Hen-harrier, habits of, 169. 

Heronsgate, birds &eauenting, 166. 

Hertfora, phenological observations at, 
in 1893, 28 ; in 1894, 194 ; rainfall 
at, in 1893, 36, 38 ; in 1894, 134 ; 
gale of March 24, 1895, at, 201. 

Hertfordshire, wasp-infestation of 1893 
in, 22 ; phenological observations in, 
in 1893, 27 ; in 1894, 193 ; rainfall 
in, in 1893, 33 ; in 1894, 131 ; 
climatological observations in, in 
1893, 46 ; in 1894, 126 ; birds 
observed in, in 1893, *^ J ^ 1894, 
147 ; meteorological observations in, 
in 1893, 67 ; in 1894, 161 ; Myceto- 
zoa of, 71 ; Lepidoptera observed 
in, in 1893, 74; in 1894, 188; 
floods of November, 1804, in, 141 ; 
Stone Age in, 169 ; gale of March 
24, 1895, in, 199. 

High Down, Hitchin, rainfall at, in 
1893, 36 ; in 1894, 134. 

Hill, D. : Tree Wasp's Nest at Herga, 
Watford, xlviii, 203 ; remarks on 
softening of hard water, 1. 



Hill, W., on geology of Hitchin 
Hill, iixvii. 

Hitchin, wasp -infestation of 1893 at, 
26 ; phenological observations at, in 
1893, 28; in 1894, 194; rainfall 
at. in 1893, 36 ; in 1894, 134. 

Hitchin HUl clay-pits visited, iiivii ; 
ancient lake at, xxxvii. 

Hoddesdon, rainfall at, in 1894, 131. 

HoPKiNSON, J. : Report on Uie Rain- 
fall in Hertfordshire in the year 

1893, xii, 33-44 ; ... in the year 

1894, Ix, 131-140; Climatological 
Ol^rvations taken in Hertfordshire 
in the year 1893, xxi, 46-48 ; . . . 
in the year 1894, Ixi, 126-128; 
Meteorological Observations taken at 
The Grange, St. Albans, daring the 
year 1893, xxi, 67-64 ; . . . during 
the year 1894, Ixi, 161-168; Report 
on the Conferences of Delegate to 
the British Association at Oxford in 
1894, xli-xlviii ; The Relative 
Advantages of Hard and Soft 
Water, with Special Reference to 
the Supply of Watford, xlix, li, 
101-115 ; The Floods of November, 
1894, in Hertfordshire, Ix, 131-140 ; 
The Gale of March 24, 1895, in 
Hertfordshire, Ixi. 199-202; Tem- 
perature and Rainfall at Hitchin, 
Ix, 204. 

Hughes, W. : Herbert Spencer : a 
Sketch of his Life and Work (titie 
only), xli. 

Hutchinson, Rev. H. S., Extinct 
Monsters (title only), Ix. 

Hut-foundations, British, near Dun- 
stable, xxix. 

Hypoblast of the frog's egg, 129. 



Iguanodon described, bdi. 

Income and expenditure in 1893, xvir; 

in 1894, Iv. 
Infestation of wasps in 1893, 22. 
Ivel district, rainfall in, in 1893, 39 ; 

in 1894, 137. 



Eensworth, rainfall at, in 1893, 36 ; 

in 1894, 134. 
Kino, Dr. A. : On the Advantages of 

a Supply of Soft Water for the 

Town of Watford, xlviii, li, 116-124. 
Kingfisher in Herts, 63. 
Knives of bronze, 6. 
Kytes, Watford, rainfall at, in 1893, 

38 ; in 1894, 131. 



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INDEX. 



209 



Laxb, F. Q., on wasp-iDfestation of 

1893 A^ Berkhamsted, 23. 
Lanree abundant in 1893, 74 ; carious 

instance of adaptation to surroundings 

in, 76. 
Lea district, rainfall in, in 1893, ^9 ; 

in 1894, 137. 
Lea valley, floods of November, 1894, 

in, 145 ; paloeolithic implements 

found in, 183. 
Lectures in local museums, xliv. 
Lepidoptera observed in Herts in 1893, 

74 ; in 1894, 188. 
Lewis, H. : Notes on Birds observed 

in Hertfordshire during the year 

1893, ™» 49-56 ; . . . during the 

J rear 1894, Ix, 147-154 ; omitho- 
ogical notes by, xxvi ; on wasp- 

in testation of 1893 at St. Albans, 22. 
Library, additions to, in 1893, xviii ; 

in 1894, Ivi. 
Limerick, Earl and Countess of, 

reception of members by, Ixiv. 
Local museums, xlii. 
Locustella naiia, habits of, 163. 
Zoxia eurvirostra at Tring, 148 ; near 

Berkhamsted, 149. 
Lucas, W. : Temperature and Rainfall 

at Hitchin, 1850-94, Ix, 203-204. 
Luton visited, xxvii ; St. Mary's 

Church at, noticed, xx\'ii. 
Lycana corydon at Lilley Hoo, 78. 



M. 

Macroghasa ttellatarttm abundant in 
1893, 80. 

Maiden Bower, Dunstable, visited, 
Ixvii. 

Mammals, aquatic, x. 

Man, as an animal, 85 ; his senses, 89 ; 
his progress and decay, 95 ; Ids 
future extermination due to civili- 
zation, 97 ; his great antiquity, 185. 

March 24, 1895, gale of, in Herts, 
199. 

Harden Hill visited, Ixiv : rainfall at, 
in 1893, 36 ; in 1894, 134. 

Masses, G., lists of fungi by, xxxix, 
Ixxii ; remarks- on collection of fungi, 
Ixxi. 

Mawlet, E. : Report on Phenological 
i'henomena observed in Hertford- 
shire during the year 1893, xxi, 
27-32 ; . . . during the vear 1894, 
Ixi, 193-198 ; gule of March 24, 
1895, ** Berkhamsted, 199. 

Melanism in Lepidoptera, 192. 

Merffultu alle near Royston, 51. 



Mergua albelltu near Watford, 51. 

Meteorological photography, xlvi ; 
observations taken at The Grange, 
St. Albans, in 1893, ^7 ; in 1894, 
161. 

Micro-organisms, the lower, 13. 

Migrants, summer, arrival and de- 
parture, in 1893, 54; in 1894, 153. 

Mimicking of song by birds, 54. 

Miscellaneous notes and observations, 
203. 

Moat near Wheathampstead, xxvi. 

MoUusca found at Luton Hoo, Ixvii. 

Moor Park, Rickmans worth, rainfall 
at, in 1893, 36 ; in 1894, 134. 

Motacilla melanope near Tring Reser- 
voirs, 148. 

Moths observed in 1893, 80 ; in 1894, 
189. 

Much Hadham, see Hadham. 

Museum lectures and demonstrations, 
xliv. 

Museums, local, xlii ; methods of 
making attractive, xliii ; relations 
with County Councils, xliv. 

Mycetozoa, found near Aldbury, xl ; 
notes on, 65; list of Herts species, 
71 ; of Beds species, 71 ; of Bucks 
species, 72. 

Myosurus minimus at Ayot St. Peter, 

XXV. 

N. 

Nash Mills, Hemel Hempstead, rainfall 

at, in 1893, 36 ; in 1894, 134. 
Natural History Museum, South 

Kensington, visited, xxi, Ixii. 
Natural history of the salmon, 17. 
Neolithic or surface-stone period, 170. 
Nest of tree-wasp at "Watford, 203. 
New Bamet, see Bamet. 
Nomenclature, referees for, xliii. 
Nonagna arundinis at St. Albans, 190. 
Northchurch, rainfall at, in 1894, 131. 
Notes and observations, miscellaneous, 

203. 
November, 1894, floods of, in Herts, 

Ul. 
Nutting, — , on wasp-infestation of 

1893 a^ 3^- Albans, 22. 

0. 

Oaklands, "Watford, rainfall at, in 

1893, 36; in 1894, 131. 
Observations, ' phenological, in Herts, 

in 1893, ^7 : in 1894, 193 ; climato- 
logical, in Herts, in 1893, 45; in 

1894, 125; meteorological, at St. 
Albans, in 1893, 67 ; in 1894, 161 ; 
miscellaneous, 203. 



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210 



INDEX. 



Odsey, phenoloeieal observatioiiB at, 
in 1893, 28; in 1894, 194; rainfall 
at, in 1893, 36 ; in 1894, 134. 

Ordinary meetings, 1893, ii-ii ; 1894, 
xi-riv, xi-xxi, xH-ilviii, 1895, 
xlviii-li, Ix-lxi. 

Ornithological notes, xxTi, Ixri. 

P. 

FalsBolitliic implements at Oaddington, 

ixviii, 184. 
PalsBolithic or old Stone Age, 180. 
Palstaves of bronze, 6. 
Panshanger Park visited, liir. 
Papers, Hat of, read in 1893, iv ; in 

1894, liii. 
Partridge, instance of deception in, 53. 
Fmser nwntanu* in Herts, 62. 
Peek, C, on local museums, xlii. 
Peudley Manor, Tring, rainfall at, in 

1893, 36 ; in 1894, 134. 
Ferdix einereUy deception in, 63. 
Fhasianus coichicus, varieties of, 63. 
Pheasant, varieties of, 63. 
Phenological phenomena observed in 

Herts in 1893, 27 ; in 1894, 193. 
Photographs, geological, ilvii. 
Photography, meteorological, ilvi. 
Fhylloscopm sibiUUrix at St. Albans, 

62. 
Pins of bronze, 9. 
Plants, cryptogamic, lists of, xxxix. 

Ixvii, Ixxii, 71 ; flowering, lists of, 

ixiv, xxxviii, Ixvii. 
Plasmodium of Mycetozoa, 70. 
Flectrophams nivalit in Herts, 62. 
Pochard on Tring Reservoirs, 160; 

near Watford, 152. 
Pollution of air in towns, xlvi. 
Frays curtisellm, ravages of, 192. 
Pre-historic archteologj' defined, 1. 
President's Address, 1894, 85. 
I*rotection of birds, Ixi. 
Puffin near Hertford, 62 ; at St. Albans, 

152. 
Fyrrhula europaa, habits of, 168. 



Querqwdula rr^cca on Tring Reservoirs, 
150. 

R. 

Radlett, phenological observations at, 

in 1893, 28; in 1894, 194. 
Rainfall in Herts in 1893, 33; in 

1894, 131 ; at Hitchin, 1850-94, 

203, 204. 
Ransom, W., entertainment of members 

by, xxxviii. 



Raven ^ear Tring, 149. 

Redbreast, pugnacity of, 161. 

Red House, Ware, rainfall at, in 1893, 
36 ; in 1894, 134. 

Redstart, black, at Heronsgate, 49. 

Registration of spedmens in local 
museums, xlii. 

Relative advantages of hard and soft 
water, 101. 

Report of the Council for 1893, xv ; 
for 1894, lii ; on phenological phe- 
nomena in 1893, 27 ; in 1894, 193 ; 
on the rainfall in Herts in 1893, 33 ; 
in 1894, 131. 

Rickmansworth, rainfall at, in 189^, 
36 ; in 1894, 134 ; gale of March 
24, 1895, at, 201. 

Rivers, how they deepen ttieir courses, 
180. 

Robins, Mr. and Mrs. IJ., entertain- 
ment of members by, ixvi. 

Rook, habits of, 168. 

RoopEii, G. : The Natural History of 
the Salmon, xx, 17-21. 

Rothamsted, Harpenden, rainfall at, 
in 1893, 36, 38; in 1894, 131. 134. 

Royston, rainfall at, in 1893, 36 ; in 
1894, 134 ; climatological observa- 
tions at, in 1893, 45 ; in 1894, 125 ; 
gale of March 24, 1895, at, 200. 

Riues of the Society, revised Jan. 23, 

1894, xii. 

Russell, J. B. : The Blastopore of 
the Frog*s Egg in relation to the 
Hypoblast, Ixi, 129 130. 

Buticilla tityt at Heronsgate, 49. 

S. 

St. Albans, ordinary meeting at, in 
1893, X ; in 1895, xl ; wasp-infesta- 
tion at, 22; phenological observa- 
tions at, in 1893, 28; in 1894, 194; 
rainfall at, in 1893, ^^'* ^^ iS94> 
134 ; climatological observations at, 
in 1893, 46 ; in 1894, 126 ; meteoro- 
logical observations at, in 1893, ^7 ; 
in 1894, 161 ; gale of March 24, 

1895, at, 200, 201. 
Salmon, natural history of, 17. 
Sanderling in Herts, 54. 
Sandpiper, green, in Herts, 64. 
Sandridge, gale of March 24, 1895, 

at, 201. 

Satui-nia pavonia at St. Albans, 189. 

Saunde&s, J. : Further Notes on the 
Mycetozoa, with a List of Species 
from Herts, Beds, and Bucks, xi, 
65-73 ; lists of Mycetozoa, xl, Ixvii ; 
of flowering plants and MoUusca, 
Ixvii. 



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DTDEZ. 



211 



Saws of bronze, 6. 

Scolopax ruttieuia at Tring Reeerrolis, 
151. 

Scrapers of flint, 176. 

Setenia illuntraria new to Herts, 76. 

Shsbriff, T. F., on encounter between 
wasp and bee, 24. 

Sbields of bronze, 8. 

SHiLLrroB, R., on wasp-infestation 
of 1893 A^ HitcMn, 25. 

Shoveller on Tring Reserroirs, 160. 

Sickles of bronze, 7. 

Sight, sense of, in man, 89. 

SiLYESTBR, F. W., on wasp-infesta- 
tiou of 1893 at St. Albans, 23 ; on 
gale of March 24, 1895, at St. 
Albans, 200. 

Smallford, wasp -infestation at, 25. 

Smell, sense of, in man, 93. 

SmerinthuiyjBm.y in Herts, 79. 

Smew near "Watford, 51. 

Smith, A., on wasp -infestation of 1893 
at Smallford, 25. 

Smith, "W. G., remarks on geology 
and pre-historic archaeology of Cad- 
dington, xxvii ; his discoveries of flint 
implements at Caddington, 184. 

Snipes in Herts, 54. 

Snow-bunting in Herts, 52. 

Soft and hard water, relative advantages 
of, 101. 

Soft water, advantage of supply for 
Watford, 116. 

Southgate, rainfall at, in 1893, 36; 
in 1894, 134. 

Sparrow-hawk, habits of, 160. 

Spatula clypeata at Tring Reservoirs, 
150. 

Spear-heads of bronze, 8. 

Special meeting in 1894, xi. 

Specimens in local museums, registra- 
tion and cataloguing, xlii ; protection 
from injury and dust, xlii; circulation 
for educational purposes, xlii ; nomen- 
clature and classification, xliii. 

Speech, sense of, in man, 94. 

Spencer, S. H., Ust of Lepidoptera 
captured by, in 1893, 75 ; on 
melanism in moths, 192. 

Spring of 1893, 30, 60 ; of 1894, 164, 
196. 

Stevenage, rainfall at, in 1893, 36; 
in 1894, 134. 

Stone Age in Herts, 169 ; Neolithic, 
171; PalsBolithic, 180. 

Stradlino, a.: Anniversary Address— 
A Wonderful Animal, xiv, 85-100 ; 
remarks on the Bronze Age, ix ; 
demonstrations in Natural History 
Museum, xxii, Ixii; in Zoological 
Gardens, zxx. 



Stradlino, Mr. and Mrs., entertain- 
ment of members by, xxxii. 

Strobilomyee* ttrobilacem in Grove 
Park, Watford, Ixii. 

Sugaring in 1893, 74 ; in 1894, 188. 

Summer of 1893, 31, 60 ; of 1894, 
164, 197. 

Summer migrants, arrival and departure 
of, in 1893, 54 ; in 1894, 153. 

Survey, ethnographical, xlviii. 

Swan, whooper, near Hertford, 51. 

Swiss lake-dwellings, 9. 

SwoRDER, Mr. and Mrs. C, reception 
of members by, xxxv. 

Swords of bronze, 7. 

Sylvia cinerM, habits of, 156. 



Tteniocampa, sps., in 1894, 190. 
Tarrant, K. J., on the storm of 

October 7, 1893, at Bushey, 44. 
Taste, sense of, in man, 93. 
Teal on Tring Reservoirs, 150. 
Temperature at Hitchin, 1850-94, 203, 

204. 
Tertiary beds at Caddington, xxviii. 
Tewin Church visited, Ixiv ; tomb of 

Lady Ann Grimston at, Ixiv. 
Tewin Water visited, Ixiv. 
Thame district, rainfall at, in 1893, 39 ; 

in 1894, 137. 
Therfield, rainfall at, in 1893, 36; 

in 1894, 134. 
Throcking, rainfall at, in 1893, 36; 

in 1894, 134. 
Thunderstorms in 1893, 41, 43, 62, 63 ; 

in 1894, 139. 
ToPLEY, W., obituary notice of, liii. 
Torques of bronze, 8. 
Totanus ockropua in Herts, 64. 
Tottemhoe Stone quarries, Dunstable, 

visited, Lxix. 
Towns, pollution of air in, xlvi ; death- 
rate in, 114. 
Tree-creeper at Bricket Wood, 52. 
Tree -sparrow in Herts, 52. 
Tree-wasp's nest at Watford, 203. 
Tribulum described, 173. 
Tring, rainfall at, in 1893, 36 ; in 

1894, 134 ; birds observed near, 

in 1894, 148. 
Tring Zoological Museum visited, 

xxxiii. 
Tringa alpina at Redboum, 64, 
Trumpets of bronze, 8. 
Turdtu pilaris at St. Albans, 52. 

U. 

Under^ound waters, investigation of, 
xlvii. 



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212 



iin)£z. 



V. 

Vanessa polyehloros getting scarce, 78 ; 

at St. Albans, 188 ; V. lo at Hitchin, 

189 ; V. cardui and atalanta in 

Herts, 189. 
Verey, a. S. : Notes on Birds 

frequenting the neighbourhood of 

Heronsgate, Herts, Ix, 166-160 ; 

on the black redstart (Ruticilla titys) 

in Herts, 49; on larvae of bird's- 

wing moth, 82. 
Verini, W., remarks on softening of 

hard water, U. 
Visitants, winter, arrival in 1893, 66; 

in 1894, 154. 

W. 

"Wagtail, grey, near Tring Reservoirs, 

148. 
Wailes, G. H. : Crystals and Precious 

Stones, xiii-xiv. 
"Ware, rainfall at, in 1893, 36; in 

1894, 134 ; gale of March 24, 

1895, at, 201. 
Wasp-infestation of 1899^ 22. 
"Water End, Hemel Hempstead, visited, 

Ixv. 

"Water End House, "Wheathampstead, 
xnsited, xxv. 

"Water, relative advantages of hard 
and soft, 101 ; hardness of "Watford 
supply, 101 ; of London supply, 
102 ; whether hard or soft best for 
drinking, 105 ; taste of hard and 
soft, 1 12 ; analyses of, from chalk 
wells and springs in Herts, 113; 
hardness of, supplied to London in 
1892, 114; impurity and hardness 
of, from chalk wells and rivers, 
before and after softening with lime, 
115. 

"Water, hard, softened by boiling, 102; 
by soap, 102 ; by carbonate of soda, 
103; by lime, 104; by distillation, 
106; does not form bone, 108; 
causes dyspepsia, 109; avoided by 
horses and dogs, 109; expense of 
softening by lime, 110. 

"Water, soft, more economical than 
hard, 102 ; its action upon lead, 112 ; 
its advantages, 116; Lord Playfair 



quoted on its advantages for healUi, 
120 ; M. Soyer quoted on its 
advantages for cooking, 121 ; sum- 
mary of its advantages for healthy 
convenience, and economy, 124. 

"Waters, underground, investigation of, 
xlvii. 

"Watford, ordinary meetings at, in 
1893, ii-^; in 1894, xi, xiii-xiv, 
xx-xxi, xli-xlviii; in 1895, ilviii-li, 
li-lxi ; wasp-infestation at, 23 ; phe- 
nological observations at, in 1893. 
28 ; in 1894, 194 ; rainfall at, in 
1893, 36. 38; in 1894, 131, 134: 
relative advantages of hard and soft 
water for, 101 ; advantages of a 
supply of soft water for, 116 ; gale 
of March 24, 1895, at, 201 ; nest 
of tree-wasp at, 203. 

Waxwing near Hertford, 60. 

"Welwyn, wasp-infestation at, 26 ; rain- 
fall at, in 1893, 36, 38; in 1S94, 
131, 134; gale of March 24, 1895, 
at, 201. 

Weston Park, Stevenage, rainfall at, 
in 1893, 36; in 1894, 134. 

Wettest days in 1893, 38 ; in 1894, 136. 

"Wheathampstead visited, xxvi. 

Whitethroat, habits of, 166. 

Winter of 1892-93,27,60; of 1893-94, 
164, 193. 

Winter visitants, arrival of, in 1893, 
66; in 1894, 164. 

Woodcock at Tring Reservoirs, 161. 

Woodpeckers, at St. Albans, 63 ; habits 
of, 169. 

Woodward, Dr. H., remarks on the 
iguanodon, Ixii. 

Wood- wren at St. Albans, 62. 

Wymondley, Great, visited, ixxvii ; 
Little, visited, xxxv ; old Spanish 
chestnut near, xxxv ; Priory visited, 
xxxvi. 



"Yellow-hammer, habits of, 168. 

Z. 

Zoological Gardens, Regent's Park, 

visited, xxx. 
Zygana trifolix at Watford, 189. 



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APPENDIX. 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



OP THB 



HERTFORDSHIRE NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY 
AND FIELD CLUB. 



Octobke, 1896. 




TOL. Tin. — PART IX. 17 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



PAST PEESrOENTS. 



1875-77. SIK JOHN EYANS, K.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., Sc.D., 
Trea8.R.S., Y.P.S.A. 

1877-79. ALFRED T. BRETT, M.D. 

1879-81. J. GWYN JEFFREYS, LL.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.G.S. 

1881-83. GEORGE ROOFER, F.Z.S. 

1883-85. RIGHT HON. THE EARL COWPER, K.G. 

1885-87. PROF. JOHN ATTFIELD, M.A., Ph.D.,F.R.S.,F.C.S. 

1887-89. F. MAULE CAMPBELL, F.L.S., F.Z.S., F.R.M.S. 

1889-91. RIGHT HON. THE EARL OF CLARENDON. 

1891-93. JOHN HOPEINSON, F.L.S., F.G.S., F.R.Met.Soc. 

1893-95. ARTHUR STRADLING, M.R.C.S., F.Z.S. 

1895. HENRY SEEBOHM, F.L.S., F.Z.S., Sec.ILG.S. 



TRUSTEES. 

JOHN HOPKINSON, F.L.S., F.G.S. 
W. LEPARD SMITH. 



Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



HONOEAEY MEMBERS. 



Elected 

1875 Allman, George James, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.S.E., 
F.L.S., M.R.I.A., Emeritus Professor of Natural 
History, University of Edinburgh, Ardmorey Park- 
stanef Dorset ; and Athenaum Cluhy London, 8, W, 

1882 Cooke, M. C, M.A., LL.D., A.L.S., Eerharium, Royal 
Gardens, Kew ; and 146, Junction Road, London, N, 

1879 Etheridge, Robert, F.R.8., F.R.S.E., F.G.S., British 
Museum {Natural History), South Kensington ; and 
14, Carlyle Square, Chelsea, London, S. 7F. 

1893 Flower, Sir William Henry, K.C.B., LL.D., F.R.S., 
F.R.C.8., F.L.8., F.G.S., Pres.Z.S., Director of the 
Natural History Department of the British Museum, 
Cromwell Road, South Kensington, S, W. ; and 26, 
Stanhope Gardens, London, S. W. 

1890 Geikie, Sir Archibald, Sc.D., LL D., F.R.S., F.R.S.E., 
F.G.S., Director-General of the Geological Surveys 
of the United Kingdom, 28, Jermyn Street, London, 
S.JT. 

1875 GlaisTier, James, F.R.S., F.R.A.S.,F.R.M.S., F.R.Met.Soc, 
The Shola, Heathfield Road, South Croydon. 

1879 Harting. James Edmund. F.L.S., F.Z.S., Mem. Brit. Om. 
Union, Linnean Society, Burlington House, London, W, 

1877 Henslow, Rev. George, M.A., F.L.S., F.G.S., F.R.H.S., 
Professor of Botany, Queen* s College, London, Bray- 
ton House, Ealing, 

1875 Hooker, Sir Joseph Dalton, R.N., K.C.S.I., C.B., M.D., 
D.C.L. (Oxon.), LL.D. (Cantab.), F.R.S., F.L.S., 
F.G.S., etc.. The Camp, Sunningdale, Berks, 

1886 Jackson, Benjamin Daydon. Sec.L.S., Clevedon, Cautley 
Avenue, Clapham Common, London, S, /F. 



Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



± LIST OF ICEMBEBS. 

1883 Jones, Thomas Rupert, F.R.S., F.G.S., ex-Professor of 
Geology at the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, 
17, Parson's Green, Fulham, London, 8. W. 

1875 Lubbock, Rt. Hon. Sir John, Bart., P.O., M.P., D.C.L., 

LL.D., F.R.8., F.S.A., F.L.8., F.G.S., High Elms, 
Famhorough, Kent\ and 15, Lombard Street, London, 
KC. 

1881 Ormerod, Eleanor A., F.R.Met.Soc, F.E.8., TorringUm 
Souse, St, Albans, 

1880 Sclater, PhiUp Lutley, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., 
F.G.8., Sec.Z.S., 3, Hanover Square, London, W, 

1876 Symons, George James, F.R.S., 8ec.R.Met.Soc., 62, Camden 

Square, London, N. W, 

1896 Wallace, Alfred Russel, LL.D., F.R.8., F.L.S., Farkstone, 
Dorset, 

1876 Whitaker, William, B.A. (Lend.), F.R.8., F.G.S., Assoc. 
Inst.C.E., Freda, Campden Road, Crogdon. 



CORRESPONDING MEMBERS. 

1895 Massee, George, F.L.S., F.R.M.S., 1, Kent Road, Kew. 

1896 Rudler, F. W., F.G.S., M.A.I., Curator of the Museum of 

Practical Geology, 28, Jermgn Street, London, S, W. 

1894 Saunders, James, 49, Rothesag Road, Luton. 



Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



OEDINAET MEMBEES. 



An asterisk before a name indicates a Life Member. 



Elected 

1894 Adams, Miss, St, Peter* b JSouse, St. Albans, 
1887 Andre, R., Melrose, Bushey Grove, Watford. 
1879 Andrews, E. Thornton, Castle Street, Hertford. 

1892 Archer, Miss Janet, St. George's Villa, Chalk Eill, Watford. 

1890 Ashdown, C. H., F.C.S., F.R.G.S., Belmont, St. Albans. 

1883 *Attenborough, Mrs., Hay don Hill, Bushey, Watford. 

1877 *Attfield, John. M. A., Ph.D., F.R.S., F.C.S., F.I.C., ex-Pro- 
fessor of Practical Chemistry to the Pharmaceutical 
Society of Great Britain, Ashlands, Watford; and 
111, Temple Chambers, London, U.C. 

1879 Anstin, Yemen, Blairyotvrie, Bengeo, Hertford, 

1893 Ayres, Mrs., High Croft, Watford. 

1893 Baldwin, W. Wallis, Netherheys, Watford. 

1879 *Barclay, Rohert, High Leigh, Hoddesdon. 

1891 Barclay, Rohert P., High Leigh, Hoddesdon, 

1891 Barker, George, Kettlewells, St, Albans, 
1887 Beck, Ernest, Hoddesdon. 

1877 Benskin, Mrs. Joseph, Chalk Hill, Watford. 

1892 Benskin, Thomas, Glenthome, Ha/rrow Weald, 

1880 Berkeley, B. Comyns, Collett Hall, Ware, 

1 883 *Berry, F. Haycraft, M.D. (Lond.), Wansford Home, Watford. 

1883 *Bicker8teth, John P., Grove Mill House, Watford. 

1880 Bishop, Mrs., Ths Flatts, Watford, 

1892 Blackburn, H. 

1885 Blathwayt, Arthur P., Frogmore, Watford, 



Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



6 LIST OF MEMBERS. 

1894 Braithwaite, Cecil, Overhury^ Watford. 

1887 Brown, Arthur M., M.A., Beech Orove^ IVing, 

1885 Burchell-Herae, Rev. H. F. H., Bwhey Grange, Watford. 

1884 Burr, E. T., Oakley Lodge, Clarendon Road, Watford. 
1881 *Bu8hby, Lady Frances, Wormley Bury, Moddesdon. 
1880 Butcher, H. 0. F., JET^A Street, Ware. 

1889 *Butler, Charles, F.S.A., Warren Wood, Hatfield. 

1879 Buxton, Alfred Fowell, 32, Qreat Cumberland Place, 

London, W. 
1894 Buxton, Dudley, M.D., 82, Mortimer Street, Cavendish 

Square, London, W. 

1 885 Buxton, John Henry, Hunedon Bury, Ware, 
1879 Buxton, Thomas Fowell, Eaeneye Park, Ware. 

1879 CampbeU, Frank Maule, F.L.S., F.Z.8., F.R.M.S., F.E.S., 

Rose Hill, Hoddesdon. 
1875 *Carew, Mrs., Carpenders Park, Watford, 
1879 *Carlile, James "W., Ashendene, Hertford. 
1896 Carter, W. R., B.A., How. Sec., Amesbury, Maiden Road, 

Watford. 
1891 Case, Henry, M.R.C.S., Leavesden Asylum, Watford. 

1875 Chater, Edward M., St. Alban's Road, Watford. 

1877 Clarendon, Right Honourable the Earl of, Grove Park, 

Watford; and 11, Berkeley Square, London, W. 
1879 *Cowper, Right Honourable the Earl, K.G., Panshanger, 
Hertford ; 5, St, James^ Square, London, S. W. ; and 
Athenaum Club, S. W. 

1894 Cox, Alfred E., Buffield, Upton Road, Watford. 

1876 *Croft, Richard Benyon, R.K., Fanhams Hall, Ware. 

1878 ♦Croft, Mrs., Fanhams Hall, Ware, 

1895 Crossman, Alan F., F.L.S., St. Cuthberts, Berkhamsted. 
1894 Curry, Charles Albert, Woodoaks, Riekmansworth. 

1888 Daw, S. J., Te Ingleside, Langley Park, Watford. 

1890 Downer, Frederick, High Street, Watford. 
1894 Dudgeon, Arthur, Northbank, Watford. 

1885 Durrant, John Hartley, F.E.S., Entomological Secretary 
to Lord Walsingham, Merton Hall, Thetford. 

1893 Edmonds, Mrs., Ardwick House, Queen^s Road, Watford. 
1883 Ekins, Arthur Edward, F.C.S., County Laboratory, St. 

Albans. 
1892 Essex, Right Honourable the Earl of, Cassiobury, 

Watford. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



LIST OF MEXBEB8. 7 

1875 *Evan8, Sir John, K.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., Sc.D., Treas. R.S., 
V.P.8.A., F.L.S., F.G.S., etc., Nath Milk, Emel 
HempBtead. 

1891 Evans, Lewis, F.S.A., Barnes Lodge, KingU Langley, 

1878 Ewing, Rev. J. A., M.A., JFeetmill Rectory, Buntingford, 

1892 risk, William J., Street Lodge, Watford. 
1875 *Fordham, H. George, Odsey, AshweUy Baldoek. 

1895 Frome- Wilkinson, Rev. J., M.A., F.L.S, Barley Rectory, 
Royeton. 

1879 *Gibbs, Arthur E., F.L.S., F.E.S., Cukatok, Avenue Bbuee, 

St, Albans. 
1891 Gibbs, Richard, 27ie Hollies, St. Albans. 
1875 Gibbs, Surgeon-Major J. G., Riggendale Road, Streatham, 

London, S. W. 

1879 Gilbert, Sir Joseph Henry, Ph.D., LL.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., 

F.C.S., F.R.Met.Soc., Earpenden. 
1894 Goodwin, J., Langley Park Souse, Watford. 

1880 Grimthorpe, Right Honourable Baron, LL.D., Q.C., 

F.R.A.S., Batch Wood, St. Albans \ and 33, Queen 

Anne Street, London, W. 
1875 Groome, John Edward, King's Langley. 
1891 Gruggen, W., L.R.C.P.E., 1 1, Montpellier Road, Ealing. 

1875 *Halsey, Thomas F., M.P., Gaddesden Place, Eemel Eemp- 

stead ; and 73, Eaton Place, London, S. W. 
1894 Hardy, W. J., F.S.A., Milton Cottage, St. Albans. 

1889 Harford, W. M., Manor Eouse, Bushey, Watford. 
1875 Harrison, Edward, Upper Eascot, Watford. 

1890 Headley, F. W., M.A., Eaileybury College, Eertford. 
1894 Heaton, Noel, 9, Fitzroy Street, Fitzroy Square, London, W. 
1887 Henty, Robert, Langley Eouse, Abbofs Langley. 

1885 Hill, Daniel, Llbrabian, Eerga, St. Andrew^ s, Watford. 

1881 HiU, WiUiam, F.G.S., The Maples, Eitchin. 
1879 Hoare, Richard, Marden Eill, Tewin, Eertford. 

1875 Holland, Stephen Taprell, Otterspool, Aldenham, Watford. 

1875 HoUand-Hibbert, Hon. A. H., Munden Eouse, Watford. 

1894 Holloway, William, Amcot, Watford. 

1875 Hopkinson, Mrs. James, Eolly Bank, Watford. 

1875 *Hopkin8on, John, F.L.S., F.G.S., F.R.M.S.. F.R.Met.Soc, 
Hon. Sec. and Editob, The Orange, St. Albans ; and 
York Mansions, Cavendish Sgttare, London, W. 

1875 *Hopkinson, Mrs. John, The Grange, St. Albans. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



8 LIST OP 1CEMBEB8. 

1883 *HoveU, T. Mark, F.R.C.S. (Edin.), Boreham Holt, 
iHstree; and 3, Mansfield Street, Cavendish Square^ 
Zondm, JF. 

1892 *Hud8on, George Bickersteth, M.P., Frogmore BdU, 

Hertford. 
1885 Hughes, T. McKenny, M.A., F.R.8., F.S.A., F.G.S., 
Professor of Geology in the University of Cambridge, 
Trinity College, Cambridge. 

1895 Jackson, E. H., 5, Lower Derby Road, Watford. 

1875 James, J. Henry, Kingswood, Leavesden, Watford. 

1894 Janes, Clement, Hunter* s Farm, Leavesden, Watford. 

1877 Jeans, Mrs., Eastleigh, Essex Road, Watford. 

1894 Johnson, Edmund L., -ETtfa^A^fentf, Watford. 

1890 Jones, Charles E., Russell Farm, Watford. 

1893 Jourdain, Miss, Corran, Watford. 



1893 Kember, Mrs., Tregantle, Luton Road, Harpenden. 

1893 Kent, Harold, Roseberry, Watford. 

1879 Keyser, Charles Edward, F.S.A., Aldermaston, Berks; 

and 47, Wilton Crescent, London, S. W. 

1894 King, Arthur, M.B., Belmont, Watford. 

1892 Knyvett, Felix Sumner, Ashwellthorpe, Watford. 

1876 *Lambert, Colonel George, F.S.A., Coventry Street, Hay- 

market, London, W. 

1892 *Larkin, John, Lelrow, Aldenham, Watford. 

1889 Lawrance, Venerable Archdeacon, M.A., The Rectory, 

St. Albans. 

1892 Lewis, Arthur, Sparrowswick, St. Albans. 

1880 Lewis, Henry, Worley Road, St. Albans. 

1896 Lilley, Cecil W., The Chestnuts, Wealdstone, Harrow. 

1883 Lloyd, Frederick George, Langley House, Langley, Bucks. 

1890 *Longman, A. H., Shendish, Hemel Hempstead. 

1891 *Lowe, Frederick. 

1889 *Loyd, E. H., Langleybury, Watford. 

1891 *Lubbock, Henry, dewberries, Radlett. 

1876 *Lucas, Francis, Hitchin. 

1876 *Lucas, William, The Firs, Hitchin. 

1876 McFarlane, W. McMurray, Loudwater, Rickmansworth. 

1875 McGill, H. J., Aldenham, Watford. 



Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



LIST OF MEHBEBS. 9 

1894 Mackay, W. Ronald, Shirley Rouse, Watford. 

1894 Mahon, F. C, JTolfeville, Clarendon Road, Watford. 

1895 Mann, Thomas James, Hyde Rail, Sawhridgewortk. 

1893 Manning, Percy, M.A., F.S.A., Beechfield, Watford. 
1895 Marchant, J. F., Reronegate, Itickmansworth. 

1881 *Marshall, Rev. C. J., M.A., Shillinysfone Rectory , Dorset. 
1875 *Mar8hall, Frank E., M.A., Rofrow. 

1890 Mawley, Edward, Pres.R.Met.Soc, F.R.H.S., Rosehank, 
Berkhamsted. 

1894 Metcalfe, W., Woodford Road, Watford. 

1895 Meux, Sir Henry Bruce, Bart.. Theobalds, Waltham Cross. 
1895 Moon, Henry George, London Road, St. Albans. 

1885 Moore, Walter E., Westfield, St. Andrew's, Watford. 

1882 Morison, John, M.D., F.G.S., Victoria Street, St. Albans. 
1893 Murray, A. T., Rc^pley, Stratford Road, Watford. 

1895 Myddelton, Thomas Cheadle, Spencer Rouse, St. Albans. 

1893 Neele, G. P., The Lawn, Clarendon Road, Watford. 

1880 Keish, J. Watson, Righfield, Watford. 

1883 Nicholson, Sir Charles, Bart.. K.B., M.D., D.C.L., LL.D., 

F.G.S.. F.R.Met.Soc, The Grange, Totteridge. 

1875 Noakes, Simpson, Bmhey Reath, Watford. 
1889 Korman, F. H., Moor Place, Much Rodham. 

1894 Oddie, E. G., Oxford Lodge, Watford. 

1894 Osborne, Mrs., Widcombe Lodge, Watford. 

1895 Page, William, F.S.A., The White Rouse, St. Albans. 
1893 Pank, John Lovell, Bamet. 

1889 *Panton, J. A., Wayside, Watford. 

1885 ♦Parker, Rev. J. D., LL.D., F.R.Met.Soc, Bennington 

Rouse, Stevenage. 

1879 Phillips, Frederick W., Manor Rome, Ritchin. 

1876 *Pollard, Joseph, Righ Down, Ritchin. 
1879 Price, George, Righ Street, Ware. 

1887 Procter, Harold, Runton Bridge, Watford. 

1881 *Pryor, Marlborough R., M.A., F.Z.S., Weston Manor, 

Stevenage. 

1892 Puddicombe, W. N., M.R.C.S., London Road, St. Albans. 

1881 *Ransom, Francis, 13, Bancroft, Ritchin. 

1877 *Ran8om, WiUiam, F.S.A., F.L.S., Fairfield, Ritchin. 



Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



10 LIST OF KSMBESS. 

1892 ♦Riggal, James K., 3, Albert Terrace, Watford. 

1887 Roberts, T. Vaughan, Ferulam Bouse, Watford. 
1875 Rooper, George, F.Z.S., Naecot House, Watford. 

1888 ♦Rothschild, Honourable Walter, Tring Pari, Tring \ and 

New Court, London, £, C. 

1894 Rudyard, H. Ashton, M.D., 8t. Alban's Road, Watford. 

1895 Russell, J. B., B.Sc, 17, Lower B&rhy Road, Watford. 

1891 Sainsbury, Percy Hamilton, Huskards, Watford. 

1 879 ♦SaHsbury, Most Noble the Marquis of, K.G., D.C.L., F.R.S., 

Hatfield House, Hatfield; and 20, Arlington Street, 

London, 8.W. 
1894 Sedgwick, Rupert W., 44, High Street, Watford. 
1883 ♦Seebohm, Frederick, The Hermitage, Hitchin. 

1878 Selby, Miss, Battlers Green, Radlett. 
1891 Sell, Miss L. C. Fairfield House, Watford. 

1880 Shelly, Charles Edward, M.A., M.D. (Cantab.), M.R.C.S., 

Fore Street, Hertford. 
1883 Sherry, Henry S., Bynmore, Watford. 
1875 Silvester, Frank W., Hedges, St. Albans. 

1893 Slinn, E. J., Langsyne, Watford. 

1891 Slocombe, Edward, Oxhey Warren, Watford. 

1879 Smith, Abel. M.P., Woodhall Fork, Watton, Hertford-, and 

35, Chesham Place, London, S. W. 

1881 Smith, Abel H., M.P., Watton, Hertford. 
1875 Smith, Joseph G., Hamper Mills, Watford. 

1879 Smith, Urban A., Assoc. M. Inst. C.E., 14, Endsleigh 

Gardens, London, N. W. 
1875 ♦Smith, W. Lepard, Watford. 

1880 ♦Smith-Bosanquet, Horace J., F.R.G.S., Broxboume Bury, 

Hoddesdon. 
1890 ♦Solly, H. Reynolds, Serge Hill, Bedmont. 

1894 Spencer, S. H., Jun., 45, Gladstone Road, Watford. 
1894 Spurr, Edwin, Fernlea, Westland Road, Watford. 
1875 Stone, William T., Oxhey Lane, Watford. 

1883 StradUng, Arthur, M.R.C.S., F.Z.S., President, Flores, 
Watford. 

1875 Thairlwall, F. J., 12, Upper Park Road, London, N. W. 

1887 Thomhill, James, F.L.S., Oxford House, St. Albans. 

1886 Tuck, Horace J., St. Leonardos, Bengeo, Hertford. 

1894 Turner, Thomas, Oakleigh, Watford. 

1890 Van Raalte, Charles, Aldenham Abbey, Watford. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



LIST OF ICEHBEBS. 1 1 

1878 Vaughan, Rev. Edward T., M.A., Langhyhury Vicarage^ 

Watford. 

1892 Verey, A. Sainsbury, Mem. Brit. Om. Unioii, MerotMgatey 

Mickmanuporth. 
1875 Yerini, William, Birchjield Cottage, Watford, 
1896 Venilam, Eight Honourable the Earl of, Soptoell, St. 

Albans. 

1879 Wailes, G. Herbert, Assoc. M. Inst. C.E., JRounton, Watford, 
1875 Walker, J. Watson, Cefn Llys, Stanley Road, Watford. 

1893 Wallen, Frederick, Bricket, Watford; and 96, Oower Street, 

London, W.C. 
1 892 *Wardale, Rev. John, M. A., Datckworth Rectory, Stevenage, 
1881 Weall, John, Tbeasuebb, Rutland Lodge; and 38, Sigh 

Street, Watford. 

1894 Wehrschmidt, Daniel A., Cleveland, Bushey, Watford, 

1894 Wells, T. P. Grosart, L.R.C.P. (Edin.), St, Peter's Street, 

St. Albans. 

1895 *White, Miss Rose, Lismore Lodge, St. Albans. 

1880 White, S. Monckton, Ehnsleigh, St. Albans, 

1881 ♦Wigram, Miss E., Moor Place, Much Hadham. 
1894 Williams, W. H., Alexandra Road, Watford, 
1892 Wilks, E. T., F.R.G.S., Clarendon Road, Watford, 

1894 Wilson, Rev. Arthur, M.A., Leavesden Vicarage, Watford. 

1875 ♦Wilson, Miss Mary, 4, JSssex Road, Watford. 

1894 Wood, Mrs., 66, Oxford Terrace, Hyde Park, London, W, 

1882 *Woods, Thomas Hoade, Durrants, Watford. 



Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



TOPOGEAPHICAL INDEX TO THE MEMBERS. 



An asterisk after a name indicates an Honorary Member ; an obelisk, a 
Corresponding Member. 



Bedfobdshibe. 
ZtUon — Saunders, J.f 

Berkshire. 
Alder maston — Keyser, C. E. | SunningdaU — Hooker, SirJ. D.* 

BnCXINGHAMSHIRE. 

Langley — Lloyd, F. G. 

Cambridgeshire. 
Cambridge — Hughes, Prof. T. McK. 

Dorsetshire. 
Parkstone — Allman, Prof. G. J.* I Shillingstone — Marshall,Eev.C.J. 
Wallace, Dr. A. R.* | 

Hertfordshire. 



Ahhofs Langley — Henty, R. 
Barnet — Pank, J. L. 
Bedmont — Solly, H. R. 
Berkhamsted — Grossman, A. F. 

Mawley, E. 

Buntingford ( WestmilT) — 

Ewing, Rev. J. A. 
jF/^^r^^?— Hovell, T. M. 
Harpenden — Gilbert, Sir J. H. 

Kember, Mrs. 

Eatfield—^Mi\Qr, C. 

Salisbury, Marquis of 

Memel Hempstead — Evans, SirJ. 

Halsey, T. F. 

Longman, A. H. 



Mtrtford — Ajidrews, R. T. 

Carlile, J. W. 

Cowper, Earl 

Hudson, G. B. 

SheUy, Dr. C. E. 

(Bengeo) — Austin, V. 

Tuck, H. J. 



• {Raileyhury) — ^Headley, F. 

W. 
-(7>M^m)— Hoare, R. 
-(^tf«o«)— Smith, A. 
• Smith, A. H. 



JEri^(?Ain— Hill, W. 

Lucas, F. 

Lucas, W. 



Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



TOPOGBAPHICAL INDEX TO THE MEMBERS. 



'3 



J7tY(?^i»— Phillips, F. W. 

PoUard, J. 

Ransom, F. 

Ransom, W. 

Seebohm, F. 

JSbddesdon — Barclay, R. 

Barclay, R. P. 

Beck, E. 

Bushby, Lady F, 

Campbell, F. M. 

Smith-Bosanquet, H. J. 

Kingh LangUy — Evans, L. 

Groome, J. E. 

Muchffadham — ^Norman, F. H, 

Wigram, Miss E. 

-Fordham, H. G. 



Jiadlett^Lnhhock, H. 

Selby, Miss 

Rickmanaworth — Curry, C. A. 

McFarlane, W. McM. 

{Heromgate) — Marchant, 

J. F. 

Verey, A. S. 

Royston — Frome - Wilkinson, 

Rev. J. 
8t, Allans — Adams, Miss 

Asbdown, C. H. 

Barker, G. 

Ekins, A. E. 

Gibbs, A. E. 

Gibbs, R. 

Grimtborpe, Baron 

Hardy, W. J. 

HopHnson, J. 

Hopkinson, Mrs. 

Lawrance, Archdeacon 

■ Lewis, A. 

Lewis, H. 

Moon, H. G. 

Morison, Dr. J. 

Myddelton, T. C. 

■ Onnerod, Miss E. A.* 

Page, W. 

Puddicombe, W. N. 

Silvester, F. W, 

ThomhiU, J. 

Verulam, Earl of 

Wells, T. P. G. 



Hebtfobdshire {continued). 

St. u4^fta»<— White, Miss R. 

White, 8. M. 

Satohridgewarth — Mann, T. J. 
Stevenage {Bennington) — Parker, 

Rev. J. D. 
(Datchwortk) — Wardale, 

Rev. J. 

(^M^on)— Pryor, M. R. 

Totteridge — Nicholson, Sir C. 
7V«»^— Brown, A. M. 

RothschHd, Hon. W. 

Waltham Cm*— Meux, Sir H. B. 
^arij— Berkeley, B. C. 

Butcher, H. 0. F. 

Buxton, J. H. 

Buxton, T. F. 

Croft, R B. 

Croft, Mrs. 

Price, G. 

?ra//or(^— Andr6, R. 

Archer, Miss J. 

Attfield. Prof. J. 

Ayres, Mrs. 

Baldwin, W. W. 

Benskin, Mrs. J. 

Berry, Dr. F. H. 

Bickersteth, J. P. 

Bishop, Mrs. 

Blathwayt, A. P. 

Braithwaite, C. 

Burchell-Heme, Rev. H, 

Burr, E. T. 

Carew, Mrs. 

Carter, W. R. 

Chater, E. M. 

Clarendon, Earl of 

Cox, A. E. 

Daw, S. J. 

Downer, F. 

Dudgeon, A. 

Edmonds, Mrs. 

Essex, Earl of 

Fisk, W. J, 

Goodwin, J. 

Harrison, E. 

Hill, D. 

Holland-Hibbert,Hon. AH. 

Holloway, W. 



Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



'4 



TOPOORAPHIGAL INDEX 



Hehtfobd8H£be (e&ntinued). 



Watford — Hopkinson, Mn. 

Jackson, E, H. 

Jeans, Mrs. 

Johnson, E. L. 

Jones, C. E. 

Jourdain, Miss 

Kent, H. 

King, Dr. A. 

Knyvett, F. 8. 

Loyd, E. H. 

Mackay, W. R. 

Mahon, F. C. 

Manning, P. 

Metcalfe, W. 

Moore, W. E. 

Murray, A. T. 

Neele, G. P. 

NeiBh, J. W. 

Oddie, E. G. 

Osborne, Mrs. 

Panton, J. A. 

RiggaU, J. K. 

Roberts, T. V. 

Rooper, G. 

Rudyard, Dr. H. A. 

Russell, J. B. 

Sainsbury, P. H. 

Sedgwick, R. 

SeU, Miss L. C. 

Sherry, H. 8. 

Slinn, E. J. 

Slocombe, E. 



JTafford-^Sirdth, J. G. 

Smith, W. L. 

Spencer, 8. H., Jun. 

Stone, W. T. 

Stradling, A. 

Spurr, E. 

Turner, T. 

Vaughan, Rev. E. T. 

Verini, W. 

Wailes, G. H. 

Walker, J. W. 

WeaU, J. 

Wilks, E. T. 

Williams, W. H. 

Wilson, Miss M. 

Woods, T. H. 

{Aldmkam)—'R6llmd,B,T. 

Larkm, J. 

McGill, H. J. 

Van Raalte, C. 

(Brickety-WaRen, F. 

(Bushey) — Attenborough, 

Mrs. 

Harford, W. M. 

Noakes, 8. 

Wehrschmidt, D. A. 



(^Hunton Bridge) — Procter, 

H. 

(Leavesdm) — Case, H. 

Jomeu, J. H. 

Janes, C. 

Wilson, Rey. A. 



Kent. 
Famhorawjfh — Lubbock, Sir J.* 



MiDDLBSEX. 



Haling — Gruggen, W. 

Henslow, Rev. Prof. G.* 

ITarrow—LUlej, C. W. 

MarshaU, F. E. 

Harrow Weald — Benskin, T. 
London — Attfield, Prof. J. 

Buxton, A. F. 

Buxton. Dr. D. 

Clarendon, Earl of 



London — Cooke, Dr. M. C* 

Cowper, Earl 

Etheridge, R.* 

Flower, Sir W.* 

Geikie, Sir A.* 

Grimthorpe, Baron 

Halsey, T. F. 

Harting, J. E * 

Heaton, N. 



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TO 't' Tffc MEMBSRS* 



15 



Middlesex (continued). 



London — ^Kopkinson, J. 

Hovell, T. M. 

Jones, Prof. T. R * 

Keyser, C. E. 

Lambert, G. 

Lubbock, Sir J* 

Rothschild, Hon. W. 

Rudler, F. W.f 



London — SaKsbury, Marquis of 

Sclater, Dr. P. L.* 

Smith. A. 

Smith, U. A. 

Symons, G. J.* 

Thairlwall, F. J, 

WaUen, F. 

Wood, Mrs. 



NOBPOLK. 

Thefford'-DuTrmt, J. U. 



Croydon — Glaisher, J.* 

Whitaker, W.* 

Kew— Cooke, Dr. M. C* 



SUBBBT. 

Kew — Massee, G.f 
Zotk^on— Gibbs, J. G. 
Jackson, B. D.» 



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EECOKDEES. 

Pbe-Hjstoeic ARCHiEOLOGT. — Sir John Evans, K.C.B., D.C.L., 
LL.D., Sc.D., r.R.S., etc. 
' Mammalia. — T. Vaughan Roberts. 
Avea. — Alan F. Grossman. 

Reptilia and Amphibia. — Arthur Stradling, F.Z.S. 
Zoology. < Zepidoptera, — A. E. Gibbs, F.L.S. 

Araehnida.'-F. M. Campbell, F.L.S. 
Mollusca. — John Hopkinson, F.L.S. 
, Rotifera and Protozoa, — ^F. W. Phillips. 
' Fhanerogamia and Filices. — Miss Selby. 
Characeay Muaciy ITepatica, and Mycetoma. — James 
Botany. \ Saunders, Corr. Memb. 

Fungi — George Massee, F.L.S., Corr. Memb. 
, Desmidea and Diatomacea. — Francis Ransom. 
Geology. — John Morison, M.D., F.G.S. 
Meteorology. — John Hopkinson, F.L.S. 
Phenology. — Edward Mawley, Pres.R.Met.Soc. 



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